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BOWDOIj 

COLLEGE 



BRUNSWICK, MAINE 



AUGUST 1996 




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BO WDOIN 
COLLEGE 

CATALOGUE FOR 1996-1997 




BRUNSWICK, MAINE 
AUGUST 1996 



BO WDOIN 
COLLEGE 



CATALOGUE FOR 1996-1997 



In its employment and admissions practices, Bowdoin is in conformity with all applicable 
federal and state statutes and regulations. It does not discriminate on the basis of age, race, 
color, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, religion, creed, ancestry, national and ethnic 
origin, or physical or mental handicap. 

The information in this catalogue was accurate at the lime of publication. However, the 
College is a dynamic community and must reserve the right to make changes in its course 
offerings, degree requirements, regulations, procedures, and charges. 

Bowdoin College mpports the efforts of secondary school officials and governing bodies 

to have their schools achieve regional accredited status to provide reliable assurance of 
the quality oj the educational preparation of its applicants for admission. 

Text printed on 5091 recycled paper with 109 post-consumer waste. 



Contents 



College Calendar vii 
General Information xii 
The Purpose of the College 1 
Historical Sketch 3 
Admission to the College 7 
Financial Aid 15 
Expenses 21 
The Curriculum 25 

Academic Requirements for the Degree 25 

Distribution Requirements 25 

The Major Program 26 

Information about Courses 28 

Grades and Academic Regulations 30 

The Award of Honors 32 

Deficiency in Scholarship 33 

Academic Skills Programs 35 

Special Academic Programs 35 

Off-Campus Study 37 
Courses of Instruction 40 

Explanation of Symbols Used 40 

Africana Studies 41 

Art 49 

Asian Studies 56 

Biochemistry 62 

Biology 63 

Chemistry 70 



Classics 74 

Computer Science 81 

Economics 85 

Education 91 

English 95 

Environmental Studies 103 

Film Studies 107 

First- Year Seminars 110 

Geology 1 1 8 

German 121 

Government and Legal Studies 124 

History 131 

Interdisciplinary Majors 145 

Latin American Studies 147 

Mathematics 148 

Music 155 

Neuroscience 160 

Philosophy 161 

Physics and Astronomy 166 

Psychology 1 70 

Religion 176 

Romance Languages 181 
Russian 188 

Sociology and Anthropology 192 

Theater and Dance 203 
Women's Studies 208 



Educational Resources and Facilities 213 

Hawthorne-Longfellow Library and Hatch Science Library 213 

Instructional Media Services 216 

Computing and Information Services 217 

Bowdoin College Museum of Art 218 

Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum 220 

Research, Teaching, and Conference Facilities 221 

Lectureships 223 

Performing Arts 225 
Student Life 229 

Residential Life 229 

Codes of Conduct 230 

Student Government 230 

Student Services 23 1 

Athletics and Physical Education 233 

Student Activities 235 
Alumni Organizations 236 
Summer Programs 241 
Officers of Government 242 
Officers of Instruction 249 
Instructional Support Staff 261 
Officers of Administration 262 
Committees of the College 273 
Appendix: Prizes and Distinctions 281 
Campus and Buildings 300 
Campus Map 304 
Index 307 



College Calendar 



1996 

August 24, Saturday 

August 25, Sunday 

August 24-27, Sat.-Tues. 
August 28, Wednesday 
August 29, Thursday 
September 14-15, Sat.-Sun. 
September 23, Monday 
September 27-29, Fri.-Sun. 
October 4-5, Fri.-Sat. 

October 11, Friday 
October 16, Wednesday 
October 17-19, Thurs.-Sat. 
October 19, Saturday 
November 27, Wednesday 

December 2, Monday 
December 4, Wednesday 
December 5-9, Thurs.-Mon. 
December 10-17, Tues.-Tues. 



195th Academic Year 

Rooms ready for occupancy for first-year 
students only. 

Rooms ready for occupancy for upperclass 

students. 

Orientation. 

Opening of College, Convocation. 

Fall semester classes begin, 8:00 a.m. 

Rosh Hashanah. 

Yom Kippur. 

Parents Weekend. 

Alumni Council, Alumni Fund and Planned 

Giving Meetings. 

Fall vacation begins after last class. 

Fall vacation ends, 8:00 a.m. 

Meetings of the Governing Boards. 

Homecoming. 

Thanksgiving vacation begins after last 

class. 

Thanksgiving vacation ends, 8:00 a.m. 

Last day of classes. 

Reading period. 

Fall semester examinations. 



1997 

January 18, Saturday 

January 20, Monday 

January 20, Monday 

February 14-15, Fri.-Sat. 

February 27-March 1, Thurs.-Sat. 

March 14, Friday 

March 28, Friday 

March 30, Sunday 



Rooms ready for occupancy. 

Spring semester classes begin, 8:00 a.m. 

Martin Luther King Jr.'s Birthday. 

Winter's Weekend. 

Meetings of the Governing Board. 

Spring vacation begins after last class. 

Good Friday. 

Easter. 



College Calendar 



March 31, Monday 
April 4-5, Fri.-Sat. 

April 22-29, Tues.-Tues. 

May 2-3, Fri.-Sat. 

May 6, Tuesday 

May 7-10, Wed.-Sat. 

May 8-10, Thurs.-Sat. 

May 11-17, Sun.-Sat. 

May 23, Friday 

May 24, Saturday 

May 29-June 1, Thurs.-Sun. 



Spring vacation ends, 8:00 a.m. 

Alumni Council, Alumni Fund, and Planned 

Giving Meetings. 

Passover. 

Ivies Weekend. 

Last day of classes. 

Reading period. 

Meetings of the Governing Board. 

Spring semester examinations. 

Baccalaureate. 

The 192nd Commencement Exercises. 

Reunion Weekend. 



1997 

August 23, Saturday 

August 24, Sunday 

August 23-26, Sat.-Tues. 
August 27, Wednesday 
August 28, Thursday 
September 19-21, Fri.-Sun. 
September 26-27, Fri.-Sat. 

October 2-3, Thurs.-Fri. 
October 1 1, Saturday 
October 17, Friday 
October 22, Wednesday 
October 23-25, Thurs.-Sat. 
October 25, Saturday 
November 26, Wednesday 

December l, Monday 
December 3, Wednesday 
December 4-8, Thurs.-Mon. 
December 9-16, Tues.-Tuefl. 



196th Academic Year (Tentative schedule) 

Rooms ready for occupancy for first-year 
students only. 

Rooms ready for occupancy for upperclass 

students. 

Orientation. 

Opening of College, Convocation. 

Fall semester classes begin, 8:00 a.m. 

Parents Weekend. 

Alumni Council, Alumni Fund, and Planned 

Giving Meetings. 

Rosh Hashanah. 

Yom Kippur. 

Fall vacation begins after last class. 

Fall vacation ends, 8:00 a.m. 

Meetings of the ( roveming Board. 

Homecoming. 

Thanksgiving vacation begins after last 
class. 

Thanksgiving vacation ends, 8:00 a.m. 
Last day of classes. 
Reading period. 

Fall semester examinations. 



College Calendar 



1998 

January 17, Saturday 
January 19, Monday 
January 19, Monday 
February 20-21, Fri.-Sat. 
February 26-28, Thurs.-Sat. 
March 13, Friday 
March 30, Monday 
April 3^J, Fri.-Sat. 

April 10, Friday 
April 11-18, Sat.-Sat. 
April 12, Sunday 
May 1-2, Fri.-Sat. 
May 5, Tuesday 
May 6-9, Wed.-Sat. 
May 7-9, Thurs.-Fri. 
May 10-16, Sun.-Sat. 
May 22, Friday 
May 23, Saturday 
May 28-31, Thurs.-Sun. 



Rooms ready for occupancy. 

Spring semester classes begin, 8:00 a.m. 

Martin Luther King Jr.'s Birthday. 

Winter's Weekend. 

Meetings of the Governing Board. 

Spring vacation begins after last class. 

Spring vacation ends, 8:00 a.m. 

Alumni Council, Alumni Fund, and Planned 

Giving Meetings. 

Good Friday. 

Passover. 

Easter. 

Ivies Weekend. 

Last day of classes. 

Reading period. 

Meetings of the Governing Board. 

Spring semester examinations. 

Baccalaureate. 

The 193rd Commencement Exercises. 

Reunion Weekend. 



1998 

August 29, Saturday 

August 30, Sunday 

August 29-September 1, Sat.-Tues. 
September 2, Wednesday 
September 3, Thursday 
September 18-19, Fri.-Sat. 

September 21-22, Mon.-Tues. 
September 30, Saturday 
October 2-^4, Fri.-Sun. 
October 16, Friday 



197th Academic Year (Tentative schedule) 

Rooms ready for occupancy for first-year 

students only. 

Rooms ready for occupancy for upperclass 

students. 

Orientation. 

Opening of College, Convocation. 

Fall semester classes begin, 8:00 a.m. 

Alumni Council, Alumni Fund, and Planned 

Giving Meetings. 

Rosh Hashanah. 

Yom Kippur. 

Parents Weekend. 

Fall vacation begins after last class. 



College Calendar 



October 21, Wednesday 
October 22-24, Thurs.-Sat. 
October 24, Saturday 
November 25, Wednesday 

November 30, Monday 
December 9, Wednesday 
December 10-14, Thurs.-Mon. 
December 15-22, Tues.-Tues. 
1999 

January 18, Monday 
January 23, Saturday 
January 25, Monday 
February 25-27, Thurs.-Sat. 
February 26-27, Fri.-Sat. 
March 19, Friday 
April 1-8, Sat.-Sat 
April 2, Friday 
April 4, Sunday 
April 5, Monday 
April 9-10, Fri.-Sat. 

April 30-May 1, Fri.-Sat. 
May 11, Tuesday 
May 12-15, Wed.-Sat. 
May 13-15, Thurs.-Sat. 
May 16-22, Sun.-Sat. 
May 28, Friday 
May 29, Saturday 
June 3-5, Thurs.-Sun. 



Fall vacation ends, 8:00 a.m. 
Meetings of the Governing Board. 
Homecoming. 

Thanksgiving vacation begins after last 

class. 

Thanksgiving vacation ends, 8:00 a.m. 

Last day of classes. 

Reading period. 

Fall semester examinations. 

Martin Luther King Jr.'s Birthday. 

Rooms ready for occupancy. 

Spring semester classes begin, 8:00 a.m. 

Meetings of the Governing Board. 

Winter's Weekend. 

Spring vacation begins after last class. 

Passover. 

Good Friday. 

Easter. 

Spring vacation ends, 8:00 a.m. 

Alumni Council, Alumni Fund, and Planned 

Giving Meetings. 

Ivies Weekend. 

Last day of classes. 

Reading period. 

Meetings of the Governing Board. 

Spring semester examinations. 

Baccalaureate. 

The 194rd Commencement Exercises. 

Reunion Weekend. 



SEPTEMBER 


OCTOBER 


NOVEMBER 


DECEMBER 


12 3 4 5 6 7 


12 3 4 5 


1 2 


12 3 4 5 6 7 


8 9 10 11 12 13 14 


6 7 8 9 10 11 12 


3 4 5 6 7 8 9 


8 9 10 11 12 13 14 


15 16 17 18 19 20 21 


13 14 15 16 17 18 19 


10 11 12 13 14 15 16 


15 16 17 18 19 20 21 


22 23 24 25 26 27 28 


20 21 22 23 24 25 26 


17 18 19 20 21 22 23 


22 23 24 25 26 27 28 


29 30 


27 28 29 30 31 


24 25 26 27 28 29 30 


29 30 31 



1997 



S M T W T F S 

12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 



S M T W T F S 

1 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 



S M T W T F S 

1 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 31 



APRIL 

5 M T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 



4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 



JUNE 

12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
29 30 



JULY 

12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 



AUGUST 

1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 



SEPTEMBER 

12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 



OCTOBER 

12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 



2 3 4 5 6 7 



DECEMBER 

12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 



JANUARY 
S M T W T F S 

1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 



1998 



12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 



MARCH 
S M T W T 



F S 



12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
29 30 31 



APRIL 
S M T W T 



F S 



12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 



10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 



JUNE 

12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 



12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 



2 3 



5 6 7 8 



9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 31 



General Information 



Bowdoin is an independent, nonsectarian, coeducational, residential, under- 
graduate, liberal arts college located in Brunswick, Maine, a town of approxi- 
mately 2 1 ,500 situated close to the Maine coast, 25 miles from Portland and about 
1 20 miles from Boston. 

Terms and Vacations: The College holds two sessions each year. The dates of 
the semesters and the vacation periods are indicated in the College Calendar on 
pages vii-x. 

Accreditation: Bowdoin College is accredited by the New England Association 
of Schools and Colleges. 

Enrollment: The student body numbers about 1,530 students (49 percent male, 
5 1 percent female; last two classes 49/51 percent and 50/50 percent); about 200 
students study away one or both semesters annually; 90 percent complete the 
degree within five years. 

Faculty: Student/faculty ratio 11:1; the equivalent of 135 full-time faculty in 
residence, 94 percent with Ph.D. or equivalent; 18 athletic coaches. 

Geographic Distribution in Class of 1999: New England, 54 percent; Middle 
Atlantic states, 20 percent; Midwest, 8 percent; West, 10 percent; Southwest, 1 
percent; South, 3 percent; international, 4 percent. Fifty states and 1 4 countries are 
represented. Minority and international enrollment is 19 percent. 

Statistics: As of June 1996, 29,692 students have matriculated at Bowdoin 
College, and 22,419 degrees in academic programs have been awarded. In 
addition, earned master's degrees have been awarded to 274 postgraduate 
students. Living alumni include 13,805 graduates, 1,793 nongraduates, 135 
honorary degree holders (51 alumni, 84 non-alumni), 46 recipients of the 
Certificate of Honor, and 253 graduates in the specific postgraduate program. 

Offices and Office Hours: The Admissions Office is located in Chamberlain 
Hall. General administration and business offices are located in Hawthorne- 
Longfellow Hall, the west end of Hawthorne-Longfellow Library. The Develop- 
ment and College Relations offices arc located at S3 and 85 Federal Street. The 
Office of Student Records, Office of Student Employment, and the Career 
Planning Center are in the Moullon Union. The Counseling Service is in the 
Dudley Coe Health Center. The Department of Facilities Management and the 

Office of Security are in Rhodes Hall. 

In general, the administrative offices of the College are open from 8:30 a.m. 

to 5:00 I'M., Monday through Friday. 

Telephone Switchboard: The College's central telephone switchboard is lo- 

cated in ( oles Tower. All College phones are connected to this switchboard. The 

number is (207) 725 3000. 



The Purpose of the College 



Bowdoin College believes strongly that there is an intrinsic value in a liberal arts 
education, for the individual student, for the College as an institution, and for 
society as a whole. Historically, the arrangement of courses and instruction that 
combine to produce liberal arts education has changed and undoubtedly will 
continue to change, but certain fundamental and underlying goals remain con- 
stant. 

It is difficult to define these goals without merely repeating old verities, but 
certain points are critical. The thrust of a liberal arts education is not the 
acquisition of a narrow, technical expertise; it is not a process of coating young 
people with a thin veneer of "civilization." That is not to say that liberal arts 
education in any way devalues specific knowledge or the acquisition of funda- 
mental skills. On the contrary, an important aspect of a sound liberal arts 
education is the development of the power to read with critical perception, to think 
coherently, to write effectively, to speak with force and clarity, and to act as a 
constructive member of society. But liberal arts education seeks to move beyond 
the acquisition of specific knowledge and skills toward the acquisition of an 
understanding of humankind, nature, and the interaction of the two, and toward 
the development of a characteristic style of thought that is informed, questioning, 
and marked by the possession of intellectual courage. When defined in terms of 
its intended product, the purpose of the College is to train professionally 
competent people of critical and innovative mind who can grapple with the 
technical complexities of our age and whose flexibility and concern for humanity 
are such that they offer us a hope of surmounting the increasing depersonalization 
and dehumanization of our world. The College does not seek to transmit a specific 
set of values; rather, it recognizes a formidable responsibility to teach students 
what values are and to encourage them to develop their own. 

Liberal arts education is, in one sense, general, because it is concerned with 
many different areas of human behavior and endeavor, many civilizations of the 
world, many different aspects of the human environment. It seeks to encourage 
the formation of habits of curiosity, rigorous observation, tolerant understanding, 
and considered judgment, while at the same time fostering the development of 
varied modes of communicative and artistic expression. This concern for breadth 
and for the appreciation of varying modes of perception is combined with a 
commitment to study some particular field of learning in sufficient depth to ensure 
relative mastery of its content and methods. In short, a liberal arts education aims 
at fostering the development of modes of learning, analysis, judgment, and 
expression that are essential both to subsequent professional training and to the 
ongoing process of self-education by which one refines one's capacity to function 
autonomously as an intellectual and moral being. 

To achieve these goals, the faculty of the College must strive constantly to live 
up to their commitment in their course offerings, as must students in their course 
selections. The commitment is a collective one on the part of the College 



2 The Purpose of the College 

community. Each of the academic components of the College is under a heavy 
obligation to make its field of study accessible in some manner to the entire 
student body and to satisfy the needs of the nonmajor as well as those of the 
specialist. 

The College is not and should not be insulated from the problems of the world. 
Rather, the College is a collection of people deeply involved in their community, 
their nation, and their world. When liberal arts education is faithful to its mission, 
it encourages and trains young people who are sensitive to the crucial problems 
of our time and who have the kind of mind and the kind of inspiration to address 
them fearlessly and directly. This is its goal and the standard by which it should 
be judged. 

A statement prepared by the Faculty-Student Committee 
on Curriculum and Educational Policy, 1976. 



Historical Sketch 



The idea of Bowdoin College originated in the years following the American 
Revolution among a group of men who wished to see established in the District 
of Maine the sort of civil institution which would guarantee republican virtue and 
social stability. In the biblical language of the day, they wished "to make the desert 
bloom." 

After six years of arguments over the site, a college was chartered on June 24, 
1794, by the General Court in Boston, for Maine was until 1820 a part of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The college was to be built in the small town 
of Brunswick, as the result of a geographic compromise between strong Portland 
interests and legislators from the Kennebec Valley and points farther east. It was 
named for Governor James Bowdoin II, an amateur scientist and hero of the 
Revolution, well remembered for his role in putting down Shays' Rebellion. 
Established by Huguenot merchants, the Bowdoin family fortune was based not 
only on banking and shipping but on extensive landholdings in Maine. The new 
college was endowed by the late governor's son, James Bowdoin III, who was a 
diplomat, agriculturalist, and art collector, and by the Commonwealth, which 
supported higher education with grants of land and money, a practice established 
in the seventeenth century for Harvard and repeated in 1 793 for Williams College. 
Bowdoin' s bicameral Governing Boards, changed in 1996 to a single Board of 
Trustees, were based on the Harvard model. 

Original funding for the College was to come from the sale of tracts of 
undeveloped lands donated for the purpose by townships and the Commonwealth. 
Sale of the wilderness lands took longer than expected, however, and Bowdoin 
College did not open until September 2, 1 802. Its first building, Massachusetts 
Hall, stood on a slight hill overlooking the town. To the south were the road to the 
landing at Maquoit Bay and blueberry fields stretching toward the Harpswells. To 
the north was the "Twelve-Rod Road" (Maine Street) leading to the lumber mills 
and shipyards near the falls of the Androscoggin. To the east the campus was 
sheltered by a grove of "whispering" white pines, which were to become a symbol 
of the College. The inauguration of the first president, the Reverend Joseph 
McKeen, took place in a clearing in that grove. McKeen, a liberal Congregation- 
alist and staunch Federalist, reminded the "friends of piety and learning" in the 
District that "literary institutions are founded and endowed for the common good, 
and not the private advantage of those who resort to them for education." The next 
day, classes began with eight students in attendance. 

For the first half of the nineteenth century, the Bowdoin curriculum was 
essentially an eighteenth-century one: a great deal of Latin, Greek, mathematics, 
rhetoric, Scottish Common Sense moral philosophy, and Baconian science, 
modestly liberalized by the addition of modern languages, English literature, 
international law, and a little history. Its teaching methods were similarly 
traditional: the daily recitation and the scientific demonstration. The antebellum 
College also had several unusual strengths. Thanks to bequests by James 



4 Historical Sketch 

Bowdoin III. the College had one of the best libraries in New England and 
probably the first public collection of old master paintings and drawings in the 
nation. A lively undergraduate culture centered on two literary-debating societ- 
ies, the Peucinian (whose name comes from the Greek word for "pine'.') and the 
Athenaean. both of which had excellent circulating libraries. And there were 
memorable teachers, notably the internationally known mineralogist Parker 
Cleaveland. the psychologist (or "mental philosopher," in the language of his day) 
Thomas Upham, and the young linguist and translator Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow (1825). 

Finances were a problem, however, especially following the crash of 1837. 
The College also became involved in various political and religious controversies 
buffeting the state. Identified with the anti-separationist party, the College faced 
a hostile Democratic legislature after statehood in 1 820 and for financial reasons 
had to agree to more public control of its governance. For the most part 
Congregationalists, the College authorities found themselves attacked by liberal 
Unitarians on the one side and by evangelical "dissenters" on the other (notably 
by the Baptists, the largest denomination in the new state). The question of 
whether Bowdoin was public or private was finally settled in 1833 by Justice 
Joseph Story in Allen v. McKeen, which applied the Dartmouth College case to 
declare Bowdoin a private corporation beyond the reach of the Legislature. The 
more difficult matter of religion was settled by the "Declaration" of 1846, which 
stopped short of officially adopting a denominational tie but promised that 
Bowdoin would remain Congregational for all practical purposes. One immediate 
result was a flood of donations, which allowed completion of Richard Upjohn's 
Romanesque Revival chapel, a landmark in American ecclesiastical architecture. 
An ambitious new medical school had been established at Bowdoin by the state 
in 1 820 — and was to supply Maine with country doctors until it closed in 1921 
— but plans in the 1 850s to add a law school never found sufficient backing, and 
Bowdoin failed to evolve into the small university that many of its supporters had 
envisioned. 

For a college that never had an antebellum class of more than sixty graduates, 
Bowdoin produced a notable roster of pre-Civil War alumni. The most enduring 
fame seems that of Nathaniel Hawthorne (1825), who set his first novel, 
Fanshawe, at a college very like Bowdoin. Even better known in his day was his 
classmate Longfellow, who alter Tennyson was the most beloved poet in the 
English-speaking world and whose "Moritiiri Saliitamiis," written for his fiftieth 
reunion in 1875, is perhaps the finest tribute any poet ever paid to his alma mater. 
Oilier writers of note included the satirist Seba Smith (1818), whose "Jack 
Downing" Bketches more or less invented a genre, and Jacob Abbott (1820), 
author Of the many "Hollo" books. But it was in public affairs that Bowdoin 
graduates took the most laurels: among them, Franklin Pierce ( IN24). fourteenth 

president of the United States; William Pitt Fessenden (1823), abolitionist, U.S. 

senator, cabinet member, and courageous opponent of Andrew Johnson's im- 
peachment; Johll A. Andrew (IK37), Civil War governor of Massachusetts; 
Olivet Otis Howard (1850), Civil War general, educator, and head of the 



Historical Sketch 5 

Freedmen's Bureau; Melville Fuller (1853), chief justice of the U.S. Supreme 
Court; and Thomas Brackett Reed (1860), the most powerful Speaker in the 
history of the U.S. House of Representatives. John Brown Russwurm (1826), 
editor and African colonizationist, was Bowdoin' s first African- American gradu- 
ate and the third African- American to graduate from any U.S. college. 

The old quip that "the Civil War began and ended in Brunswick, Maine," has 
some truth to it. While living here in 1850-51, when Calvin Stowe (1824) was 
teaching theology, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom 's Cabin, some of it 
in her husband's study in Appleton Hall. Joshua L. Chamberlain (1852), having 
left his Bowdoin teaching post in 1 862 to lead the 20th Maine, was chosen to 
receive the Confederate surrender at Appomattox three years later. 

The postwar period was a troubled one for Bowdoin. The Maine economy had 
begun a century-long slump, making it difficult to raise funds or attract students. 
The new, practical curriculum and lower cost of the University of Maine 
threatened to undermine Bowdoin admissions. As president, Chamberlain tried 
to innovate — a short-lived engineering school, a student militia to provide 
physical training, less classical language and more science, even a hint of 
coeducation — but the forces of inertia on the Boards were too great, and a student 
"rebellion" against the military drill in 1874 suggested that it would take more 
than even a Civil War hero to change the College. 

But change did arrive in 1885, in the form of William DeWitt Hyde, a brisk 
young man who preached an idealistic philosophy, a sort of muscular Christian- 
ity, and who had a Teddy Roosevelt-like enthusiasm for life. By the College's 
centennial in 1894, Hyde had rejuvenated the faculty, turned the "yard" into a 
quad (notably by the addition of McKim, Mead & White's Walker Art Building, 
perhaps the best piece of public architecture in Maine), and discovered how to 
persuade alumni to give money. Where Bowdoin had once prepared young men 
for the public forum, Hyde's college taught them what they needed to succeed in 
the new world of the business corporation. Much of this socialization took place 
in well-appointed fraternity houses; Bowdoin had had "secret societies" as far 
back as the 1 840s, but it was not until the 1 890s that they took over much of the 
responsibility for the residential life of the College. In the world of large research 
universities, Hyde — a prolific writer in national journals — proved that there was 
still a place for the small, pastoral New England college. 

Kenneth C. M. Sills, casting himself as the caretaker of Hyde's vision, 
shepherded the College through two World Wars and the Great Depression. 
Among his major accomplishments were bringing the athletic program into the 
fold of the College and out of the direct control of alumni, gradually making 
Bowdoin more of a national institution, and cementing the fierce loyalty of a 
generation of graduates. His successor, James S. Coles, played the role of 
modernizer: new life was given the sciences, professional standards for faculty 
were redefined, and the innovative "Senior Center" program was put in operation 
in the new high-rise dorm later named Coles Tower. 

By the late 1 960s, Bowdoin was a conservative, all-male college of about 950 
students, in which an able youth could get a solid grounding in the liberal arts and 



6 Historical Sketch 

sciences from an excellent faculty. The turmoil of the Vietnam era reached 
Brunswick with the student strike of 1970, however, and even the fraternity 
system began to be questioned. A more long-lasting change occurred in 1 97 1 with 
the arrival of coeducation and an eventual increase in size to 1 ,400 students. In the 
1980s, under the leadership of President A. LeRoy Greason, the College under- 
took to reform the curriculum, expand the arts program, encourage environmental 
study, attract more minority students and faculty, and make the College fully 
coeducational. 

By 1990. the College was nationally regarded as a small, highly selective 
liberal arts college with an enviable location in coastal Maine and a strong 
teaching faculty willing to give close personal attention to undergraduates. The 
College continued to prove that it could innovate — for example, through pace- 
setting programs to use computers to teach classics and calculus, through access 
to live foreign television to teach languages, through student-constructed inde- 
pendent study projects and "years abroad," and through the microscale organic 
chemistry curriculum. 

President Robert H. Edwards came to Bowdoin in 1990. He has reorganized 
the College administration, strengthened budgetary planning and controls, and 
developed processes for the discussion and resolution of key issues. In 1993-94, 
he presided over the College's celebration of the 200th anniversary of its 
founding. 

PRESIDENTS OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE 

Joseph McKeen 1802-1807 

Jesse Appleton 1807-1819 

William Allen 1820-1839 

Leonard Woods, Jr. 1839-1866 

Samuel Harris 1867-1871 

Joshua L. Chamberlain 1871-1883 

William DeWitt Hyde 1885-1917 

Kenneth C. M. Sills 1918-1952 

James S. Coles 1952-1967 

Roger Howell. Jr. 1969-1978 

Willard F. Enteman 1978-1980 

A. LeRoy Greason 1981-1990 

Robert I i. Edwards 1990— 



Admission to the College 



In May 1989, the Governing Boards of Bowdoin College approved the follow- 
ing statement on admissions: 

Bowdoin College is, first and foremost, an academic institution. Hence 
academic accomplishments and talents are given the greatest weight in the 
admissions process. While accomplishments beyond academic achieve- 
ments are considered in admissions decisions, these are not emphasized to 
the exclusion of those applicants who will make a contribution to Bowdoin 
primarily in the academic life of the College. In particular, applicants with 
superior academic records or achievements are admitted regardless of their 
other accomplishments. All Bowdoin students must be genuinely committed 
to the pursuit of a liberal arts education, and therefore all successful 
applicants must demonstrate that they can and will engage the curriculum 
seriously and successfully. 

At the same time that it is an academic institution, Bowdoin is also a 
residential community. To enhance the educational scope and stimulation of 
that community, special consideration in the admissions process is given to 
applicants who represent a culture, region, or background that will contribute 
to the diversity of the College. To ensure that the College community thrives, 
special consideration in the admissions process is also given to applicants 
who have demonstrated talents in leadership, in communication, in social 
service, and in other fields of endeavor that will contribute to campus life and 
to the common good thereafter. And to support the extracurricular activities 
that constitute an important component of the overall program at Bowdoin, 
and that enrich the life of the campus community, special consideration in the 
admissions process is also given to applicants with talents in the arts, in 
athletics, and in other areas in which the College has programs. The goal is 
a student body that shares the common characteristic of intellectual commit- 
ment but within which there is a considerable range of backgrounds, 
interests, and talents. 
Although Bowdoin does not require that a student seeking admission take a 
prescribed number of courses, the typical entering first-year student will have had 
four years each of English, foreign language, mathematics, and social science, 
and three to four years of laboratory sciences. Further, most will offer studies in 
arts, music, and computer science. We strongly recommend that students have 
typing or keyboard training. 

Candidates applying to Bowdoin College are evaluated individually by 
members of the admissions staff in terms of six factors: academic record, the level 
of challenge in the candidate' s course work, counselor/teacher recommendations 
and Bowdoin interview, application and essay, overall academic potential, and 
personal qualities. 



8 AJni iss ion to the College 

APPLICATION AND ADMISSION PROCEDURES 

Early Decision 

Each year Bowdoin offers admission to approximately 40 percent of its entering 
class through two Early Decision programs. Those candidates who are certain that 
Bowdoin is their first choice and have a high school record that accurately reflects 
their potential may wish to consider this option, since it may resolve the 
uncertainty of college admission early in the senior year. The guidelines for Early 
Decision are as follows: 

1. When candidates file an application for admission, they must state in 
writing that they wish to be considered for Early Decision and that they will enroll 
if admitted. Early Decision candidates are encouraged to file regular applications 
at other colleges, but only with the understanding that these will be withdrawn and 
no new applications will be initiated if they are accepted on an Early Decision 
basis by their first-choice college. In other words, only one Early Decision 
application may be made, but other regular applications may be initiated simul- 
taneously. 

2. The application and essay, request for Early Decision, a School Report 
Form, a secondary school transcript of grades, the two Teacher Comment Forms, 
and the application fee of $50 (or fee- waiver form) must be submitted to Bowdoin 
by November 1 5 for notification by late December, or by January 1 for notifica- 
tion by mid-February. (Candidates requiring an application fee waiver may 
petition for one through their guidance counselor using the standard CEEB form.) 

3. Candidates admitted via Early Decision who have financial need as estab- 
lished by the guidelines of the College Scholarship Service and based on the 
Service's "Profile" will be notified of the amount of their award soon after they 
receive their Early Decision acceptance, provided their financial aid forms are on 
file at Bowdoin. 

4. The submission of College Entrance Examination Board or American 
College Testing scores at Bowdoin is optional as an admissions requirement. 
Applicants need not be deterred from applying for Early Decision because the) 
have not completed the CEEB or ACT tests. (However, CEEB or ACT scores are 
used lor academic counseling and placement, and students are required to submit 
scores over the summer prior to enrolling.) 

5. An Early Decision acceptance is contingent upon completion of the senior 
year in good standing. 

6. Many candidates not accepted under the Early Decision program will be 

transferred to the regular applicant pool. Each year a number o\ applicants who 

Bit deterred under hark Decision are accepted early in April, when decisions on 
all regular admissions are announced. However, some students may be denied 

admission at Early Decision time if the Admissions Committee concludes thai 

their credentials are not strong enough to meet the overall competition for 

admissions. 

7. Responsibility lor understanding and complying with the ground rules of 

I arl) Decision rests with the candidate. Should an Early Decision candidate 

violate the provisions of the program, die College will reconsider the offer of 
admission and financial aid. 



Admission to the College 9 

Regular Admission 

The following items constitute a completed admissions folder: 

1. The student's application form submitted with the application fee ($50) as 
early as possible in the senior year. The deadline for receiving regular applications 
is January 1. Bowdoin College also accepts the Common Application in lieu of 
its own form and gives equal consideration to both. Students may obtain copies 
of the Common Application from their high schools. 

Students using the Common Application are required to submit a supplemen- 
tary essay describing the positive impact that one outstanding secondary school 
teacher has had on the candidate's intellectual development. 

2. School Report: The college advisor's estimate of the candidate's character 
and accomplishments and a copy of the secondary school record should be 
returned to Bowdoin no later than January 1. A transcript of grades through the 
midyear marking period (Midyear School Report) should be returned to Bowdoin 
by February 15. If a student matriculates at Bowdoin College, the School Report 
and secondary school transcript will become part of the permanent college file and 
will be available for the student's inspection. 

3. Recommendations: Each candidate is required to submit two Teacher 
Comment Forms, which should be given to two academic subject teachers for 
completion and returned as soon as possible and no later than January 1 . 

4. College Entrance Examination Board or American College Testing 
Scores: Bowdoin allows each applicant to decide if his or her standardized test 
results should be considered as part of the application. In past years approximately 
25 percent of Bowdoin' s applicants have decided not to submit standardized test 
results. In those cases where test results are submitted, the Admissions Committee 
considers this information as a supplement to other academic information such as 
the transcript and recommendations. The candidate is responsible for making 
arrangements to take the College Board examinations and for seeing that 
Bowdoin receives the scores if he or she wants them to be considered as part of 
his or her application. Should Bowdoin receive the scores on the secondary school 
transcript, these scores will be inked out before the folder is read by the 
Admissions Committee. Students choosing to submit their SAT or ACT and 
Achievement Test scores should complete all examinations no later than January 
of the senior year. 

N.B. — Because standardized test results are used for academic counseling and 
placement, all entering first-year students are required to submit scores over the 
summer prior to enrolling. 

5. Visit and Interview: A personal interview at Bowdoin with a member of the 
admissions staff or senior interviewer is strongly encouraged but not required. 
Distance alone sometimes makes it impossible for candidates to visit the College. 
Members of the Bowdoin Alumni School and Interviewing Committee (BASIC) 
are available in most parts of the country to assist those applicants. (For further 
information on BASIC, see page 237.) Candidates' chances for admission are not 
diminished because of the lack of an interview, but the interviewers' impressions 
of a candidate's potential are often helpful to the Admissions Committee. Ten 
carefully selected and trained Bowdoin senior interviewers conduct interviews to 



10 Admission to the College 

supplement regular staff appointments from September through December. On- 
campus interviews are available from the third week in May to December 31. 

The Admissions Office is open for interviews throughout the year, except from 
January 1 to the third week in May, when the staff is involved in the final selection 
of the class. 

6. Notification: All candidates will receive a final decision on their applica- 
tion for admission by early April. A commitment to enroll is not required of any 
candidate (except those applying for Early Decision) until the Candidates' 
Common Reply date of May 1. Upon accepting an offer of admission from 
Bowdoin, a student is expected to include a $300 admissions deposit, which is 
credited to the first semester's bill. 

7. Candidates requiring an application fee waiver may petition for one through 
their guidance counselor using the standard CEEB form. 

Deferred Admission 

Admitted students who wish to delay their matriculation to the College for one 
year should request a deferment from the dean of admissions prior to May 1, 
explaining the reasons for delaying matriculation. It is Bowdoin's policy to honor 
most of these requests and to hold a place in the next entering class for these 
students as long as the student agrees to withdraw all applications at other colleges 
or universities. A $300 nonrefundable admissions deposit must accompany the 
deferral request. 

Admission with Advanced Standing 

Bowdoin recognizes the College Entrance Examination Board Advanced Place- 
ment and the International Baccalaureate programs and may grant advanced 
placement and credit toward graduation for superior performance in those 
programs. Applicants to Bowdoin are encouraged to take advantage of these 
programs and to have test results sent to the Admissions Office. Inquiries may be 
directed to the Office of Student Records. 

Decisions on both placement and credit are made by the appropriate academic 
department in each subject area. Some departments offer placement examinations 
during the orientation period to assist them in making appropriate determinations. 
Every effort is made to place students in the most advanced courses for which they 
are qualified, regardless of whether they have taken AP or IB examinations before 
matriculation. 

Determinations of advanced placement and credit are made during the 
student's first year at Bowdoin. First-year Students m;iy apply a maximum of eight 
course credits toward the degree from the following sources: Advanced Place- 
men! Program, Internationa] Baccalaureate Program, and college credits from 

other institutions earned prior to matriculation. 



Admission to the College 1 1 

International Students 

The Admissions Committee attempts to assemble a highly diverse entering class 
and therefore welcomes the perspective that international students bring to the 
Bowdoin community. In 1996-97, 482 international students applied for admis- 
sion to Bowdoin. Of these, 51 were admitted and 23 enrolled. 

Admissions policies and procedures for international students are the same as 
for regular first-year applicants, with the following exceptions: 

1. All international students must submit the Bowdoin application and the 
International Student Supplement. 

2. Students whose first language is not English must submit official results of 
the Test of English as a Foreign Language by January 1 . 

3. All international students who submit the College Scholarship Service 
Foreign Student Financial Aid Form and the Bowdoin Financial Aid Application 
(BFAA) will be considered for Bowdoin funds to defray part of their college costs, 
provided the student and his or her family can pay a portion of the college 
expenses. Bowdoin has designated three to four fully funded scholarships for 
international students for each entering class. These scholarships often cover the 
full cost of tuition, fees, and room and board. The competition for these 
exceptional financial aid packages tends to be intense. Both first-year and transfer 
applicants who wish to be considered for financial aid should submit required 
materials by January 1 . 

Transfer Students 

Each year, a limited number of students from other colleges and universities will 
be admitted to sophomore or junior standing at Bowdoin. The following informa- 
tion pertains to transfer candidates: 

1 . Citizens of the United States should file the Bowdoin application and 
Transfer Student Supplement by March 1 for fall admission and by November 1 5 
for midyear admission and include the $50 application fee. International students 
should file the application by January 1 for fall admission and by November 1 5 
for midyear admission and include the Transfer Student Supplement, Interna- 
tional Supplement, and the application fee. Applicants must arrange to have 
submitted at the same time transcripts of their college and secondary school 
records, statements from deans or advisors at their colleges, and at least two 
recommendations from current or recent professors. Interviews are strongly 
recommended but not required. As soon as it becomes available, an updated 
transcript including spring semester grades should also be sent. Candidates whose 
applications are complete will normally be notified of Bowdoin's decision in 
April or May. Candidates for January admission are notified in mid-December. 

2. Transfer candidates should have academic records of Honors quality ("B" 
work or better) in a course of study that approximates the work that would have 
been done at Bowdoin, had they entered as first-year students. Bowdoin accepts 
transfer credit for liberal arts courses in which a grade of C or higher has been 



12 Admission to the College 

received Further, transfer students should understand that although they may 
expect an estimate regarding class standing upon transferring, official placement 
is possible only after updated transcripts have arrived at our Office of Student 
Records and have been appraised by the appropriate dean and academic depart- 
ments. 

3. Although two years of residence are required for a Bowdoin degree, 
students who have completed more than four semesters of college work are 
welcome to apply for admission, with this understanding. Students who have 
already received their bachelor's degree are ineligible for first-year or transfer 
admission. 

4. The financial aid funds available for transfer students may be limited by 
commitments the College has already made to enrolled students and incoming 
first-year students. All transfer students are eligible for aid, based on financial 
need. Domestic applicants for aid must submit a Free Application for Federal 
Student Aid (FAFSA) and the College Scholarship Service's "Profile" by March 
1. International applicants for aid must file the College Scholarship Service 
Foreign Student Financial Aid Form by January 1 . Financial aid usually is not 
available for transfer students applying for January admission. 

Special Students 

Each semester, as space within the College and openings within courses permit, 
Bowdoin admits a few special students who are not degree candidates. In general, 
this program is intended to serve the special educational needs of residents in the 
Brunswick area. Those who already hold a bachelor's degree from a four-year 
college are normally ineligible for the program, although exceptions may be made 
for teachers wishing to upgrade their skills or for Bowdoin graduates who need 
particular courses to qualify for graduate programs. One or two courses are 
charged at a special rate of $ 1 , 1 65 per course and no more than two courses may 
be taken each semester. No financial aid is available for special students. 
Interested applicants should submit the completed special student form and 
enclose the $50 application fee at least one month prior to the beginning of the 
semester. A personal interview is strongly encouraged. Inquiries should be 
addressed to the Special Student Coordinator in the Admissions Office. 

APPLICATION FOR FINANCIAL All) 

Need-Blind Admissions Policy 

It is the policy of Bowdoin College to meet the lull calculated financial need of 
all enrolled Students ami meet the full calculated financial need of as many 
entering first-year siiulenls as llie College's financial resources permit. 

i he College customarily budgets enough aid resources to meet the full 

calculated needol all enrolling students without using financial need as a criterion 
in the selection pun ess. Because spending history is Bowdoin's only guide, there 
is no guarantee that the budgeted funds will ultimately be sufficient to make all 
admission decisions without regard to financial need. 



Admission to the College 1 3 

For seven of the last ten years, financial need has not been a criterion in the 
selection of candidates for admission with the exception of students offered 
admission from the waiting list, transfer candidates, and non-U.S. citizens. In the 
other three years (1990-91, 1991-92, and 1992-93), over 95 percent of the 
students admitted where chosen without regard to their ability to pay. Financial 
need was only considered in the last 25 to 40 decisions. 

Bowdoin College has been "need-blind" in its initial selection of first-year 
candidates for the past three years (1993-96). The resources budgeted for 
financial aid have increased significantly each year. In addition, the capital 
campaign currently underway has as one of its primary goals the addition of $30 
million in endowment for financial aid. 

Procedure for Application for Financial Aid 

Students who wish to be considered for financial aid must submit an application 
each year. The primary financial aid document is the College Scholarship 
Service's "Profile." Entering students may register for "Profile" through their 
secondary school. A brief supplement, the Bowdoin Financial Aid Application 
(BFAA), is included with the application materials for admission to the College 
to ensure our Student Aid Office is aware of a candidate's intent to file for aid. 
Application deadlines are given below. Returning students will be issued forms 
as part of their renew package in March. 

Candidates should not be discouraged from applying to Bowdoin College for 
lack of funds. Because of its extensive scholarship grant and loan programs, 
Bowdoin's financial aid policy is designed to supplement family efforts so that 
as many students as possible can be admitted each year with the full amount of 
needed financial assistance. In 1 996-97, approximately 42 percent of the entering 
class of 464 students were awarded need-based grants. The average award of 
grant and loan was $17,551. The amount of assistance intended to meet the 
individual's need is calculated from the information in the College Scholarship 
Service's "Profile." Additional material about the program of financial aid at 
Bowdoin can be found on pages 15-20. Awards of financial aid are announced 
soon after letters of admission have been sent. 

Summary of Application Deadlines 

Application materials for admission and student aid include the complete Appli- 
cation for Admission (or the Common Application with supplementary essay), 
the Bowdoin Financial Aid Application or Foreign Student Financial Aid Appli- 
cation, the College Scholarship Service Profile, and the Free Application for 
Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). New applicants should submit these materials in 
accord with the following deadlines: 
Early Decision I 

November 15: Application for Admission, Bowdoin Financial Aid 

Application, Profile 
February 15: FAFSA 



1 4 Admission to the College 



Early Decision II 



January 1: Application for Admission, Bowdoin Financial Aid 

Application, Profile 
February 15: FAFSA 

Regular Admission 

January 1 : Application for Admission 

February 15: Bowdoin Financial Aid Application, Profile, FAFSA 

Transfer Applicants 

Fall: March 1: Application for Admission, Bowdoin Financial Aid 
Application, Profile, FAFSA 

Spring: November 15: Application for Admission, Bowdoin Finan- 
cial Aid Application. 

NOTE: Financial aid is usually not available for spring transfer 
students. 

International Applicants 

First- Year Students and Fall Transfers: 

January 1 : Application for Admission, Foreign Student Financial 
Aid Form, TOEFL Report 

Spring Transfers: November 15: Application for Admission, For- 
eign Student Financial Aid Form, TOEFL Report. 

NOTE: Financial aid is usually not available for spring transfer 
students. 



All correspondence concerning first-year and transfer admis- 
sion to the College should be addressed to the Dean of 
Admissions, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 0401 1; tel. 
(207) 725-3100, FAX: (207) 725-3101. Inquiries about finan- 
cial aid should be addressed to the Director of Student Aid, 
Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011; tel. (207) 725- 
3273. 



Financial Aid 



Bowdoin college's financial aid policy is designed to supplement family re- 
sources so that as many students as possible can attend the College with the full 
amount of needed assistance. Scholarship grants, loans, and student employment 
are the principal sources of aid for Bowdoin students who need help in meeting 
the expenses of their education. Bowdoin believes that students who receive 
financial aid as an outright grant should also expect to earn a portion of then- 
expenses and that they and their families should assume responsibility for 
repayment of some part of what has been advanced to help them complete their 
college course. Consequently, loans and student employment will generally be 
part of the financial aid award. All awards are made on the basis of satisfactory 
academic work and financial need, which is arequisite in every case. Applications 
for financial aid should be submitted to the director of student aid, who coordi- 
nates the financial aid program. Submission of the required application forms 
guarantees that the student will be considered for all the financial aid available to 
Bowdoin students, including grants, loans, and jobs from any source under 
Bowdoin' s control. 

Approximately 60 percent of Bowdoin' s grant budget comes from endowed 
funds given by alumni and friends of the College. Information on the availability 
of scholarship and loan funds may be obtained through the College ' s Student Aid 
Office. Questions regarding endowed funds and the establishment of such funds 
should be directed to the Office of Development. 

In 1995-96, Bowdoin distributed a total of about $9,565,000 in need-based 
financial aid. Grants totaled about $7,750,000 in 1995-96 and were made to about 
40 percent of the student body. Long-term loans continue to be an integral part of 
financial aid, supplementing scholarship grants. The College provides about 
$850,000 to aid recipients each year from loan funds under its control; another 
$965,000 in loan aid comes from private lenders under the terms of the federal 
Stafford program. 

Application for Financial Aid 

Students who wish to be considered for financial aid must submit an application 
each year. A Bowdoin Financial Aid Application is included with the application 
materials for admission to the College. The deadlines for the Bowdoin Financial 
Aid Application and Profile are: November 15 for Early Decision Option I 
candidates; January 1 for Early Decision Option II candidates; February 15 for 
regular admission candidates. International candidates should file their financial 
aid application concurrently with their application for admission. In addition, all 
candidates for aid must submit the Free Application for Federal Student Aid 
(FAFS A) by February 15. 

The FAFSA is used to determine eligibility for the following aid programs at 
the College: Pell Grants provided by the federal government; Federal Supplemen- 
tary Education Opportunity Grants (SEOG); Federal Perkins Loans (formerly 
NDSL); Federal Stafford Loans (formerly GSL); and Federal Work Study jobs. 



16 Financial Aid 

The Bowdoin Financial Aid Application and the "Profile" are used to determine 
the family's need for Bowdoin College scholarship grants and Bowdoin College 
Consolidated Loans. 

Transfer students applying for aid must file the FAFSA with the federal 
sen ices and the "Profile" w ith the College Scholarship Service by March 1 and 
send the Bowdoin Financial Aid Application and a Financial Aid Transcript 
(available from their previous college) to the Student Aid Office. 

Whether an individual receives financial aid from Bowdoin or not, he or she 
is eligible to apply for long-term, low-interest loans under the Federal Stafford 
Loan program. Such loans are generally available from private lenders and 
require both a FAFSA and a separate loan application. 

When parents and students sign the Bowdoin Financial Aid Application, the 
FAFSA, and the "Profile," they agree to provide a certified or notarized copy of 
their latest federal or state income tax return, plus any other documentation that 
may be required. To verify or clarify information on the aid application, it is a 
common practice for the College to ask for a copy of the federal tax return (Form 
1040, 1040EZ or 1041 A) and W-2 Forms each year. The College's Financial Aid 
Committee will not take action on any aid application until the required documen- 
tation has been submitted. 

Eligibility for Aid 

To be eligible for aid at Bowdoin College, a student must 

1 . be a degree candidate who is enrolled or is accepted for enrollment on at least 
a half-time basis; 

2. demonstrate a financial need, which is determined, in general, on the basis 
of College Scholarship Service practices; and 

3. satisfy academic and personal requirements as listed in the Financial Aid 
Notice that accompanies an award of aid. 

In addition, to qualify for any of the programs subsidized by the federal 
government, a student must be a citizen, national, or permanent resident of the 
United States or the Trust territory of the Pacific Islands. 

A student is eligible for Bowdoin aid for a maximum of eight semesters. The 
College's Financial Aid Committee may. at its own discretion, award a ninth 
semester of aid. 

The amount and types of aid a student may receive are limited by calculated 
need ;is determined by the College's Financial Aid Committee. If funds are not 
sufficient to meet the lull need of eligible students in any year, the Committee will 
adopt procedures to assure that the greatest number of eligible candidates will 
receive the greatest proportion of the aid they need. 

All awards of financial aid made in anticipation of an academic year, including 

the first year, will remain in effect for the lull year unless the student's work is 
unsatisfactory. Students ma) also be assured of continuing financial aid that 
meets their need in subsequent years if their grades each semester are such as to 
assure progress required for continued enrollment (see General Regulations, 

Deficiency in Scholarship," pages J3 34). 



Financial Aid 17 

Awards of students whose work is unsatisfactory may be reduced or with- 
drawn for one semester. Awards may also be reduced or withdrawn for gross 
breach of conduct or discipline. 

Determination of Need 

College policy is to meet a student's full, calculated financial need for each year 
in which he or she qualifies for aid, if funds are available. Financial need is the 
difference between Bowdoin's costs and family resources. Resources will consist 
of parental income and assets, student assets, student earnings, and other re- 
sources, such as gifts, non-College scholarships, and veteran's benefits. 

Parental assistance from income and assets is determined from the information 
submitted on the FAFSA, "Profile," and Bowdoin Financial Aid Application. It 
is presumed that both of the parents or legal guardians are responsible for a child' s 
educational expenses, including the continuing obligation to house and feed the 
student to whatever extent is possible. Divorce or separation of the natural parents 
does not absolve either parent from this obligation. 

Student assets at the time the first application is filed are expected to be 
available for college expenses in the years leading to graduation. From 80 to 100 
percent of those student savings are prorated over the undergraduate career in the 
College's initial need calculation. Students are not required to use their savings, 
and may choose to make up this amount in other ways. If a student decides to use 
those savings over fewer years or for other purposes, Bowdoin will continue to 
include the prorated amount in its calculation of student assets. 

The College expects students to earn a reasonable amount during summer 
vacation and/or from academic-year campus employment. The amount will vary 
depending upon the student's year in college and the prevailing economic 
conditions, but it is the same for all aid recipients in each class. 

The sum of these resources when subtracted from Bowdoin's cost determines 
the student's need and Bowdoin's financial aid award. 

Aid Awards 

Awards are a combination of scholarship grants and self-help, i.e., a loan offer and 
a campus earnings expectation. The College determines both the type and amount 
of aid that will be offered to each student. The aid combination, or package, as it 
is called, varies each year depending upon a student's need. Even if the total 
amount of aid remains unchanged, the family should expect the scholarship grant 
to decrease by $ 1 50 to $200 per year and the annual self-help portion to increase 
by the same amount. 

Scholarship grants are gift aid that is provided without student obligation of 
any kind. No repayment of the scholarship grant is expected. These awards come 
from a variety of sources such as endowed funds, current gifts, and the federal 
government, including any Pell grant a student may receive. Students are 
automatically considered for all grants and therefore do not apply for specific 
awards. 



18 Financial Aid 

Bowdoin College Loans, Stafford Loans, and Perkins Loans are available to 
students to cover payment of educational expenses. Parents are typically not 
legally responsible for repayment of these loans. The loan portion of an aid 
package is an offer; students often are eligible to borrow in excess of the amount 
offered. The scholarship grant will not be affected by a student's decision to 
accept or decline all or any part of the loan. An additional parental contribution 
or extra summer or campus earnings may be used to replace the loan at the 
discretion of the student and the family. Long-term loans may also be made to 
students not receiving scholarship grants. 

These loans, including Stafford Loans, Perkins Loans, and Bowdoin College 
Consolidated Loans, bear no interest during undergraduate residence. As of July 
1994, interest is charged at 5 percent for the latter two loans; interest on Stafford 
Loans is variable, with a maximum rate of 8.25 percent. Payment over a ten-year 
period begins six months after graduation, or separation, or after graduate school; 
two or three years of deferment are possible for various categories of service or 
internships. Perkins Loans also provide for the cancellation of some payments for 
persons who become teachers and/or who serve in the Peace Corps or Vista, and 
for several other types of service. 

Small, short-term loans are available upon application at the Controller's 
Office. 

Student Employment 

A student who receives aid is expected to meet part of the educational expense 
from summer employment and from a campus earnings expectation, which is 
included in the financial aid award. The student may choose to work or not; this 
decision has no further effect upon the scholarship grant or loan offer. 

Bowdoin's student employment program offers a wide variety of opportuni- 
ties to undergraduates. These include direct employment by the College, employ- 
ment by the fraternities, and employment by outside agencies represented on the 
campus or located in the community. College policy is to give priority in hiring 
to students of recognized financial need. However, there is no limitation as to 
which students may work on campus. Employment opportunities are open to all 
students who are interested and able to work. Commitments for employment are 
made to first-year students at the opening of College in the fall. The annual student 
payroll currently stands at about $800,000. 

Federal Financial Aid Programs Available at Bowdoin 

I be ( lollege participates in the Federal Work-Study Program established under 
the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, the Federal Supplementary Educational 
Opportunity Grants Program established under the Higher Education Act of 196S, 

and the federal I'ell Grant Program established under the Higher Education 
Amendments Of 1972, along with the Federal Perkins and federal Stafford Loan 
programs mentioned above. The College also works elosely with several states 

that can provide handicapped students and those receiving other forms of state aid 
with financial assistance to help with their educational expenses. 



Financial Aid 19 

First- Year Student Awards 

About 190 entering students each year receive prematriculation awards to help 
them meet the expenses of their first year. Recently the awards have ranged from 
$500 to $28,000. As noted above, some awards are direct grants, but most also 
include loan offers. The size and nature of these awards depend upon the need 
demonstrated by the candidates. The application process and deadlines are 
described on pages 7-14. Candidates will be notified of a prematriculation award 
soon after they are informed of the decision on their applications for admission, 
usually about April 5. 

Upperclass Awards 

Awards similar to prematriculation scholarships are granted to undergraduates 
already enrolled in college on the basis of their financial need and academic 
progress. All continuing students who wish to be considered for aid must register 
as aid candidates with the Office of Student Aid by April 15 each year. The 
director of student aid will make the appropriate forms available each year and 
will provide notification of application requirements and filing deadlines. 

It is the responsibility of the student to submit all required forms on time 
according to the dates published by the Student Aid Office. Upperclass students 
and their families must complete the Bowdoin Financial Aid Application, the 
Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), and the "Profile" of the 
College Scholarship Service for each year that aid is requested. Upperclass 
students file for aid between February and April; award notifications are mailed 
in early July. 

Normally, awards are made at the end of one academic year in anticipation of 
the next, but applications or requests for a financial aid review may be made in 
November for aid to be assigned during the spring semester on a funds-available 
basis. 

Awards made for a full year are subject to the same provisions covering 
prematriculation awards, but those made for a single semester are not considered 
as setting award levels for the following year. 

Foreign Student Awards 

Bowdoin has a limited number of fully funded financial aid awards for foreign 
students. However, to be considered for these awards, the student must file the 
College Scholarship Service's Foreign Student Financial Aid Application, which 
is included in the admissions application sent by the Admissions Office. Foreign 
students who do not apply at the time of admission should not expect financial aid 
during any of their years at Bowdoin. 

Graduate Scholarships 

Bowdoin is able to offer a number of scholarships for postgraduate study at other 
institutions. Grants of various amounts are available to Bowdoin graduates who 
continue their studies in the liberal arts and sciences and in certain professional 



20 Financial Aid 

schools. Awards up to full tuition are possible for those attending Harvard 
University's medical, law, or business schools. In 1995-96, Bowdoin provided 
$202,000 in graduate scholarship assistance to 62 students. Further information 
about these scholarships is available through the Student Aid Office. 

Special Funds 

Income from these funds is used to assist students with special or unexpected 
needs. Further information is available through the Office of the Dean of Student 
Affairs. 

Further information about application procedures, eligibility, need calculation 
and awards, plus descriptions of individual federal, state, and College programs 
is contained in the Financial Aid Notice that accompanies an award of aid and is 
available upon request. Questions about Bowdoin' s aid programs may be ad- 
dressed to the director of student aid. 



Expenses 



COLLEGE CHARGES 

The charges for tuition, room rent, board, and fees for 1996-97 are listed below. 
These do not include costs for travel, books, or personal expenses; students must 
budget for such items on their own. 





By Semester 


Total 




Fall 


Spring 


For the Year 


Tuition 


$10,705.00 


$10,705.00 


$21,410.00 


Board 


1,670.00 


1,670.00 


3,340.00 


Room Rent 








Residence Halls 


1,335.00 


1,335.00 


2,670.00 


Pine and 








Harpswell St. Apts. 


1,770.00 


1,770.00 


3,540.00 


Other Apartments 


1,477.50 


1,477.50 


2,955.00 


Student Activities Fee : 


► 82.50 


82.50 


165.00 


Health Services Fee* 


87.50 


87.50 


175.00 


Telephone Service** 


35.00 


35.00 


70.00 



*These fees are mandatory for all enrolled students. 
**This fee applies to students in College housing. 

Beginning in 1997-98, the College will impose a fee for participation in off- 
campus study programs for which Bowdoin degree credit is desired. The fee for 
1997-98 will be $600 per semester, or $750 for an academic year at a single 
institution or program. The fee is waived for students attending certain programs 
with which Bowdoin maintains a consortial relationship. Details are available 
from the Office of Off-Campus Study. For planning purposes, students and 
parents should anticipate that tuition and other charges may increase each year to 
reflect program changes and other cost increases experienced by the College. 

Registration and Enrollment 

All students are required to register during registration week of the prior semester 
in accordance with the schedules posted at the College. Any student who initially 
registers for classes after the first week of classes must pay a $20 late fee. All 
students are further required to submit an Enrollment Form by the end of the first 
week of classes. While registration places students in courses, the Enrollment 
Form serves to notify the College that the student is on campus and attending 
classes. A fee of $20 is assessed for late submission of the Enrollment Form. 

A $300 Continuation Deposit is due March 15 from all students planning to 
continue at Bowdoin the following fall semester. Students may not register for 
classes unless this deposit has been paid. The deposit is an advance payment 
against the fall semester tuition and will be shown on the bill for that term. Failure 
to register will result in forfeiture of this deposit. 

21 



22 Expenses 

Refunds 

Refunds of tuition and fees for students leaving the College during the course of 
a semester will be made in accordance with the following refund schedule: 

During the first two weeks 80% 

During the third week 60% 

During the fourth week 40% 

During the fifth week 20% 

Over five weeks No refund 

Refunds for board and room will be prorated on a daily basis in accordance 
with the student's attendance as it relates to the College's calendar, after 
adjustments for fixed commitments and applicable overhead expense. Students 
who are dismissed from the College within the first five weeks for other than 
academic or medical reasons are not entitled to refunds. Financial aid awards will 
be credited in proportion to educational expenses as stipulated in a student's 
award letter, but in no case will they exceed total charges to be collected. 
Application for a refund must be made in writing to the bursar of the College 
within 30 days of the student's leaving. 

Tuition 

Any student completing the number of courses required for the degree in fewer 
than eight semesters must pay tuition for eight semesters, although the dean of 
student affairs is authorized to waive this requirement if courses were taken away 
from Bowdoin. The accumulation of extra credits earned by taking more than four 
courses during a semester shall not relieve the student of the obligation to pay 
tuition for eight full semesters at Bowdoin College. 

There are opportunities at Bowdoin to receive financial aid in meeting the 
charge for tuition. Detailed information about scholarships, loans, and other 
financial aid may be found on pages 15-20. 

Room and Board 

Entering first-year students are guaranteed housing and are required to live on 
campus. They may indicate their residence needs on a preference card issued by 
the Residential Life Office during the summer preceding their arrival at Bowdoin. 
The director of residential life coordinates housing accommodations for the 

remaining classes through a lottery system, the most equitable approach given the 

College's limited space lor housing. 

Residence hall suites consist ol a Study and bedroom, provided with essential 

Furniture. Students should furnish blankets and pillows; linen ami laundry 

services are available al moderate cost. College property is not to be removed 
from the building or from the room in which it belongs; occupants are held 
responsible lor any damage to their rooms or furnishings. 

I '.i >ard Charges are the same regardless ol whether a student eats at the Moulton 
Union, WentWOlth Hall, or a fraternity. Students who live in Bowdoin facilities. 



Expenses 23 

except apartments, are required to take a 19-meal or 14-meal board plan. Partial 
board packages are available to students living off campus or in College-owned 
apartments. 

Other College Charges 

All damage to the buildings or other property of the College by persons unknown 
may be assessed equally on all residents of the building in which the damage 
occurred. The Student Activities Fee is set by the student government, and its 
expenditure is allocated by the Student Activities Fee Committee. 

Health Care 

The facilities of the Dudley Coe Health Center and the Counseling Service are 
available to all students. Part of the Health Services Fee covers health and accident 
insurance, in which all students are enrolled. Insurance offers year-round cover- 
age and can be extended to cover study away. 

Bills are rendered by the College for many medical services provided through 
the health center. Most of these costs are covered by student health insurance. A 
pamphlet specifying the coverage provided by student health insurance is 
available from the bursar and will be included with the first tuition bill each year. 
Any costs not covered by insurance will be charged to the student's account. 

Motor Vehicles 

All motor vehicles, including motorcycles and motor scooters, used on campus 
or owned and/or operated by residents of any College-owned residence or 
recognized fraternity must be registered with Campus Security. The registration 
fee is $10 a year for students living in College housing. For students living off 
campus in apartments and fraternities, registration is free. Failure to register a 
motor vehicle will result in a $25 parking ticket each time the vehicle is found on 
campus. Students wishing to register a vehicle for a period of time less than one 
semester must make special arrangements with Campus Security. All students 
maintaining motor vehicles at the College are required to carry adequate liability 
insurance. Parking on campus is limited and students will be assigned parking 
areas according to their living locations. 

PAYMENT OF COLLEGE BILLS 

Bills for the tuition, board, room rent, and fees for the fall and spring semesters 
will be sent on or about July 15 and November 20, and are due August 1 and 
January 1, respectively. Credits (funds actually received) and tentative credits 
will also appear on the bill. Bowdoin scholarship grants, payments from the 
family, and any other cash payments are examples of credits. Non-Bowdoin 
scholarship aid that has been reported, Bowdoin loan offers, payment plan 
contracts, and approved Stafford and parent loan applications are tentative 
credits. The balance due is the difference between all charges and all credits. 



24 Expenses 

Bills are sent to the student unless the bursar is requested to direct them to 
someone other than the student. 

Students and their parents or guardians may pay the College charges as they 
fall due each semester, or by using one of the installment payment plans offered 
by Academic Management Services, the Knight College Resource Group, or 
Tuition Management Systems. They may also arrange to pay the total due by 
using a mixture of these two payment options. 

The payment dates in the payment plans may not be deferred for the conve- 
nience of families using Stafford and parent loans, or other tuition payment 
programs. Both long- and short-term financial arrangements should be made far 
enough in advance to assure payment on the required dates. Students with unpaid 
bills may not register for or attend classes, nor are they eligible for academic 
credit, semester grade reports, transcripts, or degrees. 

By registering for classes, a student incurs a legal obligation to pay tuition and 
fees. This debt may be canceled only if the student withdraws from the College 
prior to the start of classes. Later withdrawals are subject to the published refund 
schedule. 

After the first week of classes, the College reserves the right to remove any 
student from classes, and from College housing, who has not satisfied his or her 
financial obligations. Any campus meal plan will also be terminated at that time. 

Late-Payment Charge 

The balance due each semester will be considered overdue if not paid by the due 
date, and any unpaid balance will be subject to a late charge of $ 1 00 per semester. 
Exemptions will be given only for tentative credits (see first paragraph of this 
section). 



The Curriculum 



The College recognizes through its course offerings and requirements the 
importance of relating a liberal education to a world whose problems and needs 
are continually changing. Bowdoin does not prescribe specific courses for all 
students. Rather, each student determines an appropriate program of liberal arts 
courses in consultation with an academic advisor. 

A vital part of this educational experience takes place in the interaction 
between students and their academic advisors. Each student is assigned an 
academic advisor at the start of the first year and the two meet first during 
orientation. Students generally maintain this relationship through the sophomore 
year. 

Students declare their majors during the second semester of the sophomore 
year. Afterwards, a student is advised by a member of his or her major department. 
Advisors and students regularly consult prior to each registration period. 

ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE 

To qualify for the bachelor of arts degree, a student must have 

1. successfully passed 32 courses; 

2. spent four semesters (passing at least 16 courses) in residence, at least two 
semesters of which will have been during the junior and senior years; 

3. completed at least two semester courses in each of the following divisions 
of the curriculum — natural science and mathematics, social and behavioral 
sciences, and humanities and fine arts — and two semester courses in non- 
Eurocentric studies; and 

4. completed a departmental major, a double major, a coordinate major, an 
interdisciplinary major, or a student-designed major (a departmental minor 
may be completed with any of the preceding). 

No student will ordinarily be permitted to remain at Bowdoin for more than 
nine semesters of full-time work. 

DISTRIBUTION REQUIREMENTS 

Distribution requirements should normally be completed by the end of the 
sophomore year. Students must take two courses from each of the three divisions 
of the curriculum, with two courses in non-Eurocentric studies. A course that 
satisfies the non-Eurocentric studies requirement may also count for its division. 
Because these requirements are intended to apply to the college liberal arts 
experience, they may not be met by Advanced Placement or International 
Baccalaureate credits, but may be met by credits earned while studying away from 
Bowdoin. Areas of distribution are defined as follows: 

Natural Science and Mathematics: Biochemistry, biology, chemistry, com- 
puter science, geology, mathematics, neuroscience, physics, and certain environ- 



25 



26 The Curriculum 

mental studies and psychology courses. (Designated by the letter a following a 
course number in the course descriptions.) 

Social and Behavioral Sciences: Africana studies, economics, government, 
psychology, sociology and anthropology, and certain Asian studies, environmen- 
tal studies, history, and women's studies courses. (Designated by the letter b 
following a course number in the course descriptions.) 

Humanities and Fine Arts: Art. Chinese, classics, dance, education. English, 
film. German. Japanese, music, philosophy, religion. Romance languages, Rus- 
sian, theater, most history courses, and certain Asian studies and women's studies 
courses. (Designated by the letter c following a course number in the course 
descriptions.) 

Non-Eurocentric Studies: Students must take two courses that focus on a non- 
Eurocentric culture or society, exclusive of Europe and European Russia and their 
literary, artistic, musical, religious, and political traditions. The requirement is 
intended to introduce students to the variety of cultures and to open their minds 
to the different ways in which people perceive and cope with the challenges of life. 
Though courses primarily emphasizing North American and European topics will 
not count toward this requirement, courses focusing on African-American, 
Native American, or Latin American cultures will meet the requirement. Lan- 
guage courses do not meet this requirement. (Designated by the letter d following 
a course number in the course descriptions.) 

THE MAJOR PROGRAM 

Students may choose one of six basic patterns to satisfy the major requirement at 
Bowdoin: a departmental major, a double major, a coordinate major, an interdis- 
ciplinary major, a student-designed major, or any of the preceding with a 
departmental minor. Majors are offered in the following areas: 

Africana Studies Government and Legal Studies 

Anthropology History 

Art History Mathematics 

Asian Studies Music 

Biochemistry Neuroscience 

Biology Philosophy 

Chemistry Physics and Astronoim 

Classics and Classics/Archaeology Psychology 

Computer Science Religion 

Economics Romance Languages 

English Russian 

Environmental Studies Sociology 

French Spanish 

Geology Visual Arts 

German Women's Studies 



The Curriculum 27 

Students are required to declare their majors before registering for the junior 
year, after consultation with their departmental advisor(s). This allows students 
ample time to be exposed to a broad range of courses and experiences before 
focusing their educational interests. Some departments have courses that must be 
passed or criteria that must be met before a student will be accepted as a major. 
Students may change their majors after consultation with the relevant depart- 
ments. Students may not declare a new major after the first semester of the senior 
year. Special requirements exist for interdisciplinary or student-designed majors. 
These are described below. 

Departmental Major 

All departments authorized by the faculty to offer majors specify the requirements 
for the major in the Catalogue. A student may choose to satisfy the requirements 
of one department (single major) or to satisfy all of the requirements set by two 
departments (double major). A student who chooses a double major may drop one 
major at any time by completing the appropriate form in the Office of Student 
Records. 

Coordinate Major 

The coordinate major encourages specialization in an area of learning within the 
framework of a recognized academic discipline. The coordinate major is cur- 
rently offered only in relation to the Africana Studies Program and the Environ- 
mental Studies Program. For a specific description of these majors, see pages 41- 
42 and 103. 

Interdisciplinary Major 

As the intellectual interests of students and faculty alike have reached across 
departmental lines, there has been a growing tendency to develop interdiscipli- 
nary majors. Interdisciplinary majors are designed to tie together the offerings and 
major requirements of two separate departments by focusing on a theme that 
integrates the two areas. Such majors usually fulfill most or all of the requirements 
of two separate departments and usually entail a special project to achieve a 
synthesis of the disciplines involved. 

Anticipating that many students will be interested in certain patterns of 
interdisciplinary studies, several departments have specified standard require- 
ments for interdisciplinary majors. For descriptions of these interdisciplinary 
majors, see pages 145^16. 

A student may take the initiative to develop an interdisciplinary major not 
specified in the Catalogue by consulting with the chairs of the two major 
departments. Students who do so must have their program approved by the 
Recording Committee. Students should be prepared to present their proposals to 
the Recording Committee by March 1 of their sophomore year. 

A student may not select an interdisciplinary major after the junior year. 



28 The Curriculum 

Student-Designed Major 

Some students may wish to pursue a major program that does not fit either the 
pattern of a departmental major or an interdisciplinary major. The faculty has 
authorized a process by which a student working together with two faculty 
members can develop a major program that demonstrates significant strength in 
at least two departments. Such strength is to be shown in both the number and 
pattern of courses involved. Guidelines for the development of student-designed 
majors are available from the Office of Student Records; student-designed majors 
require the approval of the Recording Committee. Students should be prepared to 
present their proposals to the Recording Committee by March 1 of their sopho- 
more year. 

The Minor 

All departments and some programs offer a minor program consisting of no fewer 
than four courses and no more than seven courses, including all prerequisites. A 
minor program must be planned with and approved by both the student's major 
and minor departments no later than the end of the first semester of the senior year. 
A minor may be dropped at any time by completing the appropriate form in the 
Office of Student Records. 

INFORMATION ABOUT COURSES 

Course Credit 

Bowdoin courses typically meet for three hours a week, with the anticipation that 
additional time may be spent in lab, discussion group, film viewings, or prepara- 
tory work. All courses, except performance studies courses, earn one credit each. 
Performance courses earn one-half credit each, and must be taken for two 

consecutive semesters. 

Course Load 

All students arc required to enroll for four full credits each semester. Students 
wishing to take more than five credits must receive approval from the dean of 
student affairs. A student may not take live credits while on academic probation 
or, in the case of first-year students, in the semester following the receipt of an F, 
without the dean's approval. Juniors or seniors who have accumulated extra 
credits must have approval from the dean of Student affairs to carry a three-credit 

load once during any, of their last four semesters at Bowdoin. Other students who 

wish to carry a reduced load must also have permission from the dean of student 

affairs. 

Seniors may be required to lake one course per semester in their major 

department, at the department's discretion. 

No extra tuition Charge is levied upon students who register lor more than lour 
credits, and, by the same token, no reduction in tuition is granted to students who 
choose to register for fewer than lour credits. 



The Curriculum 29 

Course Examinations 

The regular examinations of the College are held at the close of each semester. An 
absence from an examination may result in a grade of F. In the event of illness or 
other unavoidable cause of absence from examination, the dean of student affairs 
may authorize makeup of the examination. 

Registration 

Registration for each semester is completed by submitting the Course Registra- 
tion Card. The card must be signed by the academic advisor (first- and second- 
year students) or the major department advisor(s) (juniors and seniors), and must 
be presented to the Office of Student Records by 5:00 p.m. on the day specified. 

For continuing students, registration occurs at the end of the prior semester, 
generally about four weeks before final examinations. For new students, registra- 
tion occurs during orientation. Enrollment in courses is complete only when 
students submit the Enrollment Form. This must be submitted by the end of the 
first week of classes. This form verifies that a student is on campus and attending 
classes. Enrollment Forms returned late are subject to a $20 fine. In addition, any 
student who registers initially for courses after the first week of classes must pay 
a $20 late fee. 

Once classes begin, students may adjust their schedules by submitting an add/ 
drop card to the Office of Student Records. No course may be added after the third 
week of classes. No course may be dropped after the sixth week of classes. A 
student will not receive a grade for a course unless he or she has completed and 
submitted the forms to register for or add the course. Also, a student will receive 
a failing grade for a course he or she stops attending unless a drop form has been 
completed and submitted. 

Independent Study 

With departmental approval, a student may elect a course of independent study 
under faculty supervision. A department will ordinarily approve one or two 
semesters of independent study for which regular course credit will be given. A 
definite plan for the project approved by the department and the project director 
must be presented to the Office of Student Records by the end of the first week 
of classes. Where more than one semester's credit is sought for a project, the 
project will be subject to review by the department at the end of the first semester. 
In special cases the Recording Committee, upon recommendation of the depart- 
ment, may extend credit for additional semester courses beyond two. 

There are normally two kinds of independent study and each should be 
registered for under the appropriate course number. A directed reading course 
designed to allow a student to explore a subject not currently offered within the 
curriculum shall be numbered 291, 292, 293, or 294. An independent study that 
will culminate in substantial and original research or in a fine arts, music, or 
creative writing project, or that is part of a departmental honors program, shall be 
numbered 401 or higher. Independent study may not be taken on a Credit/Fail 
basis. 



30 The Curriculum 

GRADES AND ACADEMIC REGULATIONS 

Course Grades 

Course grades are defined as follows: A, excellent; B, good; C, fair; D, poor; F, 
failing. A grade of D indicates work that, in at least some respects, falls below the 
acceptable standard for academic work at Bowdoin; only a limited number of D 
grades may be counted toward the requirements for graduation (see "Deficiency 
in Scholarship," below). 

Most departments will not accept as prerequisites or as satisfying the require- 
ments of the major, courses for which a grade of D has been given. Questions 
should be referred directly to the department chair. Students who receive a grade 
of D or F in a course may retake the course. Both courses and both grades will 
appear on the transcript, but only one course credit will be given for successful 
completion of a given course. 

In independent study courses that will continue beyond one semester, instruc- 
tors have the option of submitting at the end of each semester, except the last, a 
grade of S (for Satisfactory) in place of a regular grade. A regular grade shall be 
submitted at the end of the final semester and shall become the grade for the 
previous semesters of independent study. 

A report of the grades of each student is sent to the student at the close of each 
semester. 

Credit/Fail Option 

A student may choose to take a limited number of courses on a Credit/Fail basis 
as opposed to a graded basis. If a student chooses this option, credit is given if the 
student produces work that is at the level of C or above. A student may elect no 
more than one course of the normal four-course load each semester on a Credit/ 
Fail basis, although a student may elect a fifth course any semester on a Credit/ 
Fail basis. No more than four of the thirty-two courses required for graduation 
may be taken on a Credit/Fail basis; courses in excess of the thirty-two required 
may be taken for Credit/Fail without limit as to number. Most departments require 
that all courses taken to satisfy requirements of the major be graded. Courses 
taken to satisfy distribution requirements may be taken on a Credit/Fail basis. No 
course may be changed from graded to Credit/Fail or vice versa after die first week 
of classes. A course added alter the first week may be taken on a Credit/Fail basis. 

Incompletes 

With the approval Qf the dean of student affairs and the instructor, a grade of 
Incomplete may he recorded in any course for extenuating circumstances such as 
family emergency, illness, etc. At the lime an Incomplete Form is signed by the 
dean, the student, and the instructor, a date shall he set by which all unfinished 
work must he submitted. Ordinarily, this will he no later than the end ol the second 
week of Classes Of the following semester. The instructor should submit a final 



The Curriculum 3 1 

grade within two weeks of this date. If the agreed-upon work is not completed 
within the specified time limit, the Office of Student Records will change the 
Incomplete to Fail. Any exceptions to this rule or a change of the specified time 
limit may require approval of the Recording Committee. 

The Dean's List 

Students who in a given semester receive grades of A or B in at least the equivalent 
of four full-credit courses (no grade lower than a B) are placed on the Dean's List 
for that semester. A grade of Credit or Satisfactory may not be substituted for one 
of the required letter grades. A student whose Satisfactory grade is later converted 
to an A or a B, and who thereby becomes eligible for the Dean' s List, will be placed 
on the Dean's List retroactively. 

Leave of Absence 

A student in good standing may, with the approval of his or her advisor, apply to 
the dean of student affairs for a leave of absence for nonacademic pursuits for one 
or two semesters. The leave must begin at the end of a regular semester. A student 
on approved leave is eligible for financial aid upon his or her return. A student 
wishing to apply for a leave of absence for one or both semesters of an academic 
year must submit an application by March 1 of the previous academic year. 
Applications for leave of absence submitted during the fall semester requesting 
a leave for the next spring semester will be considered only in the most urgent 
circumstances. Academic credit may not be transferred to Bowdoin for courses 
taken while on approved leave of absence. 

Transfer of Credit from Other Institutions 

The information in this section pertains to courses taken at institutions during the summer. 
Regulations about transfer of credit from academic year off-campus study programs can 
be found in the section on Off-Campus Study, beginning on page 37. Transfer of credit for 
other reasons must have the approval of the Recording Committee. 

The Bowdoin degree certifies that a student has completed a course of study that 
meets standards established by the faculty. With the exception of work completed 
in an approved off-campus study program or at an institution with which the 
College maintains a consortial relationship, it is normally expected that all of a 
student's coursework after matriculation will be completed at Bowdoin. 

The College recognizes that there may be rare occasions when it would serve 
a student's educational interests to take courses elsewhere for credit toward the 
Bowdoin degree. In such cases, the work done elsewhere should represent a 
standard of achievement comparable to what is expected at Bowdoin and a field 
of study characteristic of the liberal arts. The College does not grant credit for 
professional or vocational study in other institutions. 



32 The Curriculum 

A student may transfer a cumulative total of no more than four credits from 
study in summer school programs. The College discourages summer study at 
two-year institutions. No student will be granted credit for study at a two-year 
institution after the student has achieved Junior Class standing at Bowdoin. 
Credit is not granted for courses taken elsewhere during the academic year except 
in special circumstances and with the prior approval of the Recording Committee. 

Students should apply to the Office of Student Records for permission to 
transfer credit in advance of enrollment at another institution. The Application 
for Transfer of Credit requires the recommendation of the appropriate Bowdoin 
department chair as well as the catalog description and syllabus of each course for 
which credit is desired. In certain cases, students may be given conditional 
approval and be required to submit supporting documents, including the course 
syllabus and all papers and exams, after the course has been completed; the 
Recording Committee may decline to grant credit if, in its judgment and that of 
the appropriate Bowdoin department, the course or the student's work in the 
course do not satisfy Bowdoin academic standards. 

Credit is not awarded for courses in which the student has earned a grade below 
C- or for courses taken on a Credit/Fail basis. 

No credit will be awarded until an official transcript showing the number of 
credits or credit-hours and the grade(s) earned has been received from the other 
institution. It is the student's responsibility to ensure that the transcript is sent 
directly to the Office of Student Records. The transcript must be received and 
permission to transfer credit secured within one year following the term in which 
the course was taken. Credit may not be accepted if a longer time period has 
elapsed. 

Students should be aware that credits earned elsewhere may not transfer on a 
one-to-one basis; some courses may be accorded less (or more) than a full 
Bowdoin credit. Students are advised to consult with the Office of Student 
Records in advance to learn the basis on which transfer credit will be determined. 
For comparison purposes, students should know that one Bowdoin course is 
understood to be equal to 4 semester-hours or 6 quarter-hours. 

Regulations concerning transfer of credit from academic-year off-campus 
study programs can be found in the section on Off-Campus Study on page 37. 

THE AWARD OF HONORS 
General Honors 

General honors (or Latin honors) are awarded on the basis of all grades earned for 
work done at Bowdoin in a student's final six semesters. A student who receives 
.i grade ol Doi F in an) course at Bowdoin or in any course at an institution from 
which academic credit is being transferred to Bowdoin is not eligible for general 
honors. Students who have studied at Bowdoin for fewer than six semesters are 
not eligible, 

A degree cum laude shall be awarded to a student at least 75 percent of whose 

grades are As or IK Within these grades, there must be two As for each C. 



The Curriculum 33 

To receive a degree magna cum laude, a student shall fulfill the requirement 
for a degree cum laude, with the additional stipulation that at least 30 percent of 
the grades must be As in addition to the As balancing the Cs. 

The degree summa cum laude shall be awarded to a student at least 70 percent 
of whose grades are As and the balance Bs. 

Departmental Honors: The Honors Project 

The degree with a level of honors in a major subject is awarded to students who 
have distinguished themselves in coursework in the subject and in an honors 
project. The award is made by the faculty upon recommendation of the depart- 
ment or program. 

The honors project offers seniors the opportunity to engage in original work 
under the supervision of a faculty member in their major department or program. 
It allows qualified seniors to build a bridge from their coursework to advanced 
scholarship in their field of study through original, substantial, and sustained 
independent research. The honors project can be the culmination of a student's 
academic experience at Bowdoin and offers an unparalleled chance for intellec- 
tual and personal development. 

Students who have attained a specified level of academic achievement in their 
field of study by their senior year are encouraged to petition their department or 
program to pursue an honors project carried out under the supervision of a faculty 
advisor. The honors project usually takes place over the course of two semesters; 
some departments allow single-semester honors projects. The honors project 
results in a written thesis and/or oral defense, artistic performance or showing, 
depending on the student's field of study. Students receive a grade for each 
semester's work on the honors project and may be awarded a level of honors in 
their department or program, as distinct from general honors. 

The honors project process differs across departments and programs in terms 
of qualification criteria, requirements for completion, the level of honors awarded, 
and the use of honors project credits to fulfill major course requirements. In 
general, each semester's work on an honors project will be considered an 
independent study numbered 401 or higher until the honors project is completed. 
Students must complete an honors project to be eligible for departmental or 
program honors. If students do not fulfill the requirements for completion of the 
honors project but carry out satisfactory work for an independent study, they will 
receive independent study credit for one or two semesters. 

All written work in independent study accepted as fulfilling the requirements 
for departmental honors is to be deposited in the College Library in a form 
specified by the Library Committee. 

DEFICIENCY IN SCHOLARSHIP 

Students are expected to make "normal progress" toward the degree. Normal 
progress is defined as passing the equivalent of four full-credit courses each 
semester. Students may not matriculate in a fall semester if they are more than two 



34 The Curriculum 

course credits short of normal progress. Students who fail to meet this matricu- 
lation standard normally are expected to make up deficient credits in approved 
courses at another accredited institution of higher education. 

The Recording Committee is responsible for ensuring that students' academic 
records meet acceptable standards. To monitor substandard academic perfor- 
mance, Bowdoin uses a system of academic probation. 

Academic Probation 

Students will be placed on academic probation for one semester if they 

1 . receive two Fs, one F and two Ds, or four Ds in their first semester as first- 

year students at Bowdoin; 

2. receive one F or two Ds in any one subsequent semester; 

3. receive a cumulative total of four Ds or two Fs during their tenure at 
Bowdoin.* 

Students will remain on academic probation if they receive one D while on 
academic probation. Students who are on academic probation will be assigned to 
work closely with their academic advisor. Students on academic probation are 
normally not eligible to study away. 

Academic Suspension 

Students will be subject to academic suspension if they 

1 . receive four Fs in their first semester as first-year students at Bowdoin; 

2. receive two Fs, one F and two Ds, or four Ds in any subsequent semester; 

3. receive one F or two Ds while on academic probation; 

4. receive a cumulative total of three Fs, two Fs and two Ds, one F and four Ds, 

or six Ds during their tenure at Bowdoin.* 
A student who is suspended for academic deficiency is normally suspended for 
at least one academic year. A suspended student must submit a petition for 
readmission to the dean of student affairs and must present grades of C or better 
in approved courses from another accredited four-year institution before readmis- 
sion will be granted. A student who is readmitted is eligible for financial aid, 
according to demonstrated need. 

Dismissal 

Students will be subject to dismissal if they 

1 . incur a second academic suspension; or 

2. receive a fifth F 'or a ninth I), or some equivalent combination olT'saiul Ds 
where one F is equivalent to two Ds,* during their tenure at Bowdoin. 



' In the computation Of cumulative grades for probation, suspension, or dismissal, grades 

earned in the first Bemesterofthe first year an- given bah weight 



The Curriculum 35 

ACADEMIC SKILLS PROGRAMS 

Quantitative Skills Development Program 

The ability to understand and use quantitative information is increasingly essen- 
tial in political and economic life. To be effective, citizens should be able to 
interpret graphs and tables, understand quantitative relationships, and draw 
conclusions from data. Many courses in science and social science use such skills, 
but some entering college students are unprepared to get the most from these 
courses. Begun in 1996-97, the Quantitative Skills Development Program 
encourages all Bowdoin students to develop competence and confidence in using 
quantitative information. Entering students are tested to assess their proficiency. 
Those who would benefit from additional work are counseled to take courses 
across the curriculum that build quantitative skills. Most of these courses are 
supplemented with study groups led by trained peer tutors and coordinated by the 
Quantitative Skills Development Center. 

The Writing Project 

The Writing Project is a peer tutoring program integrated into courses across the 
curriculum and based on the premise that students are uniquely qualified to serve 
as educated but nonj udgmental readers of one another' s writing . As collaborators 
rather than authorities, peer tutors facilitate the writing process for fellow students 
by providing helpful feedback while allowing student writers to retain an active 
and authoritative role in writing and revising their work. Each semester, the 
Writing Project assigns specially selected and trained Writing Assistants to a 
variety of courses whose instructors have requested help. The Assistants read and 
comment on early drafts of papers and meet with the writers individually to help 
them expand and refine their ideas, clarify connections, and improve sentence 
structure. After revisions have been completed, each student submits a final paper 
to the instructor along with the early draft and Assistant's comments. 

Students interested in becoming Writing Assistants apply in the spring. Those 
accepted enroll in a fall semester course on the theory and practice of teaching 
writing, offered through the Department of Education. Successful completion of 
the course qualifies students to serve as tutors in later semesters, when they 
receive a stipend for their work. A list of courses participating in the Project will 
be available during the first week of each semester. For further information, 
contact Kathleen O'Connor, director of the Writing Project. 

SPECIAL ACADEMIC PROGRAMS 

Architectural Studies 

Although the College offers no special curriculum leading to graduate study in 
architecture and no major in architecture, students interested in a career in this 
field should consult with members of the Visual Arts division as early as possible. 
Students can construct a course of study combining art and architecture studio 
courses with others in art history, environmental studies, physics, and other 



36 The Curriculum 

related disciplines to prepare for professional architectural study. The architec- 
ture studio course is intended to develop the ability to conceive and communicate 
architectural and spatial concepts in two and three dimensions. 

Arctic Studies 

A concentration in Arctic studies, offered through the Department of Sociology 
and Anthropology, the Department of Geology, and the Peary-MacMillan Arctic 
Museum and Arctic Studies Center, provides students with opportunities to 
explore cultural, economic, and environmental issues involving Arctic lands and 
peoples. Students interested in the Arctic are encouraged to consult with the 
director of the Arctic Studies Center in order to plan an appropriate interdiscipli- 
nary program, involving course work and field work at Bowdoin and in the North. 

Engineering Programs (3-2 Option) 

Through an arrangement with the School of Engineering and Applied Science of 
Columbia University and with the California Institute of Technology, qualified 
students may transfer into the third year of an engineering option after completing 
three years at Bowdoin. After the completion of two full years at the engineering 
school, a bachelor of arts degree is awarded by Bowdoin and a bachelor of science 
degree by the engineering school . Columbia also has a 4-2 plan, allowing students 
to complete their senior year at Bowdoin before pursuing a master's degree. 
Students also may apply as transfer students during their junior year to any 
approved school of engineering in the country. Students should be aware that 
admission to these schools is not automatic and does not assure financial aid. 

Students interested in engineering programs should start planning early and 
should consult regularly with James H. Turner of the Department of Physics. All 
students must take Physics 103, 223, 227, and 228; Chemistry 109; Mathemat- 
ics 161, 171, and 181; and Computer Science 101. They are also expected to have 
at least ten semester courses outside of mathematics and science. Economics is 
strongly suggested. 

First-Year Seminars 

Please see First- Year Seminars on pages 1 10-1 17. 

Gay and Lesbian Studies 

Gay and lesbian studies considers the specific cultural achievements of gay men 
and lesbians and takes a critical perspective on the experience of gay men and 
lesbians and on the role of sexuality in the culture. Although the College oilers 
DO formal program in lesbian and gay studies, students interested in the field 
should consult with the Gay and Lesbian Studies Committee. The following 
eourses address questions Ol sexuality and might help students to gain a sense of 
issues relevant to gay and lesbian studies: Anthropology 222; English 282,333; 
History 15: and Sociology 16, 219, 252. 



The Curriculum 37 

Health Professions 

Members of the Health Professions Advisory Committee, which is chaired by 
Samuel S. Butcher, Department of Chemistry, are available to discuss career 
interests and undergraduate course programs. The Career Planning Center (CPC) 
maintains a collection of reference materials regarding the various health profes- 
sions, as well as information about related summer internship programs. 

A meeting for first-year students interested in the health professions is held at 
the opening of College each fall. Additional programs intended to be of help and 
interest to all students preparing for health professions are offered throughout the 
year. 

Legal Studies 

Students considering the study of law should consult with the Legal Studies 
Advisory Group and the Career Planning Center. Members of the Legal Studies 
Advisory Group include Craig A. McEwen, Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology; Richard E. Morgan and Allen L. Springer, Department of Govern- 
ment and Legal Studies; Lisa Tessler, Director of the Career Planning Center; and 
George S. Isaacson '70, Esq. These individuals assist students in designing a 
coherent liberal arts program that relates to the study of law and allied fields, and 
provide guidance on all aspects of the application process. 

Bowdoin participates with Columbia University in an accelerated interdisci- 
plinary program in legal education. Under the terms of this program, Bowdoin 
students may apply to begin the study of law after three years at Bowdoin. 
Students who successfully complete the requirements for the J.D. at Columbia 
also receive an A.B. from Bowdoin. 

Teaching 

Students interested in teaching in schools or enrolling in graduate programs in 
education should discuss their plans with personnel in the Department of 
Education. Because courses in education and psychology, along with a major in 
a teaching field, are necessary for certification, it is wise to begin planning early 
so that schedules can be accommodated. An extensive resource library in the 
Career Planning Center contains information about graduate programs, summer 
and academic year internships, volunteer opportunities with youth and in the 
schools, and public and private school openings. Career advising and credential 
file services are also available. 

OFF-CAMPUS STUDY 

Students are encouraged to broaden and enrich their education through participa- 
tion in programs of study outside the United States sponsored by other institutions 
and organizations. Through the Twelve College Exchange and other programs, 
the College also makes available opportunities to study for a semester or a year 
elsewhere in the United States. Whether off-campus study occurs abroad or at 
home, the College regards it as an extension of the on-campus educational 
experience and expects the programs in which students earn credit toward the 
degree to be comparable in intellectual challenge to work done at Bowdoin. 



38 The Curriculum 

A student who wishes to count academic credit earned in an off-campus study 
program toward the Bowdoin degree is required to obtain approval, in advance, 
from the Office of Off-Campus Study. If the student wishes to count credits 
earned in the off-campus program toward the major, the approval of the major 
department is required as well. Students contemplating off-campus study are 
urged to begin planning early in the academic year before that in which they hope 
to study away, and must complete a request for permission to study away no later 
than March 1 . (Application deadlines for individual programs vary considerably; 
it is the responsibility of the student to determine these deadlines and ensure that 
they are met.) To be approved for Bowdoin degree credit, the proposed program 
of study away should satisfy the College's academic standards and form an 
integral part of a student's overall academic plan. Approval of individual requests 
may also be affected by the College's concern to maintain a balance between the 
number of students away during the fall and spring terms. 

A list of approved programs is available in the Office of Off-Campus Study. 
Ordinarily, students are expected to select programs from this list. In unusual 
cases in which it is not possible to satisfy a student's academic objectives in an 
approved program, the student may petition for permission to participate in an 
unapproved program. 

Credit earned in an off-campus study program is not formally transferred until 
the Office of Student Records has received and reviewed appropriate documen- 
tation from the program. In some cases, it may be required that the appropriate 
Bowdoin department review the student's completed work. 

Beginning in 1997-98, Bowdoin will charge an off-campus study fee (see 
page 2 1 ); details are available from the Office of Off-Campus Study. Financial aid 
normally continues to be available for students who qualify. 

Bowdoin College is directly affiliated with the following programs: 

Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome 

The Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome, established in 1965, 
provides undergraduates with an opportunity to study Roman art, archaeology, 
and history, as well as Greek and Roman literature, Italian language, and 
Renaissance and baroque Italian art. Under the auspices of a consortia! arrange- 
ment directed by the Duke University Office of Foreign Academic Programs, 
ICCS operates two semesters each academic year; students drawn from approxi- 
mately 60 participating institutions generally enroll for one semester during their 
junior year, further information about the program may be obtained from Barbara 
Weiden Boyd in the Departmenl of Classics. 

Intercollegiate Sri Lanka Education (ISLE) Program 

The ISLE Program is a Bowdoin-adminislered study program in Kandy, Sri 
Lanka. Established in 1981, and affiliated with the University of Peradeniya, 
ISI I provides up t<> twenty students with (he opportunity to pursue academic 
interests in South Asia. Course offerings include required language study, ancient 
and modern history, Buddhisl philosophy and practice, social and gender issues. 



The Curriculum 39 

literature and folklore, politics and government, economics, dance, and indepen- 
dent study. Students live with Sri Lankan host families and tour important 
archaeological and religious sites during the program, and are encouraged to visit 
India or other Asian countries after it concludes. Bowdoin grants five course 
credits for the fall semester, and up to three additional credits for individually 
tailored courses in the optional spring semester. Interested students should 
consult Bowdoin' s ISLE advisor, John Holt, Department of Religion. 

South India Term Abroad (SUA) Program 

The SITA Program, administered by Bowdoin, operates in Tamil Nadu, India. 
Designed primarily for non-South Asia specialists, SITA offers a standardized 
curriculum in the fall semester, with courses in language, history, religion, 
literature, social and cultural issues, and independent study, for which Bowdoin 
grants five course credits. An extension of one to three months, for up to three 
credits in individually tailored courses, is available for exceptional students. 
Participants live with host families and tour several regions in South India during 
the program, and may travel in other parts of South Asia after its conclusion. 
Bowdoin' s SITA faculty advisor is Sara A. Dickey, Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology and the Asian Studies Program, and the SITA administrator is Ted 
Adams, whose office is at 38 College Street. 

The Swedish Program in Organizational Studies and Public Policy 

The Swedish Program is sponsored by the University of Stockholm and a 
consortium of American colleges and universities, including Bowdoin. It offers 
students the opportunity to spend either a semester or a year studying comparative 
institutional organization and public policy in complex industrial societies. Most 
courses are interdisciplinary in nature. The only required course is a semester of 
Swedish language, but nearly all students take The Swedish Model and Compara- 
tive Public Policy. A sampling of elective courses in 1996-97 includes Women 
and Swedish Society, Sweden and the Global Economy, The Revolution in 
Eastern Europe, and Developmental Psychology: The Aging Process. The two- 
week orientation and several courses include study trips, and there are longer trips 
to various parts of Sweden. Students may reside with Swedish families in and near 
Stockholm or in campus dormitories. The Bowdoin faculty advisor is David J. 
Vail, Department of Economics. 

Twelve College Exchange 

The Twelve College Exchange provides Bowdoin students with the opportunity 
to study for a year at Amherst, Connecticut, Dartmouth, Mount Holyoke, Smith, 
Trinity, Vassar, Wellesley, Wheaton, or Williams Colleges or Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Also available through the Twelve College Exchange are the Williams 
College-Mystic Seaport Program in American Maritime Studies and the Na- 
tional Theater Institute. The deadline for all Twelve College programs is 
February 1 of the academic year preceding attendance. Further information is 
available from the Office of Off-Campus Study. 



Courses of Instruction 



The departments of instruction in the following descriptions of courses are listed 
in alphabetical order. A schedule containing the time and place of meeting of all 
courses will be issued before each period of registration. 

EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS USED 

[Bracketed Courses]: All courses not currently scheduled for a 
definite semester are enclosed in brackets. 

* On leave for the fall semester. 

** On leave for the spring semester. 

t On leave for the entire academic year. 

a: Satisfies one semester of the distribution requirement for 

natural science and mathematics. 

b: Satisfies one semester of the distribution requirement for 

social and behavioral sciences. 

c: Satisfies one semester of the distribution requirement for 

humanities and fine arts. 

d: Satisfies one semester of the distribution requirement for non- 
Eurocentric studies. 

Prerequisites: Indicates conditions that must be met in order to 

enroll in the course. 

Course Numbering. Courses are numbered according to the 

following system: 

10-29 First-year seminars 

30-99 Courses intended for the nonmajor 

100-199 General introductory courses 

200-289 General intermediate-level courses 

291-299 Independent study: Directed reading 

300-.W Advanced courses, including senior 

seminars and topics courses 

401-404 Independent study: Original or creative 

projects 451-452 and honors courses 



Africana Studies 41 

Africana Studies 

Administered by the Africana Studies Committee; Randolph Stakeman, Chair 
(See committee list, page 277.) 
Randolph Stakeman. Director 

Joint Appointment with Sociology Joint Appointment with Religion 

Assistant Professor Lelia De Andrade Instructor Eddie S. Glaude, Jr. 

Adjunct Assistant Professor H. Roy Partridge, Jr. 

Africana studies is an interdisciplinary program designed to bring the scholarly 
approaches and perspectives of several traditional disciplines to bear on an 
understanding of black life. Emphasis is placed on the examination of the rich and 
varied cultures, literature, and history of black people in Africa and in the African 
diaspora, including the United States, the Caribbean, and Latin America. Such a 
systematic interdisciplinary approach captures the historic, multifaceted quality 
of African- American scholarship and allows the student to integrate effectively 
the perspectives of several academic departments at the College. 

Requirements for the Major in Africana Studies 

The major in Africana studies consists of five required core courses, a concentra- 
tion of four additional courses, and a one-semester research project, for a total of 
ten courses. The core courses — Africana Studies 101 or 102; Sociology 208; 
English 275, 276, 285, or 286; History 236, 237, 243, or 256; and History 262 
or 267 — have been chosen to give the student a thorough background for the study 
of the black experience and to provide an introduction to the varied disciplines of 
Africana studies. 

The four-course concentration is intended to bring the methodologies and 
insights of several disciplines to a single problem or theme. Suggested concentra- 
tions are Race and Class in American Society, Cultures of the African Diaspora, 
Political Economy of Blacks in the Third World, the Arts of Black America, and 
the coordinate major. Appropriate courses to be taken should be worked out by 
the student and the director of the Africana Studies Program. 

Alternatively, the student and the director may devise a concentration around 
another specific theme and submit a proposal to the Committee on Africana 
Studies for its approval. In addition, the research project, normally completed in 
the senior year, allows students to conduct research into a particular aspect of the 
black experience. Students may complete their research project as part of a 300- 
level course cross-listed in the program, or as an independent study under the 
direction of one of the program's faculty. Students should consult with the 
director concerning courses offered in previous years that may satisfy the 
program requirements. 

Coordinate Major in Africana Studies 

The purpose of the coordinate major is to encourage specialization in Africana 
studies within the framework of a recognized academic discipline. This major is, 
by nature, interdisciplinary, and strongly encourages independent study. The 



42 Courses of Instruction 

coordinate major entails completion of an ordinary departmental major in 
sociology, anthropology, or history. The student is expected to take those courses 
within the major department that are cross-listed in the Africana Studies Program 
insofar as departmental major requirements permit. In addition, the student must 
take Africana Studies 101 or 102 and four other courses outside the major 
department approved by the director of Africana studies. Students electing the 
coordinate major are required to carry out scholarly investigation of a topic 
relating to the African-American experience; not more than one of the elective 
courses may normally be an independent study course (Africana Studies 291- 
294 or 401^104). 

First- Year Seminars 

For a full description of the following first-year seminars, see page 1 10. 

lOb.d. Racism. Spring 1997. Mr. Partridge. 

14c,d. American Fiction in Black and White. Fall 1996. Ms. Muther. 

16c. Blue, Gray, and Black: The Civil War and African Americans. Spring 
1997. Mr. Rael. 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

51c,d. Myth and Heroic Epic of Africa. Spring 1999. Mr. Hodge. 

A study of the pantheons and tales of gods and heroes from a range of 
geographical areas and language groups of sub-Saharan Africa. The tales are 
analyzed for form and content, with some comparisons to relevant classical and 
European material. Enrollment limited to 50 students. 

101 b,d. Introduction to Africana Studies. Spring 1997. Ms. De Andrade. 

An introduction to the study of African peoples and societies. Provides a brief 
historical grounding in the structures of societies and cultures in Africa. Focuses 
on the relationships of Africans and peoples of African descent with other 
societies and cultures. Considers in particular the images of Africa and Africans 
constructed as a product of these socio-historic relations. Examines the experi- 
ences of African immigrant groups and peoples of African descent in the United 
Slates. South America, and the Caribbean. (Same as Sociology 100.) 

102c,d. The African American Autobiography. Fall 1997. Mr. Stakeman. 

A survey of African- American thought and experience as it is revealed 
through the autobiography, one of the first literary genres developed by African 
Americans. (Same as History 131.) 

121c. History of Jazz. Every other year. Fall 1996. Mr. McCalla. 

A survey of jazz from its African-American roots in the late nineteenth century 
to the present. Emphasis on musical characteristics — styles, forms, types of 
ensemble, important performers with some attention to the cultural and social 
position of jazz m this country and its interaction with other musics. (Same as 
Music 121.) 



Africana Studies 43 

208b,d. Race and Ethnicity. Fall 1996. Ms. De Andrade. 

The social and cultural meaning of race and ethnicity, with emphasis on the 
politics of events and processes in contemporary America. Analysis of the causes 
and consequences of prejudice and discrimination. Examination of the relation- 
ships between race and class. Comparisons among racial and ethnic minorities in 
the United States and between their situations and those of minorities in other 
selected societies. (Same as Sociology 208.) 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

210c. Topics in Jazz History: The Great Women Singers. Fall 1997. 
Mr. McCalla. 

A study of the most influential female singers in jazz history, including Bessie 
Smith, Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Carmen McRae, Sarah Vaughan, Dinah 
Washington, and Betty Carter. Reading of biographies, autobiographies, and 
historical source materials, along with tracing the singers' careers through their 
recordings. Other issues addressed include their sometimes anomalous positions 
as singers in a largely instrumental musical genre, as women in an otherwise 
almost entirely male professional world, and as blacks in a white-dominated 
industry. (Same as Music 210.) 

Prerequisite: Music 121. 

223b,d. African Politics. Fall 1996. Mr. Potholm. 

An examination of the underlying political realities of modern Africa. Empha- 
sis on the sociological, economic, historical, and political phenomena that affect 
the course of politics on the continent. While no attempt is made to cover each 
specific country, several broad topics, such as hierarchical and polyarchical forms 
of decision-making, are examined in depth. A panel discussion with African 
students and scholars usually is held at the end of the course. (Same as Govern- 
ment 223.) 

226c. African- American Art. Fall 1996. Ms. McGee. 

A survey of African-American art from the late nineteenth century to the 
present. This course examines the lives and careers of African- American artists 
within the contexts of art, history, and theory. Artists to be covered include Henry 
Ossawa Tanner, Aaron Douglas, Edmonia Lewis, Jacob Lawrence, Lois Mailou 
Jones, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, and Faith Ringgold. Also considered are 
works on view at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. Readings are interdisci- 
plinary and include the works of Alain Locke, James Porter, Paul Gilroy, and bell 
hooks. (Same as Art 266.) 

Prerequisite: Art 101 or permisison of the instructor. 

233b,d- Peoples and Cultures of Africa. Spring 1998. Mr. MacEachern. 

An introduction to the traditional patterns of livelihood and social institutions 
of African peoples. Following a brief overview of African geography, habitat, and 
culture history, lectures and readings cover a representative range of types of 
economy, polity, and social organization, from the smallest hunting and gathering 



44 Courses of Instruction 

societies to the most complex states and empires. The emphasis is upon under- 
standing the nature of traditional social forms; changes in African societies in the 
colonial and post-colonial periods are examined but are not the principal focus of 
the course. (Same as Anthropology 233.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology. 

235c,d. The Plantation: Race and Slavery in the Americas. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Rael.. 

This course uses the concept of the cash-crop plantation as a lens for examining 
a range of issues regarding race, slavery, and colonialism in the Western 
Hemisphere (c.1500- c.1900). Examines slavery in its Old World context, the 
role of the plantation in the commercial revolution, the impact of European 
rivalries on New World slavery, slave acculturation and resistance, the develop- 
ment of African-American cultures and families, and the process and conse- 
quences of emancipation. Enrollment limited to 16 students during 1996- 
97. (Same as History 235.) 

Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and previous coursework in African- Ameri- 
can or African history, or Africana Studies; or permission of the instructor. 

236c,d. The History of African Americans, 1619-1865. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Rael. 

Explores the history of African Americans in the nation through the Civil War. 
Focuses on issues of African- American acculturation and identity formation, the 
contributions of African Americans to American culture, and the influence of 
American society and institutions on the experiences of black people. Through- 
out, emphasis is placed on recovering the voices of African Americans through 
primary sources. (Same as History 236.) 

237c,d. The History of African Americans, 1865 to the Present. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Rael. 

Explores the history of African Americans from the end of the Civil War to the 
present. Focuses on issues such as the dual nature of black identity, the emergence 
of a national leadership, the development of protest strategies, the impact of 
industrialization and urbanization, and the emergence of black cultural styles. 
Throughout, emphasis is placed on recovering the voices of African Americans 
through primary sources. (Same as History 237.) 

239c. The Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Spring 1998. 
Mr. Rael. 

Examines the period between about 1X50 and about 1880. Emphasis on 
politics, economies, the Supreme Court, and. above all, race relations. Topics 
include the rise ol the Republican parly, abolitionism, slavery as an institution and 
slave society, scclionalisin, Ihc war itself and its implications, the politics of 
Reconstruction, the Frccdiiian's Bureau, and the establishment of a new basis for 
while domination. (Same as History 239.) 

241c. The Civil Rights Movement. Spring 1998. Mr. Ii vini . 

Concentrates on the period from 1954 to 1970 and shows how various 

individuals and groups have been pressing for racial justice for decades. Special 
attention is paid to social action groups ranging from the NAACP to the SNCC, 



Africana Studies 45 

and to important individuals, both well known (Booker T. Washington) and less 
well known (John Doar). Readings mostly in primary sources. Extensive use of 
the PBS video series "Eyes on the Prize." (Same as History 243.) 

242b,d. "Centers" and "Peripheries": States in West and Central Africa. 

Spring 1997. Mr. MacEachern. 

Examines the processes through which states and empires developed in West 
and Central Africa, using data from archaeological, historical, and ethnographic 
research. Particular attention given to the role of trans-Saharan cultural contacts 
in state formation; economic and cultural contacts across environmental bound- 
aries; roles that different slave trades have played in state formation; relationships 
between state and non-state societies; and varying roles of Islam and traditional 
religions in state formation. (Same as Anthropology 242.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology, or permission of 
the instructor. 

250c,d. Religious History of African Americans. Fall 1996. Mr. Glaude. 

History and role of religion among African Americans from slavery to the 
present. Inquiry into the significance of modernity and postmodernity on the 
religious experience of African Americans. Focus on major topics, including: 
transmission and transformation of African religions in the Americas; religious 
culture of slaves and slaveholders in the antebellum South; development of 
independent black churches in the early nineteenth century; effects of emancipa- 
tion, migration, and urbanization upon black religious life; relation of race, 
religion, and American nationalism (both white and black). (Same as Religion 
260.) 

251c. Prophecy and Social Criticism in the United States. Spring 1997. Mr. 
Glaude. 

Examination of the religious and philosophical roots of prophecy as a form of 
social criticism in American intellectual and religious history. Max Weber, Eric 
Voeglin, Sacvan Bercovitch, and Michael Walzer serve as key points of departure 
in assessing prophetic criticism's insights and limitations. Focus on the role of 
black prophetic critics such as James Baldwin, Martin L. King, Jr., and Cornel 
West in confronting issues of race, economic disparity, and mass culture, and 
themes such as American exceptionalism and white supremacy. (Same as 
Religion 261.) 

252c,d. Race and African American Thought. Fall 1996. Mr. Glaude. 

An interdisciplinary examination of the complex array of African-American 
cultural practices from slavery to postmodern times. Close readings of classic and 
contemporary texts of African-American experiences and the encounter with 
issues such as dread, death, and despair; joy, hope, and triumph. Readings will 
include works from W.E.B. Du Bois, Cornel West, Orlando Patterson, Paula 
Giddings, Richard Wright, and James Baldwin. (Same as Religion 262.) 

[256c,d- Comparative Slavery.] 



46 Courses of Instruction 

262c,d. Slavery and the Slave Trade in Precolonial Africa. Spring 1998. Mr. 
Stakem \v 

An examination of slavery within Africa, the slave trade on the African 
continent, and African connections to the intercontinental slave trade to the New 
World. Investigates the role of slavery in African societies, the influence of Islam 
on slavery, the conduct and economic role of the slave trade, and the social, 
political, and economic effects of slavery and the slave trade on African states and 
societies. (Same as History 262.) 

264c,d. Islamic Societies in Africa. Fall 1996. Mr. Stakeman. 

An examination of Islam as a theological system and as an ideology that orders 
social relations in some African societies. The course will place particular 
emphasis on the role of women in African Islamic societies. (Same as History 
264.) 

265c,d- The Political Economy of Southern Africa. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Stakeman. 

An introduction to the political and economic processes that have shaped 
black/white relations in the region and an examination of the prospects for the 
development of a successful multi-racial society, economic development, and 
political stability. (Same as History 265.) 

266c,d- History of East Africa. Spring 1997. Mr. Stakeman. 

An examination of the political and economic history of East Africa from 
precolonial societies to the present: topics will include pastoralist and agricultur- 
ist societies, state formation, colonialism, nationalism, and post-colonial Kenya 
and Tanzania. (Same as History 266.) 

267c,d. West Africa from Colonialism to Independence. Spring 1998. Mr. 
Stakeman. 

An examination of the political and economic history of West Africa to try to 
understand the region's present conditions and future prospects. Topics include 
the imposition of colonial rule, the colonial restructuring of African society, the 
rise of nationalist movements, the first and second generations of independence, 
regional alliances, development strategies, the place of the region in the world 
economy, and the military in politics. (Same as History 267.) 

269c,d. The Pan African Idea. Spring 1997. Mr. Stakeman. 

An examination of the growth of a Pan African sense of identity and the 

exchange of political and cultural ideas among African and African diaspora 

societies in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Enrollment limited to 16 
students during 1996 ( J7. (Same as History 269.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in AJricana Studies, African-American or 

African History, or permission ol the instructor. 

|275e,d. African-American Fiction: History and Ideology. | 

[276c,d. Topics in African-American Poetry.] 



Africana Studies 47 

285c,d. Twentieth-Century Anglophone Caribbean Literature. Spring 1 997. 
Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

An introduction to the literature of the Anglophone Caribbean. Writers include 
Earl Lovelace, Jean Rhys, Edward Kamau Brathwaite, Louise Bennett, Claude 
McKay, Jamaica Kincaid, and others. Although the themes of colonialism and 
post-coloniality are present, the class addresses specifically local concerns, such 
as the representation of Caribbean life, the politics of dialect, and issues less 
apparent to a perspective that privileges a relationship with the West. (Same as 
English 285.) 

286c,d. The Literature of Black Diaspora. Fall 1996. Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

From the early nineteenth century to the present, "race" has allowed a form of 
literary expression unique to an African diaspora. This course studies the context 
of cultural and aesthetic dissemination by looking at writers from throughout the 
black dispersal. Writers include Paule Marshall, Levi Tafari, Linton Kwesi 
Johnson, Victor Headley, and the work of scholars like Paul Gilroy and W.E.B. 
Du Bois. (Same as English 286.) 

287c,d. Introduction to West African Fiction in English. Fall 1997. Mr. 
Chude-Sokei. 

An introduction to the works of Chinua Achebe, Ama Ata Aidoo, Ayi Kwei 
Armah, Buchi Emecheta, Wole Soyinka, and others. This course focuses on the 
literature of Anglophone West Africa, but includes the work of other African 
writers and critics. The course attempts to bridge the gap between a post-colonial 
perspective and more nativist discourses and concerns. (Same as English 287.) 

288c,d. Black Writing/Black Music. Spring 1998. Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

From the Jazz poetry that characterized the Harlem Renaissance to the Dub 
Poetry of post-independence Jamaican writers and contemporary Hip Hop, music 
has been evoked as the aesthetic matrix in which many black writers operate. This 
course investigates the relationship between written text and recorded sound. In 
addition to texts by W.E.B. Du Bois, Langston Hughes, Toni Morrison, and 
Michael Thelwell, this course also employs sound recordings. (Same as English 
288.) 

328c,d. African-American Poetry: Brown, Hayden, Brooks, and Harper. 

Fall 1996. Ms. Muther. 

Explores the work of four poets— Sterling Brown, Robert Hayden, Gwendolyn 
Brooks, and Michael S. Harper—in relation to each other and to the double 
heritage of African-American expressive culture and Anglo-American modern- 
ism. Students participate in the conference/festival in honor of Michael S. Harper 
to be held at the College during the fall semester. Enrollment limited to 15 
students. (Same as English 328.) 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 



48 Courses of Instruction 

330c,d. The Quest for a Nation: Blaek Nationalism and America. Spring 
1998. Mr. Glaude. 

Exploration of the concept of nation in the popular and political imagination 
of nineteenth- and twentieth-century African-American intellectuals. Focus on 
key figures of each period and on historical events that track the various uses of 
the word. Emphasis on the processes of transfer that take place between religious 
and racial identities that yield the national community are explored from two 
distinctive angles: white and black America. (Same as Religion 330.) 

Prerequisite: Religion 101 and one additional course in Religion, or permisison 
of the instructor. 

332c,d. Modernism and African- American Literature. Spring 1997. Mr. 
Chude-Sokel 

Focuses on the experience and discourse of "modernism" as it relates to black 
writers in and around the Harlem Renaissance, with particular attention to where 
black American (and immigrant West Indian) writers fit into this traditionally 
Euro-American aesthetic category. Writers include W.E.B. Du Bois, Claude 
McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Jean Toomer, and Alain Locke's seminal New 
Negro anthology. Enrollment limited to 15 students. (Same as English 332.) 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

[333c. Research in Twentieth-Century African-American History.] 

336c,d. Research in Nineteenth-Century African- American History. Fall 
1997. Mr. Rael. 

Students will prepare a research paper written from primary historical sources. 
Topics address such issues as African Americans in the Revolutionary era, the end 
of slavery in the North, a host of problems relating to slavery in the South, free 
black life, the Civil War and black Americans, mass emancipation. Reconstruc- 
tion, and the Jim Crow period. (Same as History 336.) 

Prerequisite: Any course in U.S. history. Preference given to students with 
background in African-American history. 

361c. African Radical Thought. Fall 1997. Mr. Stakkman. 

An examination of the writings and speeches of African nationalists and 
radical critics of African and European society. (Same as History 361.) 

390. Seminar in Environmental Studies. Reform, Revolution, or Transfor- 
mation: Perspectives Drawn from Sexual, Racial, and Environmental Poli- 
tics. Fall 1997. Mr, Rensbnbrink. 

This interdisciplinary seminar investigates the philosophic and political 
I 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 . made In contemporary social movements lor women, people of color. 
ml lesbians, and the environment. Such problems as identity politics, 
political correctness, the public/pi ivale split, the gap between nature and human- 
ity, and the meaning ol 'difference are explored. Special emphasis is given to the 
relation ol these movements to the common good. The common pood is treated 
both as a possible standard of political unity and as a challenge to reformist. 



Art 



49 



revolutionary, or transformational action. Course work includes lectures, class 
discussion, reports, essays, and papers. Enrollment limited to 15 students. 
Preference given to junior and senior majors. (Same as Environmental Studies 
390 and Women's Studies 390.) 

291-294. Intermediate Independent Study. 

401-404. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. 



Art 



Professors Associate Professors Visiting Assistant 

Thomas B. Cornell Linda J. Dochertyf Professors 

Clifton C. Olds, Director, Larry D. Lutchmansingh Anne Harris 

Art History Division John McKee Julie L. McGee 

Mark Wethli, Chair Susan E. Wegner Lecturer 

John B. Bisbee 
Adjunct Lecturers 
Christopher C. Glass 
Cecilia Hirsch 

The Department of Art comprises two programs: art history and criticism, and 
visual arts. Majors in the department are expected to elect one of these programs. 
The major in art history and criticism is devoted primarily to the historical and 
critical study of the visual arts as an embodiment of some of humanity's highest 
values and a record of the historical interplay of sensibility, thought, and society. 
The major in visual arts is intended to encourage a sensitive and disciplined 
aesthetic response to one's culture and personal experiences through the devel- 
opment of perceptual, creative, and critical abilities in visual expression. 

Requirements for the Major in Art History and Criticism 

The art history major consists of ten courses, excluding first-year seminars. 
Required are Art 101 ; Art 1 10, 120, or 130; Art 212, 226, or a course in classical 
archaeology; Art 222, 224, or 232; Art 242, 252, 254, 262, or 264; one additional 
200-level course; two 300-level seminars; and two additional courses numbered 
above Art 101, one of which may be an independent study. Art history majors are 
also encouraged to take courses in foreign language and literature, history, 
philosophy, religion, and the other arts. 

Interdisciplinary Majors 

The department participates in interdisciplinary programs in art history and 

archaeology and in art history and visual arts. See page 145. 

Requirements for the Minor in Art History and Criticism 

The minor consists of five courses, excluding first-year seminars. Required 

courses are Art 101; two 200-level courses; one 300-level course; and one 

additional course numbered above Art 101. 

The major and the minor in visual arts are described on page 54. 



50 Courses of Instruction 

COURSES IN THE HISTORY AND CRITICISM OF ART 

50c. Art, Science, and the Mind. Fall 1996. Mr. Olds. 

An examination of the interrelationship of art and science in the context of 
intellectual history, with an emphasis on modes of perception and representation. 
Topics to be considered include astrology and cosmology, optics and perspective, 
photography and print media, medicine and anatomy, the voyages of discovery, 
Darwinian evolution, and theoretical physics. These and other developments in 
the sciences will be related to the art of the ancient Greeks and Romans, the 
medieval cathedral builders, Leonardo da Vinci, Jan Vermeer, the French 
Impressionists. Picasso, and contemporary photo-realists. There are no prerequi- 
sites, and the course assumes no advance knowledge of art history or the sciences. 

101c. Introduction to Western Art. Fall 1996. Ms. McGee. 

A chronological survey of the art of the Western world (Egypt, the Near East, 
Europe, and the European-based culture of North America), from the Paleolithic 
period of prehistoric Europe to the present. Considers the historical context of art 
and its production, the role of the artist in society, style and the problems of 
stylistic tradition and innovation, and the major themes and symbols of Western 
art. Required of majors in art history, majors in visual arts, and minors in art 
history. This course is a prerequisite for most upper-level courses in the history 
of art. 

110c,d. Introduction to East Asian Art. Spring 1997. Mr. Olds. 

A chronological survey of Chinese, Korean, and Japanese art from prehistoric 
times to the present. Considers major examples of painting, sculpture, architec- 
ture, and the decorative arts in the context of historical developments and major 
religions of East Asia. (Same as Asian Studies 110.) 

120c,d. Introduction to South Asian Art. Fall 1996. Mr. Lutchmansingh. 

A survey of the architecture, sculpture, and painting of the Indian subcontinent 
(India. Pakistan. Nepal, Tibet, and Sri Lanka) from prehistoric to early modern 
times. Major emphasis is placed on the art of the three great ancient traditions of 
Hinduism. Buddhism, and Jainism: and three special subjects — the development 
of the Buddha image, the dance of Shiva, and the Hindu temple — arc studied in 
some detail. (Same as Asian Studies 120.) 

130c,d. Introduction to Art from Ancient Mexico and Peru. Spring 1997. Ms. 
WEGNE& 

A chronological survey of the cuts created by major cultures of ancient Mexico 
and Peru. Mcsoamerican cultures Studied include the Olmec, Teotihuacan, the 
Maya, and the Aztec up through the arrival of the Europeans. South American 
cultures such as Chavfn, Nasca, and [nca are examined. Painting, sculpture, and 

architecture are considered m the context of religion and society. Readings in 
translation include Mayan myth and chronicles ol the conquest. 



Art 



51 



209c. Introduction to Greek Archaeology. Fall 1997. Mr. Higginbotham. 

Introduces the techniques and methods of classical archaeology as revealed 
through an examination of Greek material culture. Emphasis upon the major 
monuments and artifacts of the Greek world from prehistory to the Hellenistic 
age. Architecture, sculpture, fresco painting, and other "minor arts" are examined 
at such sites as Knossos, Mycenae, Athens, Delphi, and Olympia. Considers the 
nature of this archaeological evidence and the relationship of classical archaeol- 
ogy to other disciplines such as art history, history, and classics. Assigned reading 
supplements illustrated presentations of the major archaeological finds of the 
Greek world. (Same as Archaeology 101.) 

210c. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. Fall 1996. Mr. Higginbotham. 

Surveys the material culture of Roman society, from Italy's prehistory and the 
origins of the Roman state through its development into a cosmopolitan empire, 
and concludes with the fundamental reorganization during the late third and early 
fourth centuries of our era. Lectures explore ancient sites such as Rome, Pompeii, 
Athens, Ephesus, and others around the Mediterranean. Emphasis upon the major 
monuments and artifacts of the Roman era: architecture, sculpture, fresco 
painting, and other "minor arts." Considers the nature of this archaeological 
evidence and the relationship of classical archaeology to other disciplines such as 
art history, history, and classics. Assigned reading supplements illustrated 
presentations of the major archaeological finds of the Roman world. (Same as 
Archaeology 102.) 

[212c. Medieval Art.] 

[222c. Art of the Italian Renaissance.] 

224c. Mannerism. Fall 1996. Ms. Wegner. 

Mannerism in art and literature. Artists include Michelangelo, Pontormo, 
Rosso, Bronzino, El Greco. Themes include fantasy and imagination; ideal 
beauty (male and female); the erotic and grotesque; and the challenging of High 
Renaissance values. Readings include artists' biographies, scientific writings on 
the senses, formulas for ideal beauty, and description of court life and manners. 
The class uses the Bowdoin College Museum of Art's collection of sixteenth- 
century drawings, prints, and medals. 

226c. Northern European Art of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. Fall 
1996. Mr. Olds. 

A survey of the painting of the Netherlands, Germany, and France. Topics 
include the spread of the influential naturalistic style of Campin, van Eyck, and 
van der Weyden; the confrontation with the classical art of Italy in the work of 
Diirer and others; the continuance of a native tradition in the work of Bosch and 
Bruegel the Elder; the changing role of patronage; and the rise of specialties such 
as landscape and portrait painting. 

Prerequisite: Art 101 or permission of the instructor. 



52 Courses of Instruction 

232c. Baroque Art. Spring 1997. Ms. Wegner. 

The art of seventeenth-century Europe. Topics include the revolution in 
painting carried out by Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, and their followers in 
Rome: the development of these trends in the works of Rubens, Bernini, Georges 
de la Tour. Poussin. and others: and the rise of an independent school of painting 
in Holland. Connections between art, religious ideas, and political conditions are 
stressed. 

Prerequisite: Art 101 or permission of the instructor. 

[242c. European Art of the Nineteenth Century.] 

252c. Modern Art. Spring 1997. Mr. Lutchmansingh. 

A study of the modernist movement in visual art in Europe and the Americas, 
beginning with post-impressionism and examining in succession expressionism, 
fauvism, cubism, futurism, constructivism, Dada, surrealism, the American 
affinities of these movements, the Mexican muralists, and the Canadian Group of 
Seven. Modernism in analyzed in terms of the problems presented by its social 
situation, its relation to other elements of culture, its place in the historical 
tradition of Western art, and its invocation of archaic, primitive, and Oriental 
cultures. 

Prerequisite: Art 101, 242, or permission of the instructor. 

[254c. Contemporary Art.] 

[262c. American Art from the Colonial Period to the Civil War.] 

[264c. American Art from the Civil War to 1945.] 

266c. African-American Art. Fall 1996. Ms. McGee. 

A survey of African-American art from the late nineteenth century to the 
present. This course examines the lives and careers of African-American artists 
within the contexts of art, history, and theory. Artists to be covered include Henry 
Ossawa Tanner, Aaron Douglas, Edmonia Lewis, Jacob Lawrence, Lois Mailou 
Jones, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, and Faith Ringgold. Also considered are 
works on view at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. Readings are interdisci- 
plinary and include the works of Alain Locke, James Porter, Paul Gilroy, and bell 
hooks. (Same as Africana Studies 226.) 

Prerequisite: Art 101 or permission of the instructor. 

Seminars in Art History 

The seminars are intended to utilize the scholarly interests of members of the 

department and provide an opportunity for advanced work for selected students 

who have successfully completed enough of the regular courses to possess a 
background. Admittance to all seminars requires permission of the instructor. The 
department does not expect to give all, or in some cases any. seminars in each 
semester. As the seminars are varied, a given topic may be offered only once, or 
its form changed considerably from time to lime. 



An 53 

310c,d. The Art of Zen. Spring 1997. Mr. Olds. 

An examination of the influence of Ch'an or Zen Buddhism on the art of China 
and Japan, including painting, architecture, garden design, and the tea ceremony. 
(Same as Asian Studies 310.) 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

326c,d- The Altarpiece: Sacred Art and Ritual Ornament. Fall 1996. 
Ms. McGee. 

An examination of the sacred and decorative function of the altarpiece. Issues 
of placement, ritual, iconography, and cultural and religious expression are 
among the topics discussed. Readings focus on altarpieces from the Northern 
Renaissance period, but students are encouraged to explore altarpieces from other 
periods and cultures in their own research and to construct jointly altarpieces that 
reflect contemporary ritual practices and beliefs. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

334c. Women Visionaries and the Visual Arts. Fall 1996. Ms. Wegner. 

A study of women visionaries/artists/writers whose works have contributed to 
the visual tradition of the Western world. Topics include: medieval illuminations 
by women artist-visionaries; the role of art in the formation of visions; the impact 
of visionary texts on development of passionate sacred imagery; books on 
behavior that seek to limit women's gaze; visions rich in metaphors of the body, 
suppressed by church hierarchy or condemned as demonic deception; women 
writers' Utopian visions. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

374c. Dada and Neo-Dada. Fall 1996. Mr. Lutchmansingh. 

After a historical and contextual overview of the Dada movement in Europe, 
this seminar will consider in more analytical and interpretive terms the Dadaist 
reconstitution of the object and the viewing audience; its artistic and intellectual 
response to the emerging consumer and commodity culture; its attitude to 
traditional art; its technical innovations, such as photomontage and combines; and 
the transmission of its outlook and cultural values by such later twentieth-century 
artists as Cornell, Kaprow, Klein, Johns, Rauschenberg, de Saint Phalle, Kienholz, 
Oldenburg, Spoerri, Koons, Steinbach, and Gober. The seminar will conclude 
with a study of associated contemporary developments in Latin America and 
Japan. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

384c. Advertising. Spring 1997. Mr. Lutchmansingh. 

An examination of the history, technical apparatus, visual instruments, ideolo- 
gies, and persuasive strategies of advertising. Among the subjects to be studied 
will be advertising's definition of the object-world; subjective need and desire; 
forms of address and constitution of audiences; construction of gender; use in the 



54 Courses of Instruction 

political arena; relationship to established art forms, such as painting and design; 
incorporation into certain twentieth-century art movements; and the conse- 
quences of its contemporary globalization. Among the broad approaches to 
analysis and interpretation will be those provided by semiotics, Marxism, 
feminism, psychoanalysis, and poststructuralism. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study in Art History. Art History 
Faculty. 

401c-404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors in Art History. Art 

History Faculty. 

VISUAL ARTS 

Requirements for the Major in Visual Arts 

Eleven courses are required in the department, to include Art 150, 160, 250, and 
260; four other courses in the visual arts, at least one of which must be numbered 
270 or higher; Art 101; and two other courses in art history. Students undertaking 
an honors project in their senior year will be required to take Art 401 in addition 
to the eleven courses required of the major. 

Requirements for the Minor in Visual Arts 

The minor consists of six courses: Art 101, 150, 160, either 250 or 260, plus two 
additional studio courses, at least one of which must be numbered 270 or higher. 
Visual arts courses without prerequisites are frequently oversubscribed; 
preference in enrollment is then given to first- and second-year students as well 
as to juniors and seniors fulfilling requirements of the visual arts major or minor. 

150c. Drawing I. Fall 1996. Ms. Harris. Mr. Wethli. Spring 1997. Mr. Wethli. 
An introduction to drawing, with an emphasis on the development of percep- 
tual, organizational, and critical abilities. Studio projects entail objective obser- 
vation and analysis of still-life, landscape, and figurative subjects; exploration of 
the abstract formal organization of graphic expression; and the development of a 
critical vocabulary of visual principles. Lectures and group critiques augment 
studio projects in various drawing media. Enrollment limited to 25 students. 

160c. Painting I. Fall 1996. Ms. Harris. Spring L997. Ms. HARRIS. 

An introduction to painting, with an emphasis on the development of percep- 
tual, organizational, and critical abilities. Studio projects entail objective obser- 
vation and analysis of Still-life, landscape, and figurative subjects; exploration of 
the painting medium and chromatic Structure in representation; and the develop- 
ment of a critical vocabulary of painting concepts. Lectures and group critiques 

augmenl studio projects in painting media. Enrollment limited to 25 students. 

Prerequisite: Art 150. 
I70fc I'rintmaking I. Fall 1996. Mr, Wi iiii.i. 

An introduction to intagUoprintmaking, includmg etching, drypoint, engrav- 
ing, monotype, and related methods. Studio projects develop creative approaches 

to perceptual experience and visual expression that are uniquely inspired by the 



Art 55 

intaglio medium. Attention is also given to historical and contemporary examples 
and uses of the medium. Enrollment limited to 20 students. 
Prerequisite: Art 150 or permission of the instructor. 

180c. Photography I. Fall 1996. Ms. Hirsch. Spring 1997. Mr. McKee. 

Photographic visualization and composition as consequences of fundamental 
techniques of black-and-white still photography. Class discussions and demon- 
strations, examination of masterworks, and field and laboratory work in 35mm 
format. Students must provide their own 35mm nonautomatic camera. Enroll- 
ment limited to 32 students. 

190c. Architectural Design I. Spring 1997. Mr. Glass. 

An introduction to architectural design. Studio projects develop skills in 
program and context analysis, conceptual design principles and processes, and 
presentation techniques. Enrollment limited to 20 students. 

195c. Sculpture. Fall 1996. Spring 1997. Mr. Bisbee. 

An introduction to figure sculpture, with emphasis on the development of 
perceptual, organizational, and critical abilities. Studio projects entail objective 
observation and analysis of the human form and exploration of the structural 
principles, abstract, formal elements, and critical vocabulary of the sculpture 
medium. Lectures and group critiques augment studio projects in clay and plaster. 
Enrollment limited to 20 students. 

250c. Drawing II. Spring 1997. Mr. Cornell. 

A continuation of the principles introduced in Art 150, with particular 
emphasis on figurative drawing. Studio projects develop perceptual, creative, and 
critical abilities through problems involving objective observation, gestural 
expression and structural principles of the human form, studies from historical 
and contemporary examples, and exploration of the abstract formal elements of 
drawing. Lectures and group critiques augment studio projects in various drawing 
media. 

Prerequisite: Art 150. 

260c. Painting II. Spring 1997. Ms. Harris. 

A continuation of the principles introduced in Art 160, with studio problems 
based on direct experience. 

Prerequisite: Art 160. 

270c. Printmaking II. Spring 1997. Mr. Cornell. 

A continuation of the principles introduced in Art 170, with particular 
emphasis on independent projects. 

Prerequisite: Art 170 or permission of the instructor. 

280c. Photography II. Fall 1996. Mr. McKee. 

Review of the conceptual and technical fundamentals of black-and-white 
photography and exploration of the different image-making possibilities inherent 
in related photographic media such as 35mm and view cameras. Seminar 
discussions and field and laboratory work. Students must provide their own 
nonautomatic 35mm camera. 

Prerequisite: Art 180 or permission of the instructor. 



56 Courses of Instruction 

295c-299c. Intermediate Independent Study in Visual Arts. Visual Arts 

Faculty. 

350c-359c. Advanced Studies in Visual Arts. Fall 1996. Mr. Cornell. Spring 

1997. Mr. Wethli. 

A continuation of principles introduced in lower division drawing and painting 
courses, with increasing emphasis on independent projects. 

Prerequisite: Art 250 or Art 260 or permission of the instructor. 

370c. Printmaking III. Spring 1997. Mr. Cornell. 
Advanced projects in printmaking. 
Prerequisite: Art 270 or permission of the instructor. 

401c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors in Visual Arts. Visual Arts 
Faculty. 

Open only to exceptionally qualified senior majors and required for honors 
credit. Advanced projects undertaken on an independent basis, with assigned 
readings, critical discussions, and a final position paper. 



Asian Studies 

Administered by the Asian Studies Committee; John C. Holt, Chair 
(See committee list, page 277.) 
John C. Holt, Program Director 

Visiting Assistant Professor Joint Appointment Lecturer 

Mingliang Hu with Sociology Takahiko Hayashi 

Instructor David T. Johnsonf 

Students in Asian studies focus on the cultural traditions of either East Asia 
(China and Japan) or South Asia (India and Sri Lanka). In completing the major, 
each student is required to gain a general understanding of both culture areas, to 
acquire a working proficiency in one of the languages of South or Hast Asia, to 
develop a theoretical or methodological sophistication in one of the disciplines 
constitutive Of Asian studies (e.g., history, religion, literature, anthropology, 
etc.). and to demonstrate a degree of applied specialization. These principles are 
reflected in the requirements for an Asian studies major. Student-designed majors 
focusing on cross-cultural topics in the humanities and/or social sciences are also 

encouraged. Normally, such student-designed majors will contain a strong 
disciplinary grounding (e.g., four courses in economics), as well as a significant 

numbei <>i relevant courses focused on Asia. 

()fi-( winpus Study 

Foreign study lor students interested in Asian studies is highly recommended. 

Established programs in the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong. Taiwan, 

and Japan are available f<>r students interested in East Asia. The ISLE and SITA 



Asian Studies 



57 



programs (see pages 38-39) are recommended for students interested in South 
Asia. Consult the Asian studies office for information about these and other 
programs. 

Requirements for the Major in Asian Studies 

One can major in Asian studies by focusing on a particular academic discipline 
(e.g., religion) or by focusing on a particular geographic and cultural area (e.g., 
South Asia). In both cases, eight courses are required in addition to the study of 
an Asian language. These eight include Asian Studies 101, a senior seminar, and 
other courses as described below. A student who wishes to graduate with honors 
in the program must also write an honors thesis, which is normally a one-semester 
project. 

The major requires courses from four categories: 

1 . Language. Two years of an East Asian language or one year of a South Asian 
language, or the equivalent through intensive language study.* 

2a. Discipline-specific courses. Four courses from a single discipline, one of 
which is normally a senior seminar. Currently, students may elect anthropology, 
history, or religion; 

or 

2b. Area-specific courses. Four courses that focus on the student's area of 
specialization, two in one discipline and two in another. One of these is normally 
a senior seminar. The possible areas of specialization are Japan, China, and South 
Asia. 

3. Two courses that include a geographic area other than that of one's language 
concentration. One of these must be Asian Studies 101. 

4. Two other courses to be chosen in consultation with the student's advisor. 
If the student has elected a disciplinary track in anthropology or religion, one of 
these may be Anthropology 101 or Religion 101. 

Requirements for the Minor in Asian Studies 

Students focus on the cultural traditions of either East Asia or South Asia by 
completing: (1) Asian Studies 101; (2) a concentration of at least three courses 
in one academic discipline or geographic area; and (3) one elective in Asian 
studies. 

Program Honors 

Students contemplating honors candidacy in the program must have established 
records of A and B in program course offerings and present clearly articulated, 
well-focused proposals for scholarly research. Students must prepare an honors 
thesis and are examined orally by the program faculty. 



The College does not offer courses in any South Asian language. Arrangements may be 
made with the director of the program to transfer credits from another institution. 



58 Courses of Instruction 

First-Year Seminars 

For a full description of the following first-year seminars, see page 1 10. 

12c,d. Religions of India in Contemporary Literature. Spring 1998. 
Mr. Holt. 

(Same as Religion 12.) 

23c,d. The First Emperor of China. Spring 1997. Mr. Smith. 
(Same as History 23.) 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 
[101c,d. Asian Civilizations.] 

110c,d. Introduction to East Asian Art. Spring 1997. Mr. Olds. 

A chronological survey of Chinese, Korean, and Japanese art from prehistoric 
times to the present. Considers major examples of painting, sculpture, architec- 
ture, and the decorative arts in the context of historical developments and major 
religions of East Asia. (Same as Art 110.) 

120c,d. Introduction to South Asian Art. Fall 1996. Mr. Lutchmansingh. 

A survey of the architecture, sculpture, and painting of the Indian subcontinent 
(India, Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet, and Sri Lanka) from prehistoric to early modern 
times. Major emphasis is placed upon the art of the three great ancient traditions 
of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism; and three special subjects — the develop- 
ment of the Buddha image, the dance of Shiva, and the Hindu temple — are studied 
in some detail. (Same as Art 120.) 

234b,d. Women, Power, and Identity in India. Spring 1997. Ms. Dickey. 

Focuses on India to address contemporary debates in anthropology and 
women's studies, and questions the representation of Third World women as an 
oppressed group. Topics include religion, family, communalism, class, and 
activism in relation to women's identities; sources and images of women's power; 
and questions of representation. (Same as Anthropology 234.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology, sociology, or Asian studies. 

235b,d. South Asian Cultures and Societies. Fall 1996. Ms. Dickey. 

An introduction to the cultures and societies of South Asia, including India, 
Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Issues of religion, family and 
gender, caste, ;mcl class arc examined through ethnographies, novels, and films, 

and through in-class simulations o\' marriage arrangements, and caste ranking. 

(Same as Anthropology 235.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course ill anthropology, sociology, or Asian studies. 
236h,d. Political Identity and Leadership in South Asia. Spring 1998. 
Ms. DiCKl v. 

In South Asia, political identity is often based on "primordial" ties such as 
caste, religion, ethnicity, language, and region. Political leadership involves 



Asian Studies 



59 



various strategies for addressing and transcending these communal interests. This 
course examines the development of different political identities and the impor- 
tance of issues such as personality politics and patronage in electoral leadership 
in several South Asian countries. (Same as Anthropology 236.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology, sociology, or Asian studies. 

240c,d. Hinduism. Fall 1996. Mr. Holt. 

A study of traditional Hindu culture (philosophy, mythology, art, ritual, yoga, 
devotionalism, and caste) in the ancient and medieval periods of India's religious 
history. (Same as Religion 220.) 

241c,d. Religion and Literature in Modern South Asia. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Holt. 

Twentieth century works of fiction reflecting the ways in which Hinduism and 
Buddhism have been understood socially (gender, caste, and class), politically 
(reactionary or revolutionary), psychologically (functional or dysfunctional), and 
philosophically (soteriologically and cosmologically).(Same as Religion 221.) 

242c,d. Buddhist Thought. Fall 1997. Mr. Holt. 

An examination of the principal Buddhist categories of thought as these arise 
in representative genres of Buddhist literature, including the Pali Nikayas of 
Theravada tradition and the Sanskrit Sutras of Mahayana. (Same as Religion 
222.) 

270c,d- Chinese Thought in the Classical Period. Spring 1997. Mr. Smith. 

An introduction to the competing schools of Chinese thought in the time of 
Confucius and his successors. (Same as History 270.) 

271c,d. The Material Culture of Ancient China. Fall 1998. Mr. Smith. 

Addresses material culture in China from ca. 400 to 100 B.C., while the great 
unification of empire was occurring. Topics include what people ate; how they 
wrote, fought, and built; how we know such things about them; and how this 
civilization can be compared with others. (Same as History 271.) 

274c,d. Chinese Society in the Ch'ing. Spring 1998. Mr. Smith. 

An introduction to premodern China, focusing on the first half of the Ch'ing 
dynasty (1644-191 1). Discussion of societal relations, state organization, and 
ideology. Culminates in a day-long simulation of elite society in the eighteenth 
century. (Same as History 274.) 

275c,d. Modern China. Fall 1997. Mr. Smith. 

An introduction to the history of China from 1840 to the present. Studies the 
confrontation with Western imperialism, the fall of empire, the Republican 
period, and the People's Republic. (Same as History 275.) 

276c,d. A History of Tibet. Fall 1996. Mr. Smith. 

Examines three questions: What was old Tibet? Is Tibet part of China? Wlmi are 
conditions there now? Analyzes the complex interactions of politics and society 
with Buddhist doctrine and practice. (Same as History 276.) 



60 Courses of Instruction 

278c.d. The Foundations of Tokugawa Japan. Spring 1998. Mr. Smith. 

Addresses problems in the creation and early development of the Tokugawa 
(1600-1868) state and society, including the transformation of samurai from 
professional warriors into professional bureaucrats and the unanticipated growth 
of a quasi-autonomous urban culture. (Same as History 278.) 

283c,d. Japan from Prehistory to Tokugawa. Spring 1997. Mr. Graff. 

Introduces students to the history of Japan from the prehistoric origins of 
Japanese civilization to the zenith of the Tokugawa shogunate in the early 
eighteenth century. Topics include early state formation, the cross-fertilization of 
Buddhist and Shinto beliefs, the transfer of political authority from courtiers to 
warriors, the advent of European influences in the late sixteenth century, and the 
earliest stirrings of Japanese nationalism. Particular attention will be devoted to 
the ways in which Japan' s institutional, intellectual, and cultural borrowings from 
other lands (especially China) have interacted with indigenous traditions and 
values. (Same as History 283.) 

284c,d. History of Modern Japan. Fall 1996. Mr. Graff. 

A survey of Japanese history from approximately 1800 to the present. Topics 
include the political and social order in the last years of the Tokugawa shogunate, 
the Meiji Restoration and modernization programs, ultranationalism and the 
Fifteen-Years' War in Asia and the Pacific, and the postwar economic miracle. 
(Same as History 284.) 

285c,d. Modern Southeast Asia. Fall 1996. Ms. Padma. 

Analysis of those factors of Southeast Asian history (e.g., topography and 
natural resources, ethnicity, language, and religion) that have created a sense of 
the whole, but which have also fostered a sense of uniqueness among various 
peoples of the region. Topics include specific geographical aspects of the 
archipelago and the mainland, trade that attracted people from all over the world, 
"Indiani/ation." Chinese and Muslim cultural influences, European colonial 
expansion, the rise of nationalism and independence movements. Readings will 
foster a comprehensive understanding of the region from the early periods of 
history, but will concentrate on the modern era. (Same as History 285.) 

288c,d. Modern India. Spring 1997. Ms. Padma. 

Historical analysis of the impact of British colonialism, the reforms and 
revivals of Indian culture and society in the nineteenth century, the political 
Struggle lor independence in the twentieth century culminating in the partition 
into India and Pakistan, and die post-independence socio-political experience. 
Readings include biographies and modern Indian fiction focusing on the relations 

between religion and politics, the tensions between tradition and modernity, and 
the changing roles ami sell-perceptions ol women in society. (Same as History 
288 ) 

3l(k-,d. The Art of Zen. Spring 1997. MnOi ds. 

An examination ol the influence ol'Ch'anor Zen Buddhism on the art of China 

and Japan, including painting, architecture, garden design, and the tea ceremony. 
(Same as Art 310.) 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 



Asian Studies 



61 



343c,d. Buddhism, Culture, and Society in South and Southeast Asia. Spring 
1998. Mr. Holt. 

A study of the ways in which Buddhist religious sentiments are expressed 
aesthetically and politically within the social and cultural histories of India, Sri 
Lanka, Burma, and Thailand. Emphasis on the transformation of Buddhism from 
a world-renouncing ethic to a foundational ideology of society and culture. (Same 
as Religion 323.) 

Prerequisite: Religion 101 or 222, or permission of the instructor. 

370c,d. Problems in Chinese History. Every fall. Mr. Smith. 

Reviews the whole of Chinese history. Students develop their research skills 
and write a substantial research paper. (Same as History 370.) 

380c,d. Recent Studies in South and Southeast Asian Religions and Cultures. 

Spring 1997. Mr. Holt. 

A critical reading of recent monographs and ethnographies by leading scholars 
focusing on important problems of contemporary interest in the interdisciplinary 
study of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam in South and Southeast Asia (religion 
in the Hindu family, women's spirituality, life passages, popular worship of 
Ganesa and Krsna, Sikh identity, rise of Islam, and Buddhist beliefs and practices 
in Southeast Asia), followed by the writing of a term paper on a topic selected by 
students in consultation with the instructor. (Same as Religion 380.) 

Prerequisite: Religion 101 or permission of the instructor. 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. 
401c-404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. 

LANGUAGE COURSES 

Chinese 101c. Beginning Chinese I. Every fall. Mr. Hu. 

An introduction to Putonghua (Mandarin) and the written language. Five 
hours of class per week, plus assigned language laboratory. 

Chinese 102c. Beginning Chinese II. Every spring. Mr. Hu. 
A continuation of Chinese 101. 

Chinese 203c. Intermediate Chinese I. Every fall. Mr. Hu. 

A continuation of Chinese 102. Five hours of class per week, plus assigned 
language laboratory. 

Chinese 204c. Intermediate Chinese II. Every spring. Mr. Hu. 
A continuation of Chinese 203. 

Chinese 307c. Advanced Chinese Reading I. Every fall. Mr. Hu. 

Further develops skills in speaking and reading Chinese at a higher level. 
Original Chinese short stories are used together with movies and audio tapes. 
Training in translation between Chinese and English. Diary in Chinese. 

Prerequisites: Chinese 204 or permission of the instructor. 



62 Courses of Instruction 

Chinese 308c. Advanced Chinese Reading II. Every spring. Mr. Hu. 

A continuation of Chinese 307. More original Chinese materials from 
newspapers and magazines are used to further the learning of the language and 
culture. Training in translation. Diary in Chinese. 

Prerequisite: Chinese 307 or permission of the instructor. 

Japanese 101c. Beginning Japanese I. Every fall. Mr. Hayashi. 

An introduction to standard modern Japanese. Five hours per week, plus 
assigned language laboratory. 

Japanese 102c. Beginning Japanese II. Every spring. Mr. Hayashi. 
A continuation of Japanese 101. 

Japanese 203c. Intermediate Japanese I. Every fall. Mr. Hayashi. 

A continuation of Japanese 102. Five hours per week, plus assigned language 
laboratory. 

Japanese 204c. Intermediate Japanese II. Every spring. Mr. Hayashi. 
A continuation of Japanese 203. 



Biochemistry 

Administered by the Biochemistry Committee; David S. Page, Chair 
(See committee list, page 277.) 

Professor Associate Professor 

John L. Howland C. Thomas Settlemire 

Requirements for the Major in Biochemistry 

All majors must complete the following courses: Biology 104, Biology (Chem- 
istry) 261, 262; Chemistry 109, 225, 226, 251; Mathematics 161, 171; and 
Physics 103. Students should complete the required biochemistry core courses by 
the end of their junior year. Majors must complete three courses from the 
following: Biology 111, 112, 114, 117, 118,205, 207, 302, 304, 307, 309, 401- 
404; Chemistry 210, 240, 252, 270, 330, 401^104; Physics 223, 227, 228, 260, 
401-404. Students may include as electives up to two 400-level courses. Those 
planning to engage in independent study in biochemistry should complete al least 
oneol the following courses: Biology 112, 118, 212; Chemistry 210, 240, 254. 
Students taking independent study courses lor the biochemistry major should 
register for Biochemistry 401-404. 



Biology 

Biology 



63 



Professors 
Patsy S. Dickinson 
John L. Howland 
William L. Steinhart* 
Associate Professors 
Amy S. Johnson 
Carey R. Phillips, Chair 
C. Thomas Settlemire 
Nathaniel T. Wheelwright 



Assistant Professors 

Zoe G. Cardon 

Visiting Assistant Professor 

Karen E. Rasmussen 

Laboratory Instructors 

Pamela J. Bryer 

Karin Frazer 

Stephen Hauptman 

Cara Hayes 

Andrea Sulzer 



Requirements for the Major in Biology 

The major consists of seven courses in the department exclusive of independent 
study and courses below the 100 level. Majors are required to complete Biology 
104, four core courses, and two other courses within the department, one of which 
must be at the 200 level or above. Core courses are divided into three groups. One 
course must taken from each group. The fourth core course may be from any 
group. 

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 

Genetics and Molecular Biology Comparative Physiology Ecology 

Microbiology Plant Physiology Biology of Marine 

Development Development Organisms 
Biochemistry I 

In addition, majors must complete Mathematics 161, Physics 103, and 
Chemistry 225. Students are advised to complete Biology 104 and the mathemat- 
ics, physics, and chemistry courses by the end of the sophomore year. Students 
planning postgraduate education in science or the health professions should note 
that graduate and professional schools are likely to have additional admissions 
requirements in mathematics, physics, and chemistry. 

Interdisciplinary Major 

The department participates in interdisciplinary programs in biochemistry, envi- 
ronmental studies, and neuroscience. See page 146. 

Requirements for the Minor in Biology 

The minor consists of four courses within the department at the 1 00 level or above, 
appropriate to the major. 

First- Year Seminar 

For a full description of the following first-year seminar, see page 1 10. 
14a. The Natural History of Maine. Spring 1997. Mr. Howland. 



64 Courses of Instruction 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

51a. The Science of Nutrition. Fall 1996. Mr. Settlemire. 

The fundamentals of the science of nutrition. Topics include the chemical and 
biological features of the basic nutrients, the physiology of nutrient uptake and 
utilization, and the changing nutritional needs from infancy to old age. Approxi- 
mately one-third of the class time is devoted to student presentations. Lecture and 
weekly laboratory/discussion groups. Enrollment limited to 50 students. 

[54a. Concepts in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.] 

104a. Introductory Biology. Every spring. Ms. Johnson and Mr. Phillips. 

Examines fundamental biological principles extending from the subcellular to 
the ecosystem level of living organisms. Topics include bioenergetics, structure- 
function relationships, cellular information systems, behavior, ecology, and 
evolutionary biology. Lecture and weekly laboratory/discussion groups. 

110a. Plant Physiology. Every spring. Spring 1997. Ms. Cardon. 

The fundamentals of plant physiology, including selected aspects of hormonal 
and environmental controls over plant growth and development, specialized 
physiology influenced by environmental stresses, and plant biochemistry related 
to carbon, nutrient, and water acquisition. The course includes weekly labs 
emphasizing experimental design and communication of results. Limited to 45 
students for 1996-97. 

Prerequisite: Biology 104. 

112a. Genetics and Molecular Biology. Every spring. Mr. Steinhart. 

Integrated coverage of organismic and molecular levels of genetic systems. 
Topics include modes of inheritance, the structure and function of chromosomes, 
the mechanisms and control of gene expression, recombination, mutagenesis, the 
determination of gene order and sequence, and genetic engineering applications. 
Laboratory and occasional problem-solving sessions are scheduled. 

Prerequisite: Biology 104. 

114a. Comparative Physiology. Every spring. Ms. Dickinson. 

An examination of animal function, from the cellular to the organismal level. 
The underlying concepts arc emphasized, as arc the experimental data that 
support our current understanding of animal function. Topics include the nervous 
system, hormones, respiration, circulation, osmoregulation, digestion, and ther- 
moregulation. Labs arc short. Student-designed projects involving a variety of 
instrumentation. Lectures and four hours of laboratory work per week. 

Prerequisite: Biology 104. 

1 15a. Ecology. Every fall, Mr. Win 1 1 WRIGHT, 

Study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Topics 
include population growth and structure, processes of speciation. succession, 
energy How. biogeochemical cycling, and the influence of competition, preda- 
tioii and other factors on the behavior, abundance, and distribution of plants and 



Biology 65 

animals. Laboratory sessions, field trips, and group research projects emphasize 
the natural history of local plants and animals (both marine and terrestrial) and 
their interactions. Optional field trip to the Bowdoin Scientific Station on Kent 
Island. Limited to 45 students for 1996-97. 
Prerequisite: Biology 104. 

117a. Developmental Biology. Every fall. Mr. Phillips. 

An examination of current concepts of embryonic development, with empha- 
sis on their experimental basis. Topics include morphogenesis and functional 
differentiation, tissue interaction, nucleocytoplasmic interaction, differential 
gene expression, and interaction of cells with hormones and extracellular matrix. 
Project-oriented laboratory work emphasizes experimental methods. Lectures 
and three hours of laboratory per week. 

Prerequisite: Biology 104. 

118a. Microbiology. Every spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Settlemire. 

An examination of the structure and function of microorganisms, primarily 
bacteria, with a major emphasis on molecular descriptions. Subjects covered 
include structure, metabolism, mechanism of action of antibiotics, and basic 
virology. Lecture and laboratory/discussion sessions. 

Prerequisites: Biology 104 and Chemistry 225. 

119a. Biology of Marine Organisms. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Johnson. 

The study of the biology and ecology of marine mammals, seabirds, fish, 
intertidal and subtidal invertebrates, algae, and plankton. Also considers the 
biogeographic consequences of global and local ocean currents on the evolution 
and ecology of marine organisms. Laboratories, field trips, and group research 
projects emphasize natural history, functional morphology, and ecology. Lec- 
tures and three hours of laboratory or field trip per week. One weekend field trip 
included. Limited to 45 students for 1996-97. 

Prerequisite: Biology 104. 

122a. Botany. Every other fall. Fall 1997. Ms. Cardon. 

Broad principles of plant biology, along with the diversity and evolution of 
plant groups, will be explored through the study of growth, development, and 
structure of both non-vascular and vascular plants. Examples of current environ- 
mental and agricultural issues relating to plant biology will be discussed through- 
out the course. Laboratory sessions every week. 

Prerequisite: Biology 104. 

156a. Marine Ecology. Every fall. Mr. Gilfillan. 

The relationships between organisms and their environment are considered in 
the context of animals and plants living in the sea. The concept of marine 
communities living in dynamic equilibrium with their physical-chemical envi- 
ronment is introduced, and the influence of human activities on the ecology o\' 
marine organisms is explored. (Same as Environmental Studies 200.) 

Prerequisite: A college-level science course or permission of the instructor. 



66 Courses of Instruction 

203a. Comparative Neurobiology. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Dickinson. 

A comparative study of the function of the nervous system in invertebrate and 
vertebrate animals. Topics include the physiology of individual nerve cells and 
their organization into larger functional units, the behavioral responses of animals 
to cues from the environment, and the neural mechanisms underlying such 
behaviors. Lectures and four hours of laboratory work per week. 

Prerequisite: Biology 114 or permission of the instructor. 

204a. Biomechanics. Spring 1997. Ms. Johnson. 

Examines the quantitative and qualitative characterization of organismal 
morphology, and explores the relationship of morphology to measurable compo- 
nents of an organism's mechanical, hydrodynamic, and ecological environment. 
Lectures, labs, field trips, and individual research projects emphasize ( 1 ) analysis 
of morphology, including analyses of the shape of individual organisms as well 
as of the mechanical and molecular organization of their tissues; (2) characteriza- 
tion of water flow associated with organisms; and (3) analyses of the ecological 
and mechanical consequences to organisms of their interaction with their envi- 
ronment. 

Prerequisite: Biology 104. Introductory physics and calculus are strongly 
recommended. 

205a. Human Genetics. Fall 1997. Mr. Steinhart. 

The genetics of humans is examined at all levels, from molecular to popula- 
tion. Topics include the inheritance of mutations, multifactorial traits, phenotypic 
variation, and sex determination. Discussions focus on case studies, genetic 
counseling, the impact of biotechnology, technical and ethical aspects of genetic 
engineering, and theories of human evolution. Includes student-led seminars. 

Prerequisite: Biology 112. 

207a. Immunology. Fall 1996. Mr. Settlemire. 

Covers the development of the immune response, the cellular physiology of 
the immune system, the nature of antigens, antibodies, B and T cells, and the 
complement system. The nature of natural immunity, transplantation immunol- 
ogy, and tumor immunology are also considered. Lecture and laboratory/discus- 
sion sessions. 

Prerequisite: Biology 104. 

208a. Ornithology. Every other spring. Spring 1997. Mk. WHEELWRIGHT. 

Advanced study of the biology of birds, including anatomy, physiology, 
distribution, and syslemalics, with an emphasis on avian ecology and evolution. 
Through integrated laboratory sessions, field nips, discussion of the primary 
literature, and independent research, students learn identification of birds, func- 
tional morphology, and research techniques such as experimental design, behav 
ioralobsen ation, and Held methods. Optional field trip to the Bowdoin Scientific 
Station on Kun Island. 

Prerequisites: Biology 1 1? or permission of the instructor. 



Biology 67 

210a. Evolution of Marine Invertebrates. Every other spring. Spring 1998. 
Ms. Johnson. 

Principles of evolution are studied through a phylogenetic, functional, and 
morphological examination of marine invertebrates. Living representatives of all 
major marine invertebrate phyla are observed. Information from the fossil record 
is used to elucidate causes and patterns of evolution. Lectures, three hours of 
laboratory or field work per week, and an individual research project are required. 

Prerequisite: Biology 104. 

212a. Laboratory in Molecular Biology and Biochemistry. Every fall. 
Mr. Howland. 

Lectures and discussions on topics including protein chemistry, membrane 
biochemistry, and bioenergetics. A major component of the course is a laboratory 
employing contemporary techniques in biochemistry, including radioisotopes, 
spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, chromatography and scanning electron mi- 
croscopy. In the last third of the semester students complete an independent 
project. This course is a logical precursor to independent study in the areas of 
molecular biology and biochemistry. 

Prerequisites: Two from Biology 112, 113, 118, 201, 261, or 262. 

250a. Sociobiology and Behavioral Genetics. Fall 1996. Ms. Rasmussen. 

Concepts and controversies regarding the extent to which genes contribute to 
animal behavior are explored, with a focus on the status of modern sociobiologi- 
cal theory. Concepts are illustrated using classic and contemporary reviews and 
research reports from the primary literature. Articles are critically evaluated 
through student presentations and student-led discussions. 

Prerequisite: Biology 110 and 115. 

251a. Plant Physiological Ecology. Every other fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Cardon. 

Focuses on the interactions of plants with their environment. Students will 
learn about carbon, nutrient, and water balance in plants, and about the plasticity 
and development of plants subjected to natural and anthropogenic stresses. A 
variety of plant species and functional types will be considered within several 
climate zones, and there will be extensive lab work in the field, exploring 
community types near campus. 

Prerequisite: Biology 110 or 122. 

261a. Biochemistry I. Every fall. Mr. Howland. 

Proteins and enzymes. An introduction to the chemistry and biology of small 
biological molecules, macromolecules, and membranes. Emphasis on kinetics 
and mechanisms of enzymic reactions and upon equilibrium and non-equilibrium 
thermodynamics underlying biological processes. Lectures and informal ly sched- 
uled laboratories, based upon computer models of biochemical reactions and 
metabolic networks. (Same as Chemistry 261.) 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 226. 



68 Courses of Instruction 

262a. Biochemistry II. Every spring. Mr. Page. 

An introduction to metabolism. Topics include pathways in living cells by 
which carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and other important biomolecules are 
broken down to produce energy and biosynthesized. (Same as Chemistry 262.) 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 226 and Biology/Chemistry 261. 

291a-294a. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

304a. Topics in Biochemistry. Spring 1997. Mr. Howland. 

This seminar focuses on the nature of energy in the biological context. In 
particular, it considers the ways in which free energy is obtained and transferred 
in organisms, processes that include photosynthesis, cellular oxidations, and 
solute transport across membranes. Student will read and discuss original 
literature and, where appropriate, will employ computer models to study energy 
coupling. 

Prerequisite: One course in either biochemistry or physiology, or permission 
of the instructor. 

[305a. Neuroethology.] 

[307a. Advanced Molecular Genetics.] 

309a. Biochemical Endocrinology. Fall 1997. Mr. Settlemire. 

A study of how the endocrine system is involved in the regulation of processes 
at the cellular level, with an emphasis on the biochemical mechanisms. Students 
examine primary literature and prepare a class presentation. 

Prerequisite: Biology/Chemistry 261 or permission of the instructor. 

310a. Advanced Developmental Biology. Spring 1997. Mr. Phillips. 

The study of the principles and processes of embryonic and post-embryonic 
animal development, stressing mechanisms of cell and tissue interaction and 
morphogenesis. Students read original journal articles and participate in discus- 
sions. Laboratory projects include the use of the scanning electron microscope to 
study a specific developmental question. 

Prerequisite: Biology 117 or permission of the instructor. 

312a. Investigations in Genetics. Fall 1996. Ms. Rasmussen. 

A research and seminar course focused on the genetic consequences and 
evolutionary implications of transposable gene activity. A variety of broadly 
applicable molecular biology techniques are taughl in the context of investigating 
mobile genetic elements in an animal system. The classroom portion of the course 

focuses on reading and discussion of articles from the primary literature. Enroll- 
ment limited to 10 students. 

Prerequisite: Biology 1 12 or permission of the instructor. 



Biology 69 

321a. Advanced Physiology. Every other fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Dickinson and Ms. 
Johnson. 

Study of the neuronal and biomechanical contributions to the function of 
neuromuscular systems and the control of movement, emphasizing ( 1 ) neural 
mechanisms underlying the control of muscles and (2) analysis of the mechanical 
and morphological organization of tissues. Students read and discuss original 
journal articles and work with organisms in the lab to learn applicable techniques 
in physiology, neurobiology, and biomechanics. In the last half of the course, 
students conduct original research projects investigating the integration of neural 
control with the morphology and mechanics of the crustacean stomach. 

Prerequisites: Biology 114, 203, 204, or permission of the instructor. 

323a. Plant Biology below Ground. Spring 1997. Ms. Cardon. 

An examination of the interaction between plant roots and soils, emphasizing 
the effects of roots on soil nutrient availability, symbioses between roots and 
microbes, and plant control of carbon and nitrogen allocation to roots. The 
ecological importance of variable root physiology and the interactions of the roots 
in the soil will be explored. Students will read and discuss current journal articles, 
and they will design and conduct individual experiments exploring some aspect 
of the interaction between soils and roots. 

Prerequisite: Biology 110 or permission of the instructor. 

396a. Conservation Biology. Every other spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Wheel- 
wright. 

The application of ecological and evolutionary principles to contemporary 
conservation problems. The seminar focuses on understanding the proximate 
causes for the loss of biodiversity, including habitat fragmentation and degrada- 
tion, the introduction of exotic species, and environmental change on a global 
scale. Explores models of population genetics, demography, life history theory, 
wildlife management, and host-parasite dynamics through readings in the pri- 
mary literature and through seminars by visiting speakers. Optional field trip to 
the Bowdoin Scientific Station on Kent Island. (Same as Environmental Studies 
396.) 

Prerequisites: Biology 115 and 220, or permission of the instructor. 

401a-404a. Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



Courses of Instruction 



Professors 
Samuel S. Butcher 
Ronald L. Christensen 
Jeffrey K. Nagle. Chair 
David S. Page 
Adjunct Professor 
Edward S. Gilfillan 



Chemistry 

Associate Professor 
Elizabeth A. Stemmler 
Assistant Professor 
Richard D. Broene 



Director of Laboratories 
Judith C. Foster 
Laboratory Support 
Manager 
Rene L. Bernier 
Laboratory- Instructors 
Beverly G. DeCoster 
Paulette M. Messier 
Colleen T. McKenna 

Courses at the 50 level are introductory, do not have prerequisites, and are 
appropriate for nonmajors. Courses at the 100 level are introductory without 
formal prerequisites and lead to advanced-level work in the department. Courses 
200 through 249 are at the second level of work and generally require only the 
introductory courses as prerequisites. Courses 250 through 290 are normally 
taken in the junior year and have two or more courses as prerequisites. Courses 
300 through 390 normally are taken in the junior or senior year and have two or 
more courses as prerequisites. 

Requirements for the Major in Chemistry 

The required courses are Chemistry 109, 210, 225, 226, 240, 251, 252, 254, and 

any two courses at the 300 level or above. Students who have completed a 
standard, secondary school chemistry course normally are expected to begin with 
Chemistry 109. Chemistry 99 is an introductory course for students with weak 
backgrounds or no prior experience in chemistry. In addition to these chemistry 
ot mrses, chemistry majors also are required to take Physics 103 and Mathematics 
161 and 171. 

Because the department offers programs based on the interests and goals of the 
student, a prospective major is encouraged to discuss his or her plans with the 
department as soon as possible. The chemistry major can serve as preparation for 
many career paths after college, including the profession of chemistry, graduate 
studies in other branches of science, medicine, secondary school teaching, and 
many fields in the business world. Advanced electives in chemistry (Chemistry 
310 and 340), along with additional courses in mathematics and physics, also 
allow students to meet the formal requirements of the American Chemical 
Society- approved chemistry major. Students interested in this program should 

consult with the department. 

I he department encourages its students to round out the chemistry major with 
relevant courses m other departments, depending on individual needs. These 
mighl include electives mot her departments that provide extensive opportunities 

lor writing and speaking, or courses concerned with technology and society. 

Siudenis interested in providing a particular interdisciplinary emphasis to their 

chcmistrv major should consider additional courses in biology and biochemistry, 

compute! science, economics, education, geology, mathematics, or physics. 



Chemistry 1 1 

Independent Study 

A student wishing to conduct a laboratory independent study project (Chemistry 
401-404) must have taken at least one of the following courses: Chemistry 254, 
Biology 211, or Biology 212. 

Interdisciplinary Majors 

The department participates in interdisciplinary programs in biochemistry, chemi- 
cal physics, and geology and chemistry. See page 146. 

Requirements for the Minor in Chemistry 

The minor consists of five chemistry courses at or above the 100-level. 
Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 
[50a. Topics in Chemistry: Global Change.] 

99a. Introductory Chemistry. Every fall. The Department. 

Designed for students with weak backgrounds or no prior experience in 
chemistry. An introduction to the states of matter and their properties, the mole 
concept and stoichiometry, and selected properties of the elements. Lectures, 
conferences, and four hours of laboratory work per week. 

109a. General Chemistry. Every fall and spring. The Department. 

Introduction to models for chemical bonding and intermolecular forces; 
characterization of systems at equilibrium and spontaneous processes, including 
oxidation and reduction; and the rates of chemical reactions. Lectures, confer- 
ences, and four hours of laboratory work per week. 

Prerequisite: A secondary school course in chemistry or Chemistry 99. 

210a. Quantitative Analysis. Fall 1996. Ms. Stemmler. 

Methods of separating and quantifying inorganic and organic compounds 
using volumetric, spectrophotometric, electrometric, and gravimetric techniques 
are covered. Fundamentals of gas and liquid chromatography and the statistical 
analysis of data are addressed. Lectures and four hours of laboratory work per 
week. 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 109. 

225a. Elementary Organic Chemistry. Spring 1997. Mr. Broene. 

An introduction to the chemistry of the compounds of carbon. Provides the 
foundation for further work in organic chemistry and biochemistry. Lectures, 
conference, and four hours of laboratory work per week. Not open to first-year 
students Spring 1997 only. 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 109. 

226a. Organic Chemistry. Fall 1996. The Department. 

A continuation of the study of the compounds of carbon. Chemistry 225 and 
226 cover the material of the usual course in organic chemistry and form a 



72 Courses of Instruction 

foundation for further work in organic chemistry and biochemistry. Lectures, 
conference, and four hours of laboratory work per week. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 225. 

[230a-239a. Intermediate Topics in Chemistry.] 

240a. Inorganic Chemistry. Spring 1997. Mr. Nagle. 

An introduction to the chemistry of the elements. Chemical bonding and its 
relationship to the properties and reactivities of main group and coordination 
compounds. Topics in solid state, bioinorganic, and environmental inorganic 
chemistry also are included. Provides the foundation for further work in inorganic 
chemistry and biochemistry. Lectures and four hours of laboratory work per 
week. 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 109. 

251a. Physical Chemistry I. Every fall. Mr. Butcher. 

Thermodynamics and its application to chemical changes and equilibria that 
occur in the gaseous, solid, and liquid states. The behavior of systems at 
equilibrium and chemical kinetics are related to molecular properties by means 
of the kinetic theory of gases. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry 109, Physics 103, and Mathematics 171. Math- 
ematics 181 recommended. 

252a. Physical Chemistry II. Every spring. Mr. Christensen. 

Development and principles of quantum mechanics with applications to 
atomic structure, chemical bonding, chemical reactivity, and molecular spectros- 
copy. 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 251 or permission of the instructor. Mathematics 
181 recommended. 

254a. Physical Chemistry Laboratory. Every spring. Mr. Christensen. 

Experiments in thermodynamics, kinetics, spectroscopy, and quantum chem- 
istry. Modern experimental methods, including digital electronics, computer- 
based data acquisition, and the use of pulsed and continuous lasers, are used to 
verify and explore fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. Emphasis on a 
modular approach to experimental design and the development of scientific 
writing skills. Lectures and four hours of laboratory work per week. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry 251 and 252 (generally taken concurrently). 

261a. Biochemistry I. Every Gall. Mr. Howland. 

Proteins and enzymes. An introduction to the chemistry and biology of small 
biological molecules, macromolecules, and membranes. Emphasis on kinetics 
and mechanisms of enzymic reactions and upon equilibrium and non-equilibrium 
thermodynamics underlying biological processes. Lectures and informally sched- 
uled laboratories, based upon computer models of biochemical reactions and 
metabolic networks. (Same as Biology 261.) 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 226. 



Chemistry 73 

262a. Biochemistry II. Every spring. Mr. Page. 

An introduction to metabolism. Topics include pathways in living cells by 
which carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and other important biomolecules are 
broken down to produce energy and biosynthesized. (Same as Biology 262.) 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 226 and Biology/Chemistry 261. 

270a. Molecular Structure Determination in Organic Chemistry. Spring 
1997. Mr. Broene. 

Theory and applications of spectroscopic techniques useful for the determina- 
tion of organic structures. Mass spectrometry and infrared, ultraviolet- visible, 
and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are discussed. Heavy 
emphasis is placed on applications of multiple-pulse Fourier transform NMR 
spectroscopic techniques. Lectures and up to two hours of laboratory work per 
week. 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 226. 

310a. Instrumental Analysis. Spring 1997. Ms. Stemmler. 

Theoretical and practical aspects of instrumental techniques such as nuclear 
magnetic resonance, infrared, Raman, X-ray fluorescence, and mass spectrom- 
etry are covered, in conjunction with advanced chromatographic methods. Signal 
processing, correlation techniques, and computer interfacing are explored. Lec- 
tures and four hours of laboratory work per week. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry 210 and 254 or permission of the instructor. 

[320a. Advanced Organic Chemistry.] 
330a-339a. Advanced Topics in Chemistry. 

330a. Bioorganic Chemistry. Fall 1996. Mr. Page. 

Thebioorganic chemistry of enzyme catalysis: an introduction to structure and 
mechanism in bioorganic chemistry. Concepts and methods of physical organic 
chemistry are applied toward understanding the factors that govern the catalysis 
of reactions by enzymes. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry 226 and 251, or permission of the instructor. 

[332a. Advanced Topics in Organic Chemistry.] 

340a. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. Fall 1996. Mr. Nagle. 

An in-depth coverage of inorganic chemistry. Spectroscopic and mechanistic 
studies of coordination and organometallic compounds, including applications to 
bioinorganic chemistry, are emphasized. Symmetry and applications of group 
theory are discussed. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry 240 and 252. 

291a-294a. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 
401a-404a. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 

For students intending to conduct a laboratory research project, one of 
Chemistry 254, Biology 211, or Biology 212 is required. 



74 Courses of Instruction 

Classics 

Professors Assistant Professors 

John W. Ambrose. Jr. James A. Higginbotham 

Barbara Weiden Boyd. Chair Ellen Greenstein Millender 

The Department of Classics offers two major programs: one with a focus on 
language and literature (classics), and one with a focus on classical archaeology 
(classics/archaeology). Students pursuing either major are encouraged to study 
not only the languages and literatures but also the physical monuments of Greece 
and Rome. This approach is reflected in the requirements for the two major 
programs: for each, requirements in Greek and/or Latin and in classical archae- 
ology must be fulfilled. 

Classics 

The classics program is arranged to accommodate both those students who have 
studied no classical languages and those who have had extensive training in Latin 
and Greek. The objective of classics courses is to study the ancient languages and 
literatures in the original. By their very nature, these courses involve students in 
the politics, history, and philosophies of antiquity. Advanced language courses 
focus on the analysis of textual material and on literary criticism. 

Requirements for the Major in Classics 

The major in classics consists often courses. At least six of the ten courses are to 
be chosen from offerings in Greek and Latin and should include at least two 
courses in Greek or Latin at the 300 level; one of the remaining courses should be 
Archaeology 101 or 102. Students concentrating in one of the languages are 
encouraged to take at least two courses in the other. No more than one classics 
course numbered in the 50s may be counted toward the major. 

Classics/Archaeology 

Within the broader context of classical studies, the classics/archaeology program 
pays special attention to the physical remains of classical antiquity. Students 
studying classical archaeology should develop an understanding of how archaeo- 
logical evidence can contribute to our knowledge of the past, and of how 
archaeological study interacts with such related disciplines as philology, history. 
and art history. In particular, they should acquire an appreciation for the unique 
balance of written and physical sources that makes classical archaeology a central 
part of classical studies. 

Requirements for the Major in Classics/Archaeology 

The major in classics/archaeology consists often courses. At least five of the ten 
courses are to be chosen from offerings in archaeology, and should include 
Archaeology 101, 102, and at least one archaeology course at the 300 level. At 
least four of the remaining courses are to be chosen from offerings in Greek or 
I .aim. and should include at least one at the 300 level. No more than one classics 
course numbered in the 50s may be counted toward the major. 



Classics 75 

Interdisciplinary Major 

The department participates in an interdisciplinary program in archaeology and 
art history. See page 146. 

Requirements for the Minor 

Students may choose a minor in one of five areas: 

1. Greek: Five courses in the department, including at least four in the 
Greek language; 

2. Latin: Five courses in the department, including at least four in the 
Latin language; 

3. Classics: Five courses in the department, including at least four in the 
classical languages; of these four, one should be either Greek 204 or 
Latin 205; 

4. Archaeology: Six courses in the department, including either Archae- 
ology 101 or 102, one archaeology course at the 300 level, and two 
other archaeology courses; 

5. Classical Civilization (Greek or Roman): Six courses, including 
a. — for the Greek civilization concentration: 

two courses in the Greek language; 
Archaeology 101; 

one of the following: Classics 11 (or any other appropriate first-year 
seminar), 51, or 52; or Philosophy 111; or Government 240; 
and two of the following: Archaeology 203 or any 300-level archaeol- 
ogy course focusing primarily on Greek material; Philosophy 331 or 
335; Classics 291-294 (Independent Study) or any 200- or 300-level 
Greek or classics course focusing primarily on Greek material. 

b. —for the Roman civilization concentration: 
two courses in the Latin language; 
Archaeology 102; 

one of the following: Classics 11 (or any other appropriate first-year 
seminar) or 51; or Philosophy 111; or Government 240; 
and two of the following: Archaeology 204 or any 300-level archaeol- 
ogy course focusing primarily on Roman material; or Classics 291-294 
(Independent Study) or any 200- or 300-level Latin or classics course 
focusing primarily on Roman material. 

Other courses in the Bowdoin curriculum may be applied to this minor if approved 

by the Classics Department. 

Classics and Archaeology at Bowdoin and Abroad 

Archaeology classes regularly use the outstanding collection of ancient art in the 
Bowdoin College Museum of Art. Of special note are the exceptionally fine 
holdings in Greek painted pottery and the very full and continuous survey of 



76 Courses of Instruction 

Greek and Roman coins. In addition, there are numerous opportunities for study 
or work abroad. Bowdoin is a participating member of the Intercollegiate Center 
for Classical Studies in Rome, where students in both major programs can study 
in the junior year (see page 38). It is also possible to receive course credit for field 
experience on excavations. Interested students should consult members of the 
department for further information. 

Students contemplating graduate study in classics or classical archaeology are 
advised to begin the study of at least one modern language in college, as most 
graduate programs require competence in French and German as well as in Latin 
and Greek. 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

Archaeology 101 and 102 are offered in alternate years. 

101c. Introduction to Greek Archaeology. Fall 1997. Mr. Higginbotham. 

Introduces the techniques and methods of classical archaeology as revealed 
through an examination of Greek material culture. Emphasis upon the major 
monuments and artifacts of the Greek world from prehistory to the Hellenistic 
age. Architecture, sculpture, fresco painting, and other "minor arts" are examined 
at such sites as Knossos, Mycenae, Athens, Delphi, and Olympia. Considers the 
nature of this archaeological evidence and the relationship of classical archaeol- 
ogy to other disciplines such as art history, history, and classics. Assigned reading 
supplements illustrated presentations of the major archaeological finds of the 
Greek world. (Same as Art 209.) 

102c. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. Fall 1996. Mr. Higginbotham. 

Surveys the material culture of Roman society, from Italy's prehistory and the 
origins of the Roman state through its development into a cosmopolitan empire, 
and concludes with the fundamental reorganization during the late third and early 
fourth centuries of our era. Lectures explore ancient sites such as Rome, Pompeii, 
Athens, Ephesus, and others around the Mediterranean. Emphasis upon the major 
monuments and artifacts of the Roman era: architecture, sculpture, fresco 
painting, and other "minor arts." Considers the nature of this archaeological 
evidence and the relationship ol classical archaeology to other disciplines such as 
art history, history, and classics. Assigned reading supplements illustrated 
presentations ofthe major archaeological finds of the Roman world. (Same as Art 
210.) 

201c. The Archaeology of the Hellenistic World. Spring 1997. Mr. 
HlGOINBOTHAM. 

Examines the reign and legacy of Alexander (he Great, as evidenced in the 
archaeological record. Iron) his accession to the throne of Macedonia in 336 B.C., 

until his untimely death in 323 b.c, Alexander extended the boundaries ofthe 

( ireek world from the Balkans to Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Asia as far as the Indus 

River. This course covers the dramatic developments in sculpture, painting. 



Classics 11 

architecture, and the minor arts in the cosmopolitan Greek world from the time 
of Alexander the Great until the advent of Rome in the first century b.c. Assigned 
readings supplement illustrated presentations of the major monuments and 
artifact sessions in the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. 

[203c. Temples, Shrines, and Holy Places of Ancient Greece.] 

[204c. Pagans and Christians: Art and Society in Late Antiquity.] 

At least one 300-level archaeology course is offered each year. Topics and/or 
periods recently taught on this level include: the Greek bronze age; Etruscan art 
and archaeology; Greek and Roman numismatics; Pompeii and the cities of 
Vesuvius. The 300-level course scheduled for 1996-97 is: 

306c. Cult and Religion in the Roman World. Spring 1997. Mr. Higginbotham. 

Explores the rich and diverse religions of the Roman world from prehistory 
until the rise of Christianity, as revealed through the archaeological record. 
Architecture and artifacts are examined with the purpose of understanding cult 
practice and the religious institutions of the Roman Empire. Class lectures and 
discussions explore the origins and practice of Roman domestic religion and 
native Italic cults, the incorporation of foreign gods into and their equation with 
the Italic pantheon, and the political role of state-sponsored religion. Assigned 
readings supplement illustrated presentations of the major monuments and 
artifact sessions in the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. 

Prerequisite: Archaeology 101, 102, 203, or 204. 

CLASSICS 

First- Year Seminar 

For a full description of the following first-year seminar, see pages 110-111. 
16c. Cultural Connections in the Ancient Mediterranean. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Higginbotham. 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

51c. Classical Mythology. Spring 1997. Ms. Boyd. 

Focuses on the mythology of the Greeks and the use of myth in Classical 
literature. Other topics considered are: recurrent patterns and motifs in Greek 
myths; across-cultural study of ancient creation myths; the relation of mythology 
to religion; women's roles in myth; and the application of modern anthropologi- 
cal, sociological, and psychological theories to classical myth. Concludes with an 
examination of Ovid's use of classical mythology in the Metamorphoses. 

52c. Greek Literature in Translation. Spring 1998. Ms. Boyd. 

An introduction to the important works of Greek literature in English transla- 
tion. The objective of the course is not only to provide an understanding and 
appreciation of the literary achievements of the Greeks, but also to convey a sense 
of the meaning and spirit of Greek literature in the context of Greek history and 
culture. 



78 Courses of Instruction 

[203c. Temples, Shrines, and Holy Places of Ancient Greece.] 

[204c. Pagans and Christians: Art and Society in late Antiquity.] 

211c. Greek History Survey: The Emergence of the Greek City-State. Spring 

1998. MS. MlLLENDER. 

A chronological survey of archaic and classical Greek history and civilization 
from the traditional foundation of the Olympic games in 776 b.c. to the fall of the 
Athenian empire in 404 b.c. Three main themes are developed: political theory 
and practice, warfare, and gender relations in ancient Greece. Emphasis is placed 
on the interpretation of ancient evidence, including primary literary works, 
inscriptions, and relevant archaeological material. Attention is also given to 
historical methods, particularly textual criticism and the utilization of different, 
and sometimes conflicting, types of evidence. (Same as History 201.) 

212c. Conquest, Expansion, and Conflict: The Development of the Roman 
Empire 264 b.c.e.-14 c.e. Spring 1997. Ms. Millender. 

Examines Rome' s rapid transformation into the leading power in the Mediter- 
ranean and the political, social, cultural, and economic changes that this extended 
period of growth produced in Roman society. Following a general introduction 
to early Roman history and institutions, this course traces Rome's usurpation of 
Carthaginian power in the West and conquest of the Hellenistic East, and 
investigates the forces that led to the fall of the Roman Republic and the rise of 
the Roman Empire under the guidance of Augustus, Rome's first emperor. 
Emphasis is placed on the interpretation of ancient evidence, including primary 
literary works, inscriptions, and relevant archaeological material. (Same as 
History 202.) 

221c. Women in the Life and Literature of Classical Antiquity. Spring 1998. 
Ms. Boyd. 

Examines the experiences of Greek and Roman women as represented in both 
literary and documentary sources. Topics include: the portrayal of women in 
ancient myth and literature, women's role in state and private religious activities. 
women in the elite, the legal and social status of women, family and household 
organization, and scientific knowledge and folklore concerning gender and 
sexuality in antiquity. These and other topics are followed chronologically 
through the two cultures, with special emphasis given to the coincidences and 
conflicts between literary images of women and the realities recoverable through 

documentary evidence. 

Prerequisite: Any Classics or Women's Studies course, or permission of the 
instructor. 

223c. Family and Society in Ancient Rome. I all 1997. Ms. Boyd. 

An exploration "I the Roman concept of the family in historical and cultural 
context. Topics to be covered include the ancient definition of Jamilia, and its 
legal and social implications; marriage and divorce; the ideal of patria potestOS 
;nnl real family dynamics; women's roles in the family; slavery and the roles of 



Classics 79 

slaves in the family; the status, treatment, and education of children; household 
economics; and the Roman house, both urban and rural. Readings will be selected 
from both primary sources in translation (literary, historical, and documentary) 
and modern socio-historical studies of the topic. No background in classics is 
required. 

226c. "Barbarians" in the Ancient World. Fall 1997. Ms. Millender. 

Explores the ways in which both the Greeks and Romans perceived and 
depicted outsiders and formulated their conceptions of the "self and the "other." 
Beginning with a look at current works on ethnography and intercultural contact, 
we then examine Greek and Roman accounts of the various peoples who lived on 
the fringes of their respective civilizations. Topics include the development of 
ethnography in the ancient world, the position of race in ancient conceptions of 
the "barbarian," the role of gender and sexuality in constructions of difference, 
and religion and ritual as cultural signifiers. 

228c. Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology. Fall 1996. Ms. Millender. 

Explores the nature of slavery in both archaic and classical Greek society and 
republican and imperial Roman society. Through close examination of the 
literature, art, and archaeological remains from these periods, this course exam- 
ines the processes that led to the exploitation of slave labor in both societies, how 
slavery functioned within the ancient economy and in ancient political systems, 
whether it had any racial basis, and how it was judged socially, morally, and 
philosophically. Comparisons are made between these two slave societies and 
later examples, particularly that of the United States before the Civil War, in order 
to understand what was unique about slavery in the ancient world. The course also 
considers modern historiography on ancient slavery and how this affects our 
understanding of slavery in two societies removed both in time and space from the 
modern world. (Same as History 200.) 

GREEK 

101c. Elementary Greek. Every fall. Mr. Ambrose. 

A thorough presentation of the elements of accidence and syntax based, 
insofar as possible, on unaltered passages of classical Greek. 

102c. Elementary Greek. Every spring. Mr. Ambrose. 

A continuation of Greek 101. During this term, a work of historical or 
philosophical prose is read. 

203c. Intermediate Greek for Reading. Every fall. Ms. Millender. 

A review of the essentials of Greek grammar and syntax and an introduction 
to the reading of Greek prose and sometimes poetry. Materials to be read change 
from year to year, but always include a major prose work. 

Prerequisite: Greek 102 or two to three years of high school Greek. 

204c. Homer. Every spring. Mr. Ambrose. 



BO Courses of Instruction 

One advanced Greek course is offered each semester. The aim of each of these 
courses is to give students the opportunity for sustained reading and discussion 
o\ at least one major author or genre representative of classical Greek literature. 
Primary focus is on the texts, with serious attention given as well both to the 
historical context from which these works emerged and to contemporary discus- 
sions and debates concerning these works. 

Department faculty generally attempt to schedule offerings in response to the 
needs and interests of concentrators. Topics and/or authors frequently taught on 
this level include: Greek lyric and elegiac poetry; Homer's Odyssey; Greek drama 
(including the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and the com- 
edies of Artistophanes and Menander); Greek history (including Herodotus and 
Thucydides); Greek philosophy (including Plato and Aristotle); Greek rhetoric 
and oratory; and the literature of the Alexandrian era. The 300-level courses 
scheduled for 1996-97 and 1997-98 include: 

301c. Homer: The Odyssey. Spring 1997. Mr. Ambrose. 

303c. The Historians. Fall 1997. Ms. Millender. 

305c. Tragedy. Spring 1998. Mr. Ambrose. 

306c. Plato and Aristotle. Fall 1996. Mr. Ambrose. 

LATIN 

101c. Elementary Latin. Every fall. Ms. Millender. 

A thorough presentation of the elements of Latin grammar. Emphasis is placed 
on achieving a reading proficiency. 

102c. Elementary Latin. Every spring. Ms. Millender. 

A continuation of Latin 101. During this term, readings are based on unaltered 
passages of classical Latin. 

203c. Intermediate Latin for Reading. Every fall. The Department. 

A review of the essentials of Latin grammar and syntax and an introduction to 
the reading of Latin prose and poetry. Materials to be read change from year to 
year, but always include a major prose work and excerpts from Latin poetry. 

Prerequisite: Latin 102 or two to three years of high school Latin. 

204c. Studies in Latin Literature. Every spring. The Department. 

An introduction to different genres and themes in Latin literature. The subject 
matter and authors Covered may change from year to year (e.g., selections from 
Virgil's Aeneid and Livy's History, or from Lueretius, Ovid, and Cicero), bill 
attention is always given to the historical and literary context of the authors read. 
While the primary locus is on reading Latin texts, some readings from Latin 
literature in translation are also assigned. 

Prerequisite: Latin 203 or three to lour years of high school Latin. 



Computer Science 81 

205c. Latin Poetry. Fall 1996. Ms. Boyd. 

An introduction to the appreciation and analysis of works by the major Latin 
poets. Readings include selections from poets such as Catullus, Lucretius, 
Horace, Virgil, and/or Ovid. 

Prerequisite: Latin 204 or four years (or more) of high school Latin. 

One advanced Latin course is offered each semester. The aim of each of these 
courses is to give students the opportunity for sustained reading and discussion 
of at least one major author or genre representative of classical Latin literature. 
Primary focus is on the texts, with serious attention given as well both to the 
historical context from which these works emerged and to contemporary discus- 
sions and debates concerning these works. 

Department faculty generally attempt to schedule offerings in response to the 
needs and interests of concentrators. Topics and/or authors frequently taught on 
this level include: Roman history (including Sallust, Livy, and Tacitus); Ovid's 
Metamorphoses; Elegiac poetry; Cicero's oratory; Virgil's Aeneid or Eclogues 
and Georgics; Roman novel (including Petronius and Apuleius); satire; and 
comedy (including Plautus and Terence). The 300-level courses scheduled for 
1996-97 and 1997-98 include: 

303c. Elegiac Poetry. Spring 1998. Ms. Boyd. 

304c. Cicero and Roman Oratory. Fall 1997. Ms. Boyd. 

305c. Virgil: The Aeneid. Spring 1997. Ms. Boyd. 

306c. The Roman Novel. Fall 1996. Ms. Boyd. 

Independent Study in Greek, Latin, Archaeology, and Classics 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

401c^404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



Computer Science 



Professor Associate Professor Visiting Assistant Professor 

Allen B. Tucker, Jr. David K. Garnick, Chair Clare Bates Congdon 

Requirements for the Major in Computer Science 

The major consists of nine computer science courses and two mathematics 
courses (Mathematics 171 and 228), for a total of eleven courses. The computer 
science courses in the major are the two introductory courses (Computer Science 
101 and 210), four intermediate "core" courses (Computer Science 220, 231, 
250, and 289), and three elective courses (i.e., any computer science courses 
numbered 300 or above). Depending on individual needs, Computer Science 
291-294 or 401-404 (Independent Study) may be used to fulfill one or two of 
these elective requirements. 



s2 Courses of Instruction 

Requirements for the Minor in Computer Science 

The minor consists of five courses, Computer Science 101, 210, 220, 231, and 

Mathematics 228. 

Interdisciplinary Major 

The department participates in an interdisciplinary major program in computer 
science and mathematics. See page 146. 

Student-Designed Major 

Students who are interested in a student-designed major that combines computer 
science with another discipline are encouraged to discuss their ideas with the 
department. 

First-Year Seminar 

For a full description of the following first-year seminar, see page 111. 
10. Computers, Society, and Thought. Fall 1996. Mr. Tucker. 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

50a. Computers and Computation. Spring 1997. Spring 1998. 
Mr. Tucker. 

Introduces students to the principles and technical aspects of key develop- 
ments in computing, and addresses their impact on various academic and 
professional fields. Topics include the Internet and worldwide information 
exchange, hypermedia and user interface design, computer graphics problems, 
and fundamentals of computer organization. Course work includes programming 
and problem solving, readings, and a term project relating technology to the 
student's areas of interest. 

101a. Introduction to Computer Science. Every semester. 
The Department. 

An introduction to computer science and problem solving through computer 
programming. Using the PASCAL programming language, students develop 
interactive programs to create graphics and games, manipulate text, and perform 
numerical calculations. The course is open to all students, and does not assume 
any prior programming experience. Specially designated sections will be offered 
that emphasi/e scientific and mathematical applications; these sections may be of 
special interest to students looking to complement studies in mathematics and 
natural and social sciences. All sections provide good preparation for further 
computer science courses. 

210a. Data Structures and Abstraction. Hvery spring. Spring 1997. Spring 
1998. Ms. Conodon. 

Explores die central role ol abstraction in computer science in terms of both 
data structures and program organization. Toiiics include stacks, queues, trees, 
graphs, and the complexity of operations like searching and sorting. Laboratory 
exercises in (' and C++ under Unix apply these abstractions to solving real 

problems. 

Prerequisite: Computer Science 101. 



Computer Science 83 

220a. Computer Organization. Every fall. Fall 1996. Fall 1997. 
Mr. Tucker. 

Computer systems are organized as multiple layers. Each layer provides a 
more sophisticated abstraction than the layer upon which it is built. This course 
examines system design at the digital logic, microprogramming, and assembly 
language layers of computer organization. The goal of the course is to understand 
how it is possible for hardware to carry out software instructions. Laboratory 
work familiarizes students with a particular machine through assembly-language 
programming. 

Prerequisite: Computer Science 101. 

231a. Algorithms. Every fall. Fall 1996. Fall 1997. Mr. Garnick. 

The study of algorithms concerns programming for computational efficiency, 
as well as problem- solving techniques. The course covers practical algorithms 
and theoretical issues in the design and analysis of algorithms. Topics include 
trees, graphs, sorting, dynamic programming, NP-completeness, and approxima- 
tion algorithms. Laboratory experiments are used to illustrate principles. (Same 
as Mathematics 231.) 

Prerequisites: Computer Science 210 and Mathematics 228, or permission 
of the instructor. 

250a. Principles of Programming Languages. Every spring. Spring 1997. 
Spring 1998. Mr. Tucker. 

Presents a comparative study of programming languages and paradigms, with 
special attention to object-orientation (using C++ or Eiffel), functional program- 
ming (LISP or ML), logic programming (Prolog), and parallelism. Covers 
principles of programming language design and implementation, including 
syntax, semantics, types, data procedural abstractions, control structures, inher- 
itance, polymorphism, compilers, and interpreters. 

Prerequisite: Computer Science 210. 

289a. Theory of Computation. Every spring. Spring 1997. Spring 1998. The 
Department. 

Examines the theoretical principles that determine how much computational 
power is required to solve particular classes of problems. Topics include regular 
and context free languages; finite, stack, and tape machines; and solvable vs. 
unsolvable problems. (Same as Mathematics 289.) 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 228 or permission of the instructor. 

291a-294a. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

335a. Parallel Computing. Offered in alternate years. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Garnick. 

Examines ways in which computers and languages can provide services in 
parallel and coordinate the use of distributed resources. Topics include the design 
and analysis of parallel algorithms, interconnection networks, language-level 
primitives for distributed computing, and parallel algorithms in semi-numerical 
and scientific applications. 

Prerequisites: Computer Science 231 or consent of instructor. 



84 Courses of Instruction 

340a. Computer Graphics. Offered in alternate years. Spring 1998. 
Mr. Garmck. 

A study of the theory and implementation of techniques for rendering and 
manipulating graphical images. Topics include clipping, filling, interaction, 
coordinate transformations, perspective viewing, and shading. Projects will 
develop interactive graphical models designed by the students. 

Prerequisite: Computer Science 210. 

365a. Software Design. Fall 1997. Mr. Tucker. 

A study of the contemporary principles and methodologies that underlie the 
design and implementation of large, complex software systems. Topics include 
formal specification, functional decomposition, object-oriented decomposition, 
testing and verification strategies, security and reliability issues, user interfaces, 
the use of design and measurement tools, and teaming. Case studies and team 
software projects provide laboratory experiences that reinforce the principles 
discussed in class and in the readings. 

370a. Artificial Intelligence. Offered in alternate years. Fall 1 996. Ms. Congdon. 

Explores the principles and techniques involved in programming computers 
to do tasks that would require intelligence if people did them. State-space and 
heuristic search techniques, logic and other knowledge representations, and 
statistical and neural network approaches are applied to problems such as game 
playing, planning, the understanding of natural language, and computer vision. 

Prerequisite: Computer Science 210 and 250, or permission of the instructor. 

375a. Natural Language Processing. Offered in alternate years. Fall 1997. The 
Department. 

Explores the design of computer systems that try to understand or generate 
natural language text. Topics include syntactic grammars for representing sen- 
tence structure, semantic systems for representing word and sentence meaning, 
pragmatic models for interpreting sentences in context, and the power and limits 
of statistical corpus-based techniques. 

Prerequisite: Computer Science 210 and 250, or permission of the instructor. 

4H I ;i-404;i. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



Economics 85 

Economics 

Professors Associate Professors Visiting Associate 

A. Myrick Freeman III Rachel Ex Connelly, Chair Professor 

David J. Vail Gregory P. DeCoster Robert J. Mclntyre 

John M. Fitzgeraldf Assistant Professors 

Jonathan P. Goldstein Deborah S. DeGraff 

C. Michael Jones B. Zorina Khan 

Andreas Ortmannf 

The major in economics is designed for students who wish to obtain a systematic 
introduction to the basic theoretical and empirical techniques of economics. It 
provides an opportunity to study economics as a social science with a core of 
theory, to study the process of drawing inferences from bodies of data and testing 
hypotheses against observation, and to study the application of economic theory 
to particular social problems. Such problems include Third World economic 
development, the functioning of economic institutions (e.g., corporations, gov- 
ernment agencies, labor unions), and current policy issues (e.g., the federal 
budget, poverty, the environment, deregulation). The major is a useful prepara- 
tion for graduate study in economics, law, business, or public administration. 

Requirements for the Major in Economics 

The major consists of three core courses (Economics 255, 256, and 257), two 
advanced topics courses numbered in the 300s, and two additional courses in 
economics numbered 200 or above. Because Economics 101 is a prerequisite for 
Economics 102, and both are prerequisites for most other economics courses, 
most students will begin their work in economics with these introductory courses. 
Prospective majors are encouraged to take at least one core course by the end of 
the sophomore year, and all three core courses should normally be completed by 
the end of the junior year. Advanced topics courses normally have some 
combination of Economics 255, 256, and 257 as prerequisites. Qualified students 
may undertake self-designed, interdisciplinary major programs or joint majors 
between economics and related fields of social analysis. 

To fulfill the major (or minor) requirements in economics, or to serve as a 
prerequisite for non-introductory courses, a grade of C or better must be earned 
in a course. 

All prospective majors and minors are strongly encouraged to complete 
Mathematics 161, or its equivalent, prior to enrolling in the core courses. 
Students who aspire to advanced work in economics (e.g., an honors thesis and/ 
or graduate study in a discipline related to economics) are strongly encouraged to 
master multivariate calculus (Mathematics 181 ) and linear algebra (Mathemat- 
ics 222) early in their careers. Such students are also encouraged to take 
Mathematics 265 instead of Economics 257 as a prerequisite for Economics 
316. The Economics 257 requirement is waived for students who complete 
Mathematics 265 and Economics 316. Students should consult the Economics 
Department about other mathematics courses that are essential for advanced 
study in economics. 



86 Courses of Instruction 

Interdisciplinary Major 

The department participates in an interdisciplinary major in mathematics and 
economics. See page 146. 

Requirements for the Minor in Economics 

The minor consists of Economics 255 or 256, and any two additional courses 
numbered 200 or above. 

First- Year Seminar 

[18b. Sustainable Development: Environment, Economics, and Society.] 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

101b. Principles of Microeconomics. Every semester. The Department. 

An introduction to economic analysis and institutions, with special emphasis 
on the allocation of resources through markets. The theory of demand, supply, 
cost, and market structure is developed and then applied to problems in antitrust 
policy, environmental quality, energy, education, health, the role of the corpora- 
tion in society, income distribution, and poverty. Students desiring a comprehen- 
sive introduction to economic reasoning should take both Economics 101 and 
102. 

102b. Principles of Macroeconomics. Every semester. The Department. 

An introduction to economic analysis and institutions, with special emphasis 
on determinants of the level of national income, prices, and employment. Current 
problems of inflation and unemployment are explored with the aid of such 
analysis, and alternative views of the effectiveness of fiscal, monetary, and other 
governmental policies are analyzed. Attention is given to the sources and 
consequences of economic growth and to the nature and significance of interna- 
tional linkages through goods and capital markets. 

Prerequisite: Economics 101. 

207b. International Economics. Fall 1996. Mr. Jones. 

An analysis of the factors influencing the direction and composition of trade 
flows among nations, balance of payments equilibrium and adjustment mecha- 
nisms, and the international monetary system. Basic elements of international 
economic theory arc applied to current issues such as tariff policy, capital flows 
and international investment, reform of the international monetary system, and 
the Internationa] competitiveness of the American economy. 

Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102. 

208b. American Economic History and Development. Fall 1996. 

Ms. Kaiin. 

Examines the development of institutions from the colonial period to the rise 
ol the modern corporation in order to understand the sources i)\ l f. S. economic 
growth. Topics include early industrialization, technological change, transporta- 
tion, capita] markets, enticpiencurslnp and labor markets, and legal institutions. 

Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102. 



Economics 87 

209b. Financial Markets. Spring 1997. Ms. Kahn. 

A study of the economics of financial markets. Analytical tools needed to 
understand the domestic financial markets are developed and applied to current 
economic events. Topics include the money supply process; portfolio theory and 
the capital asset pricing model; the function, structure, and operation of debt and 
equity markets; the efficient markets hypothesis; and financial innovation and 
regulation. 

Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102. 

210b. Economics of the Public Sector. Fall 1997 or Spring 1998. 

Mr. Fitzgerald. 

Theoretical and applied evaluation of government activities and the role of 
government in the economy. Topics include public goods, public choice, income 
redistribution, benefit-cost analysis, health care, social security, and incidence 
and behavioral effects of taxation. 

Prerequisite: Economics 101. 

212b. Labor and Human Resource Economics. Fall 1997 or Spring 1998. Ms. 
Connelly. 

A study of labor market structure and its performance, with special emphasis 
on human resources policies, human capital formation, and models of discrimi- 
nation in the labor market. 

Prerequisite: Economics 101. 

214b. Comparative Political Economy. Fall 1996. Mr. McIntyre. 

An investigation of criteria for defining and evaluating the performance of 
different forms of organizing economic activity. Considers market, mixed, and 
planned economies, with specific attention to France, Germany, Sweden, Japan, 
the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and Cuba. Comparison of 
alternative incentive, resource allocation, distributional, and social policy struc- 
tures; evaluation of strategies for achieving long-term growth; and analysis of 
interactions betweeen economic, political, and cultural factors in determining 
differential systems outcomes. 

Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102, or permission of the instructor. 

216b. Industrial Organization. Fall 1997 or Spring 1998. Mr. Ortmann. 

A study of the organization of for-profit and nonprofit firms, their strategic 
interactions, and the role of information. Introduces basic game-theoretic con- 
cepts, with which many problems of industrial organization can be analyzed. 

Prerequisite: Economics 101 or permission of the instructor. 

217b. The Economics of Population. Spring 1997. Ms. DeGrafk. 

A study of the interaction of economic variables and population processes, 
especially fertility, mortality, and migration. The first half of the course focuses 
on economic determinants of population dynamics; the second half, on the 
consequences of population growth for the economy. Analysis of both industri- 
alized and developing countries is incorporated. 

Prerequisite: Economics 101. 



88 Courses of Instruction 

218b. Economics of Environmental Quality and Resources. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Freeman. 

The economic dimensions of environmental quality and resource manage- 
ment problems faced by the United States and the world. The relationships among 
population, production, and pollution; the role of market failure in explaining the 
existence of pollution; evaluation of alternative strategies for pollution control 
and environmental management; the adequacy of natural resource stocks to meet 
the future demands of the United States and the world. 

Prerequisite: Economics 101. 

219b,d. Underdevelopment and Strategies for Development in Poor 
Countries. Spring 1997. Mr. Vail. 

The major economic features of underdevelopment are investigated, with 
stress on economic dualism and the interrelated problems of poverty, inequality, 
urban bias, and environmental degradation. The assessment of development 
strategies emphasizes key policy choices, such as export promotion versus import 
substitution, agriculture versus industry, plan versus market, and capital versus 
labor-intensive technologies. Topics include the Third World debt crisis, environ- 
mental sustainability, and rapid industrialization in East Asia. 

Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102, or permission of the instructor. 

[223b. European Economic History.] 

235b. Transitional Economies: Planning, Economic Reform, and 
Reorganization. Spring 1997. Mr. McIntyre. 

Considers the difficult transition to market-type economy in Eastern Europe, 
the former Soviet Union, and China. Issues of privatization, marketization, the 
sequencing of reforms, the survival of mixed forms of ownership, and the social- 
policy consequences of these changes are studied over the period from 1978- 
1997. The historical roots of current differences in economic reform, perfor- 
mance, and structure are also examined. Comparisons are also made to the late- 
industrializing East Asian model of development, as well as earlier to Japanese 
experience. 

Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102, or permission of the instructor. 

255b. Microeconomics. Fall 1996 and Spring 1997. Ms. Connelly. 

An intermediate-level study of contemporary microeconomic theory. Analy- 
sis of the theory of resource allocation and distribution, with major emphasis on 
systems of markets and prices as a social mechanism for making resource 
allocation decisions, Topics include the theory of individual choice and demand, 
the theory of the firm, market equilibrium under competition and monopoly, 
general equilibrium theory, and welfare economies. Enrollment limited to 40 
students. 

Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102. Elementary calculus will be used. 
256b. Macroeconomics. Fall 1996. Mr. JONES. Spring 1997. Mk. I)i Cnsn k. 

An intermediate-level study of contemporary national income, employment, 
and inflation theory. Consumption, investment, government receipts, govern- 
ment expenditures, money, and interest rates are examined for their determinants, 



Economics 89 

interrelationships, and role in determining the level of aggregate economic 
activity. Policy implications are drawn from the analysis. Enrollment limited to 
40 students. 

Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102. Elementary calculus will be used. 

257b. Economic Statistics. Fall 1996. Ms. DeGraff. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Goldstein. 

An introduction to the data and statistical methods used in economics. A 
review of the systems that generate economic data and the accuracy of such data 
is followed by an examination of the statistical methods used in testing the 
hypotheses of economic theory, both micro- and macro-. Probability, random 
variables and their distributions, methods of estimating parameters, hypothesis 
testing, regression, and correlation are covered. The application of multiple 
regression to economic problems is stressed. Enrollment limited to 40 students. 

Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102. Elementary calculus will be used. 

291b-294b. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

Courses numbered above 300 are advanced courses in economic analysis 
intended primarily for majors. Enrollment in these courses is limited to 18 
students in each unless stated otherwise. Elementary calculus will be used in all 
300-level courses. 

301b. The Economics of the Family. Spring 1997. Ms. Connelly. 

Microeconomic analysis of the family, its roles, and its related institutions. 
Topics include marriage, fertility, labor supply, divorce, and the family as an 
economic organization. 

Prerequisites: Economics 255 and 257, or permission of the instructor. 

302b. Business Cycles. Spring 1997. Mr. Goldstein. 

A survey of competing theories of the business cycle, empirical tests of cycle 
theories, and appropriate macro stabilization policies. Topics include descriptive 
and historical analysis of cyclical fluctuations in the United States, Keynesian- 
Kaleckian multiplier-accelerator models, NBER analysis of cycles, growth cycle 
models, theories of financial instability, Marxian crisis theory, new classical and 
new Keynesian theories, and international aspects of business cycles. 

Prerequisite: Economics 256 or permission of the instructor. 

308b. Advanced International Trade. Spring 1997. Mr. Jones. 

The study of international trade in goods and capital. Theoretical models are 
developed to explain the pattern of trade and the gains from trade in competitive 
and imperfectly competitive world markets. This theory is then applied to issues 
in commercial policy, such as free trade versus protection, regional integral ion. 
the GATT and trade liberalization, foreign direct investment, LDC debt, and the 
changing comparative advantage of the United States. 

Prerequisite: Economics 255 or permission of the instructor. 



90 Courses of Instruction 

309b. Monetary Economics and Finance. Fall 1996. Mr. DeCoster. 

Advanced study of monetary and financial economics. Topics include portfo- 
lio theory and asset pricing models; financial market volatility and the efficient 
markets hypothesis; options and futures; mergers and acquisitions; monetary and 
financial theories of the business cycle; and issues in the conduct of monetary 
policy. 

Prerequisites: Economics 255 and 257 and Mathematics 161, or permission 
of the instructor. 

310b. Advanced Public Economics. Fall 1 997 or Spring 1 998. Mr. Fitzgerald. 

A survey of theoretical and empirical evaluations of government activities, 
considering both efficiency and equity aspects. Topics include public choice, 
income redistribution, benefit-cost analysis, analysis of selected government 
expenditure programs (including social security), incidence and behavioral 
effects of taxation, and tax reform. Current public policy issues are emphasized. 

Prerequisites: Economics 255 and 257, or permission of the instructor. Not 
open to those who have taken Economics 210. 

316b. Econometrics. Fall 1996. Mr. Goldstein. 

A study of the mathematical formulation of economic models and the 
statistical methods of testing them. A detailed examination of the general linear 
regression model, its assumptions, and its extensions. Applications to both micro- 
and macro-economics are considered. Though most of the course deals with 
single-equation models, an introduction to the estimation of systems of equations 
is included. An empirical research paper is required. Enrollment limited to 25 
students. 

Prerequisites: Economics 257 or Mathematics 265, and Mathematics 161, 
or permission of the instructor. 

318b. Environmental and Resource Economics. Fall 1997. Mr. Freeman. 

Analysis of externalities and market failure; models of optimum control of 
pollution and efficient management of renewable and nonrenewable natural 
resources such as fisheries, forests, and minerals; benefit-cost analysis, risk- 
benefit assessment, and the techniques for measuring benefits and costs of 
policies. 

Prerequisites: Economics 255 and 257. Not open to those who have taken 
Economics 218. 

319M. The Economics of Development. Fall 1997 or Spring 1998. 
Ms. DeGraff. 

Theoretical and empirical analysis of selected microeconomic issues within 
the context of developing countries. The course has a dual focus on modeling 
household decisions and on the effects of government policy and intervention. 
Topics include household labor allocation; agriculture production, land use, and 
land tenure systems; investment in education ami human resource development; 

income inequality; and population dynamics. 

Prerequisites: Economics 255 and 257, or permission ol the instructor. 



Education 91 

321b. Ecological Economics and Sustainable Development. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Vail. 

Explores an emerging economic sub-discipline, built on the recognition that 
economies are open sub-systems of ecosystems, subject to natural "laws" and 
constraints. The first focus is theories and evidence regarding co-evolution of the 
economy and environment, drawing insights from biophysical and social sci- 
ences. The course then traces recent scholarly debates about principles for 
sustainable economic development and operational guidelines for sustainable 
resource allocation and ecosystem maintenance. 

Prerequisites: Economics 255 and 257 or equivalent background in empirical 
methods. 

349b. Economic Geography. Fall 1997 or Spring 1998. Mr. DeCoster. 

Examines the spatial distribution of economic activity with the goal of 
understanding the changing patterns of economic agglomeration and demarca- 
tion observed in modern economies. Topics may include city formation, struc- 
ture, and growth; models of systems of cities; urbanization and economic 
development; suburbanization and edge city economics; the dynamics of regional 
economic evolution; and financial issues in economic geography, such as the 
determinants of optimal currency areas. Theoretical analysis is supplemented 
with applications drawn from current developments, such as European economic 
unification. 

Prerequisites: Economics 255 and Mathematics 171, or permission of the 
instructor. 

355b. Topics in Advanced Microeconomic Theory: The Theory and Practice 
of Games and Decisions. Spring 1998. Mr. Ortmann. 

Many problems in business, politics, and everyday life can be framed in simple 
game-theoretic terms. Introduces the essential ideas of noncooperative game 
theory and asymmetric information. Also introduces the student to the use of 
experimental methods in economics. 

Prerequisite: Economics 255 or permission of the instructor. 

401b-404b. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



Education 

Associate Professor Lecturer 

T. Penny Martin, Chair Kathleen O'Connor 

Assistant Professor Adjunct Lecturer 

Nancy E. Jennings George S. Isaacson 

Bowdoin College does not offer a major in education. 

Requirements for the Minor in Education 

The minor in education consists of four courses. 



I Courses of Instruction 

Requirements for Certification to Teach in Public Secondary Schools 

Because teaching in the public schools requires some form of licensure, the 
education department provides a sequence of courses which may lead to certifi- 
cation for secondary school teaching. This sequence includes the following: 

1 . A major in the discipline the student intends to teach, such as Spanish, 
biology, mathematics, or English. History and government majors are classified 
as social studies for certification purposes; meeting social studies requirements 
requires early and careful planning. Public schools rarely offer more than one 
course in subjects such as sociology, philosophy, anthropology, art history, 
religion, or economics, so students with interests in those and similar fields should 
meet with department members as soon as possible to develop a program that will 
include those interests within a teaching field. While students' programs of study 
at Bowdoin need not be seriously restricted by plans to teach, majors and minors 
should be chosen with teaching possibilities in mind. 

2. Six courses offered by the Department of Education: Education 101 or 102; 
Education 203: and Education 301, 302, 303, and 304. 

3. Psychology 101. 

4. Pre-practicum experience in a classroom. 

Because education is not a major at Bowdoin, students interested in teaching as 
a career must carefully plan the completion of course work for certification. 

Requirements for Teaching in Private Schools 

State certification is not usually a requirement for teaching in independent 
schools. Thus, there is no common specification of what an undergraduate 
program for future private school teachers should be. In addition to a strong major 
in a secondary-school teaching field, however, it is recommended that prospec- 
tive teachers follow a sequence of courses similar to the one leading to public 
school certification. 

There is a further discussion of careers in teaching on page 36. 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

101c. Contemporary American Education. Fall 1996. Ms. Jennings. 

Examines current educational issues in the United States, beginning with the 
Brown school desegregation decision in 1954. Topics include the purpose of 
schooling and what should be taught, the roles of federal, slate, and local 
governments in education, the rise of new populations and new educational 
institutions, school choice, issues of gender, and the reform movements of the 
1990s. The role of schools and colleges in society's pursuit of equality and 
excellence forms the backdrop ol this study. 

102c. History of American Education. Spring 1997. Ms. Martin. 

A study of the evolution of American educational ideas and institutions. 

Indium;' llirnns thai have shaped American education, such as the purpose of 

.< hooling, the nature oi the curriculum, ami the training and role of the teacher, 

BK traced through the works Of SUCh figures as Horace Mann, Mary Lyon, W. E. 
I', I HlBoifl .ind lolin Dewey. 



Education 93 

202c. Education and Biography. Spring 1997. Ms. Martin. 

An examination of issues in American education through biography, autobi- 
ography, and autobiographical fiction. The effects of class, race, and gender on 
teaching, learning, and educational institutions are seen from the viewpoint of the 
individual, one infrequently represented in the professional literature. Authors 
include Coles. McCarthy. Kincaid. and Welty. 

Prerequisite: Education 101 or 102, or permission of the instructor. Enroll- 
ment limited to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. 

203c. Educating All Children. Fall 1996. Ms. Jennings. 

An examination of the economic, social, political, and pedagogical implica- 
tions of universal education in American classrooms. The course focuses on the 
right of every child, including physically handicapped, learning disabled, and 
gifted, to equal educational opportunity. Requires two hours a week in schools. 

Prerequisite: Education 101 or 102. or permission of the instructor. 

250c. Law and Education. Even other year. Fall 1996. Mr. Isaacson. 

A study of the impact of the American legal system on the functioning of 
schools in the United States through an examination of Supreme Court decisions 
and federal legislation. This course analyzes the public policy considerations that 
underlie court decisions in the field of education, and it considers how those 
judicial interests may differ from the traditional concerns of school boards, 
administrators, and teachers. Issues to be discussed include constitutional and 
statutory developments affecting schools in such areas as free speech, student 
discipline, sex discrimination, prayer, religious objections to compulsory educa- 
tion and curriculum materials, race relations, teachers" rights, school financing, 
bilingual programs, and education of the handicapped. 

251c. The Teaching of Writing: Theory and Practice. Fall 1996. 
Ms. O'Connor. 

Explores theories and methods of teaching writing, emphasizing collaborative 
learning and peer tutoring. Examines relationships between the writing process 
and the written product, writing and learning, and language and communities. 
Investigates disciplinary writing conventions, influences of gender and culture on 
language and learning, and concerns of ESL and learning disabled writers. 
Students practice and reflect on revising, responding to others' writing, and 
conducting conferences. Prepares students to serve as writing assistants for the 
Writing Project. 

This course may not be used to satisfy teacher certification requirements. 

Prerequisite: Selection in previous spring by application to the instructor. 

301c. Teaching. Fall 1996. Ms. Martin. 

A study of what takes place in classrooms: the methods and purposes of 
teachers, the response of students, and the organizational context. Readings and 
discussions help inform students' direct observations and written accounts o\ 



94 Courses of Instruction 

local classrooms. Peer teaching is an integral part of the course experience. 
Requires three hours a week in schools. 

Prerequisites: Senior standing, one Bowdoin education course. Psychology 
101. and permission of the instructor. 

302c. Student Teaching Practicum. Spring 1997. Ms. Jennings. 

Because this final course in the student teaching sequence demands a consid- 
erable commitment of time and serious responsibilities in a local secondary 
school classroom, enrollment in the course requires the recommendation of the 
instructor of Education 301. Recommendation is based on performance in 
Education 301, the student's cumulative and overall academic performance at 
Bowdoin, and the student's good standing in the Bowdoin community. Required 
of all students who seek secondary public school certification, the course is also 
open to those with other serious interests in teaching. Grades are awarded on a 
Credit/Fail basis only. Education 303 and 304 must be taken concurrently 
with this course. 

Prerequisites: Senior standing, three Bowdoin education courses, including 
Education 203 and 301; Psychology 101; pre-practicum experience in a class- 
room; and permission of the instructor. 

303c. Curriculum and Instruction. Spring 1997. Ms. Jennings. 

A study of the knowledge taught in schools; its selection and the rationale by 
which one course of study rather than another is included; its adaptation for 
different disciplines and for different categories of students; its cognitive and 
social purposes; the organization and integration of its various components. 

Prerequisite: Education 301 or permission of the instructor. 

304c. Senior Seminar: Analysis of Teaching and Learning. Spring 1997. 
Ms. Jennings. 

This course is designed to accompany Education 302, Student Teaching 
Practicum, and considers theoretical and practical issues related to effective 
classroom instruction. 

Prerequisites: Senior standing, three Bowdoin education courses, including 
Education 203 and 301: Psychology 101; pre-practicum experience in a class- 
room: and permission of the instructor. 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. 

401c-404c. Advanced Independent Study. 



English 



95 



English 



Assistant Professors Visiting Assistant Professors 
Louis Chude-Sokei Carol A. N. Martin 
Ann L. Kibbie Anna Wilson 

Elizabeth Muther** Joint Appointment with 

Theater 
Visiting Assistant Professor 

Elizabeth Wong 



Professors 

Franklin G. Burroughs, Jr. 
William C. Watterson 
Associate Professors 
David Collings 
Celeste Goodridgef 
Joseph D. Litvak 
Marilyn Reizbaum, Chair 

Requirements for the Major in English and American Literature 

The major requires a minimum often courses, three of which must be chosen from 
offerings in English literature before 1 800 (English 200, 201, 202, 210, 211, 220, 
221, 222, 223, 230, 231, and 250). Only one of these three courses may be a 
Shakespeare course. Seven additional units may be selected from the foregoing 
and/or English 10-29 (first- year seminars, not more than two); 61-63 (Creative 
Writing, only one); 101-103; 240-288; 300-399; 291-292 (independent study); 
and 401-402 (advanced independent study). One upper-level course in Film 
Studies may be counted toward the major. Students who intend to major in 
English should take a minimum of three courses in the department before 
declaring the major. Credit toward the major for advanced literature courses in 
another language, provided that the works are read in that language, and other 
exceptions to the requirements, must be arranged with the chair. 

Majors who are candidates for honors must write an honors essay and take an 
oral examination in the spring of their senior year. 

Requirements for the Minor in English and American Literature 

The minor requires at least five of the above courses. 

First- Year Seminars in English Composition and Literature 

These courses are open to first-year students. The first-year English seminars are 
numbered 10-19 in the fall; 20-29 in the spring. Usually there are not enough 
openings in the fall for all first-year students who want an English seminar. First- 
year students who cannot get into a seminar in the fall are given priority in the 
spring. The main purpose of the first-year seminars (no matter what the topic or 
reading list) is to give first-year students extensive practice in reading and writing 
analytically. Each seminar is normally limited to 16 students and includes 
discussion, outside reading, frequent papers, and individual conferences on 
writing problems. For a full description of the following first-year seminars, see 
pages 111-1 13. 

10c,d. English Literature and the Post-Colonial. Fall 1 996. Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

lie. Lyricism. Fall 1996. Mr. Collings. 

12c. Gender and Class in Hollywood Romantic Comedy, 1934-1986. Fall 
1996. Mr. Litvak. 



96 Courses of Instruction 

13c. Plato to Piaget: Processes of Education. Fall 1996. Ms. Martin. 

14c,d. American Fiction in Black and White. Fall 1996. Ms. Muther. 
(Same as Africana Studies 14.) 

15c. Celt-o-Files. Fall 1996. Ms. Reizbaum. 

16c. An Introduction to the Drama. Fall 1996. Mr. Watterson. 

17c. Hawthorne. Fall 1996. Ms. Wilson. 

20c. The Contemporary Essay. Spring 1997. Mr. Burroughs. 

21c. Strange Cravings. Spring 1997. Mr. Collings. 

22c. Introduction to Poetry. Spring 1997. Ms. Kjbbie. 

23c. Modern Jewish Literature. Spring 1997. Ms. Reizbaum. 

24c. "When Do We Live?": British and American Boarding School Fiction. 

Spring 1997. Mr. Watterson. 

25c. Writing the Self. Spring 1997. Ms. Wilson. 

English 101 and 102: Survey Course in English Literature 

A reading course, with examinations, designed to familiarize students with the 
main currents of English literature, from Anglo-Saxon times to the twentieth 
century. Limited to 75 students each semester, with preference given in English 
101 to sophomores, juniors, and AP first-year students (in that order). 

101c. Every fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Burroughs. 

Provides a broad introduction, from the beginnings to the end of the eighteenth 
century. Individual works are studied in the context of major stylistic, thematic, 
and historical developments. Special attention is given to genre and prosody. 
Major writers include Chaucer, Shakespeare, Donne, Milton, and Pope. 

[102c] 

Courses in Composition and Creative Writing 

[60c. English Composition.] 

61c. Creative Writing I: Poetry. Fall 1996. Tin; DEPARTMENT. 

Intensive study of the writing of poetry through the workshop method. 
Students will be expected to write in free verse, in form, and to read deeply from 
an assigned list of poets. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Hnrollment limited to 15 students. 

63c. Creative Writing II: Narrative. Spring 1997. Mr. BURROUGHS. 

A workshop for writers interested in fiction and/or nonl'ictional prose narra- 
tive. Enrollment limited to 12 students. 

Prerequisite: Permission Of the instructor. Participants will be selected on the 
basis of an 8 15 page writing sample, to be submitted to the instructor by 
November I, 1996. Students will know whether or not they are admitted to the 

class by November 15. 



English 97 

Advanced Courses in English and American Literature 
200c. Old English. Fall 1997. The Department. 

An introductory study of the language, history, and texts of Anglo-Saxon 
England. 

201c. Chaucer. Spring 1998. Mr. Burroughs. 
Emphasis on The Canterbury! Tales. 

202c. Topics in Middle English Literature. Fall 1996. Ms. Martin. 

Studies literary and historical representations of medieval English heroes and 
their relations to several cultural "others": Saxons, women, Saracens, heathens, 
and Jews. Readings of twelfth- through fifteenth-century texts include selections 
from debate poems, English chronicles, the lais of Marie de France, letters, 
Arthurian and Jewish fictions, fourteenth-century alliterative poems, and selec- 
tions from Chaucer and Henryson. 

210c. Shakespeare's Comedies and Romances. Fall 1997. Mr. Watterson. 

Examines A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Twelfth 
Night, As You Like It, The Winter's Tale, Cymbeline, Pericles, and The Tempest 
in light of Renaissance genre theory. 

211c. Shakespeare's Tragedies and Roman Plays. Spring 1 997. Mr. Watterson. 
Examines Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, King Lear, Julius Caesar, Antony and 
Cleopatra, and Coriolanus in light of recent critical thought. Special attention is 
given to psychoanalysis, new historicism, and genre theory. 

[220c. English Literature of the Early Renaissance.] 

[221c. English Literature of the Late Renaissance.] 

222c. Milton. Every other year. Fall 1996. Ms. Kibbie. 
A critical study of his chief writings in poetry and prose. 

223c. Elizabethan and Stuart Drama (Early English Drama). Every other 
year. Spring 1997. Ms. Martin. 

Studies in origins and development of English drama, with particular attention 
to instances in which "staging" is used as metaphor for interactions between 
individuals and social institutions. Readings and viewings will be selected from 
medieval cycle plays and morality plays, anonymous popular works, Lily, Kyd, 
Marlowe, Dekker, Greene, Jonson, Tourneur, Webster, Beaumont, Fletcher, 
Massinger, and Ford, among others, and from tracts written to protest the social 
effects of the theater. 

230c. Restoration and Early Eighteenth-Century English Literature. Every 
other year. Fall 1997. Ms. Kibbie. 

An overview of the literature of the Restoration and the early eighteenth 
century, exclusive of the novel. Authors include Dryden, Behn, Pope, and Swift. 
231c. Late Eighteenth-Century English Literature. Every other year. Spring 
1998. Ms. Kibbie. 

An overview of the literature of the late eighteenth century, exclusive of the 
novel. Authors include Boswell, Johnson, Burke, Goldsmith, and Sheridan. 



98 Courses of Instruction 

240c. English Romanticism I: After Revolution. Every other year. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Collings. 

English literature in the years immediately after the fall of the Bastille. 
Considers debates over the French Revolution; the theater of heroic crime; the 
poetry of radical dissent and of agrarian republicanism; Jacobin and feminist 
fiction; and strains of anti-utopian social thought. Authors may include Burke, 
Paine. Blake, More, Schiller, Godwin, Wollstonecraft, Hays, Polwhele, 
Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Malthus. 

241c. English Romanticism II: Towards Modern England. Spring 1997. Mr. 
Collings. 

English literature in the era of Napoleon and of a rapidly industrializing 
economy. Considers the public culture of urbane criticism; the beginnings of 
working-class radicalism; the literature of orientalism, decadence, and aestheti- 
cism; and the cultural politics of the Greek revival. Authors may include Smith, 
Jeffrey, Hazlitt, Cobbett, Owen, Coleridge, Byron, De Quincey, Percy and Mary 
Shelley, Hemans, and Keats. 

242c. Victorian Poetry and Prose. Spring 1997. Mr. Litvak. 

Not a survey course, but an examination of a specific issue that traverses 
generic boundaries and opens up new ways of thinking about the Victorians. 
Authors to be considered may include Tennyson, the Brownings, Arnold, 
Dickens, Collins, Braddon, Wood, Stevenson, Stoker, and Wilde. 

250c. The Rise of the Novel. Every other year. Spring 1997. Ms. Kibbie. 

Traces the emergence of the novel in the eighteenth century as a distinct genre 
that absorbed earlier kinds of writing but also provided something new. Authors 
include Behn, Defoe, Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, and Burney. Enrollment 
limited to 40 students. 

251c. The British Novel, 1780-1830. Fall 1997. The Department. 

Examines the emergence of Gothic fiction and the novel of manners in the 
context of political and social discourses in the era of revolution. Authors may 
include William Godwin, Ann Radcliffe, Matthew Lewis, Maria Edgeworth. Jane 
Austen, Mary Shelley, and Walter Scott. 

252c. The Victorian Novel. Every other year. Spring 1998. Mr Litvak. 

Emphasizes the social and political significance of novels by Emily Bronte, 
Charlotte Bronte. Charles Dickens, Elizabeth Gaskell, Wilkie Collins. George 
Eliot, Anthony Trollopc. Thomas Hardy, and George Gissing. 

260c. Twentieth-Century British Poetry. Spring 1997. Ms. Ri tZBAUM. 

Examines the poets of modernism, politically engaged poetry such as that of 
the thirties and 1970s feminism, and contemporary movements. Authors include 
Yeats, Idiot, Auden, Thomas, Larkin, Hughes, and Kaine. 

261c. Twentieth-Century British Fiction. Spring L998. Ms. Reizbaum. 

A glance at works written by authors of what are (roughly) the British Isles. 
Includes a section on British feminism (Woolf. Mansfield, Richardson, Kate 
< )' Brien ). some representations of the "colonial" text (Doris I .essing, Jean Rhys), 
British avant-gardism, (post) modernism (Joyce, Beckett), works from the 
contemporary scene, and more. 



English 99 

262c. Modern Drama. Every other year. Fall 1997. Ms. Reizbaum. 

Focuses on British and American dramas, including the works of Stoppard, 
Wilde, Nztoke Shange, Beckett, Albee, and Wasserstein, and some Continental 
playwriting (Brecht, Ibsen). 

270c. American Literature to 1860. Fall 1996. Ms. Wilson. 

Selected readings focusing on writers of the American Renaissance. Authors 
include Cooper, Hawthorne, Stowe, Melville, and Whitman. 

[271c. American Literature, 1860-1917.] 

272c. American Fiction, 1917-1945. Every other year. Fall 1 997 . Ms . Goodridge. 
Focuses on American literature of the twenties and thirties. Attention is given 
to the various ways in which the historical events emerge or are repressed in this 
fiction. Writers include Wharton, Cather, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Boyle, Porter, 
and Faulkner. Enrollment limited to 40 students. 

273c. American Fiction since 1945. Every other year. Spring 1998. The 

Department. 

Analyzes the various experiments in fiction since the 1950s. Issues of gender, 
stylistic innovation, and self-reflection are emphasized. Enrollment limited to 40 
students. 

274c. American Poetry in the Twentieth Century. Fall 1997. Ms. Goodridge. 
Poets include Frost, Stevens, Williams, Moore, Bishop, Brooks, Lowell, 
Merrill, Rich, and Plath. Enrollment limited to 40 students. 

[275c,d. African-American Fiction.] 

[276c,d. African-American Poetry.] 

280c. Women Writers in Fnglish. Every other year. Spring 1998. The 
Department. 

A study of traditions of women's writing. Enrollment limited to 40 students. 

282c. An Introduction to Literary Theory Through Popular Culture. Every 
other year. Fall 1996. Mr. Litvak. 

Designed for students who have not read extensively in contemporary literary 
theory but wish to familiarize themselves with the new and highly influential 
ways of thinking about literature and culture that "theory" has come to comprise. 
Readings in structuralist, deconstructive, feminist, psychoanalytic, new histori- 
cist, African-American, and lesbian and gay theory are paired with examples from 
popular or mass-cultural forms such as best-selling novels, music videos, Holly- 
wood films, and soap operas; the "high" and the "abstract" will not only explain 
but also be explained by the "low" and the "concrete." Frequent short papers and 
occasional evening screenings. 

Note: This course is offered as part of the curriculum in gay and lesbian studies. 

285c,d. Twentieth-Century Anglophone Caribbean Literature. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

An introduction to the literature of the Anglophone Caribbean. Writers include 
Earl Lovelace, Jean Rhys, Edward Kamau Brathwaite, Louise Bennett, Claude 
McKay, Jamaica Kincaid, and others. Although the themes of colonialism and 



100 Courses of Instruction 

post-coloniality are present, the class addresses specifically local concerns, such 
as the representation of Caribbean life, the politics of dialect, and issues less 
apparent to a perspective that privileges a relationship with the West. (Same as 
Africana Studies 285.) 

286c,d. The Literature of Black Diaspora. Fall 1996. Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

From the early nineteenth century to the present, "race" has allowed a form of 
literary expression unique to an African diaspora. This course studies the context 
of cultural and aesthetic dissemination by looking at writers from throughout the 
black dispersal. Writers include Paule Marshall, Levi Tafari, Linton Kwesi 
Johnson, Victor Headley, and the work of scholars like Paul Gilroy and W.E.B. 
Du Bois. (Same as Africana Studies 286.) 

287c,d- Introduction to West African Fiction in English. Fall 1997. 
Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

An introduction to the works of Chinua Achebe, Ama Ata Aidoo, Ayi Kwei 
Armah, Buchi Emecheta, Wole Soyinka, and others. This course focuses on the 
literature of Anglophone West Africa, but includes the work of other African 
writers and critics. The course attempts to bridge the gap between a post-colonial 
perspective and more nativist discourses and concerns. (Same as Africana 
Studies 287.) 

288c,d- Black Writing/Black Music. Spring 1998. Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

From the Jazz poetry that characterized the Harlem Renaissance to the Dub 
Poetry of post-independence Jamaican writers and contemporary Hip Hop, music 
has been evoked as the aesthetic matrix in which many black writers operate. This 
course investigates the relationship between written text and recorded sound. In 
addition to texts by W.E.B. Du Bois, Langston Hughes, Toni Morrison, and 
Michael Thelwell. this course also employs sound recordings. (Same as Africana 
Studies 288.) 

300c. Literary Theory. Fall 1997. Mr. Litvak. 

An analysis of semiotic, deconstructive, psychoanalytic, feminist, Marxist, 
African- American, and gay and lesbian theories of literature. Enrollment limited 
to 15 students. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

310c-350c. Studies in Literary Genres. Every year. 

Lectures, discussions, and extensive readings in a major literary genre: e.g., 
i he narrative poem, the lyric poem, fiction, comedy, tragedy, or the essay. 

326c. Faulkner's Major Fiction. Fall 1996. Mk. Burroughs. 

Surveys the major Yoknapatawpha fiction, from Flags in the Dust 1 1929) to 

GO Down, Moses ( 1942). 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

327c. Jane Austen. Fall 1996. Ms. Kuoui . 

A study of some of Jane Austen's literary precursors (including Jane Collier, 

Prances Humes . and Charlotte Lennox), as well .is of Austen's major works. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 



English 101 

328c,d. African American Poetry: Brown, Hayden, Brooks, and Harper. Fall 
1996. Ms. Muther. 

Explores the work of four poets — Sterling Brown, Robert Hayden, Gwendolyn 
Brooks, and Michael S. Harper — in relation to each other and to the double 
heritage of African American expressive culture and Anglo-American modern- 
ism. Students participate in the conference/festival in honor of Michael S. Harper 
to be held at the College during the fall semester. Enrollment limited to 15 
students. (Same as Africana Studies 328.) 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

329c. Irish Poetics. Fall 1996. Ms. Reizbaum. 

An examination of modern Irish literatures, their place and impact on the 
English canon and culture of the twentieth century. Considers the Irish uncanoni- 
cal, both "insider" and "outsider" Irish writers, and explores the contemporary 
category of "minor" literatures in terms of some of the most celebrated authors of 
the century. Authors include Synge, Friel, Joyce, Beckett, Kate O'Brien, Nuala 
ni Dhomnaill, Heaney, Boland, and Neil Jordan. Enrollment limited to 18 
students. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

330c. The Poetry of Edmund Spenser. Fall 1996. Mr. Watterson. 

Begins with The Shepheardes Calendar, the Sonnets or Amoretti, the Four 
Hymns, and selected other lyrics, and concludes with careful study of The Faerie 
Queen, the greatest and most complex of all Elizabethan poems. This course will 
satisfy the department requirement for pre- 1 800 courses. Enrollment limited to 1 5 
students. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

331c. Eight American Poets. Fall 1996. The Department. 

A seminar on a group of American Poets representative of a certain strain in 
the tradition, loosely called "transcendental." Strong emphasis on prosody, close 
reading "excavation" of multiple meanings and sources in poems, and the poet's 
negotiation of the implicit tension between technique and subject matter. Poets 
include Emerson, Dickinson, Frost, Stevens, Berryman, Plath, Ammons, and 
Charles Wright. Enrollment limited to 15 students. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

332c,d. Modernism and African-American Literature. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

Focuses on the experience and discourse of "modernism" as it relates to black 
writers in and around the Harlem Renaissance. Where black American (and 
immigrant West Indian) writers fit into this traditionally Euro- American aesthetic 
category is the main concern of this course. Writers include W.E.B. Du Bois, 
Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Jean Toomer, and Alain Locke's seminal 
New Negro anthology. Enrollment limited to 15 students. (Same as Africana 
Studies 332.) 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 



102 Courses of Instruction 

333c. Mass Entertainment, Minority Entertainers. Spring 1997. Mr. Litvak. 

Considers the relations between marginal social groups and the cultural 
mainstream, focusing on the roles of Jews, gays, and African Americans in the 
production of U.S. mass culture, from the film The Jazz Singer (1927) to the 
present, by way of Tin Pan Alley, the Broadway musical, and classic Hollywood 
cinema. Extensive readings in cultural criticism, history, and theory. Frequent 
evening screenings in addition to regular class sessions. Enrollment limited to 1 5 
students. 

Note: This course is offered as part of the curriculum in gay and lesbian studies. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

334c. Something to Say: Rhetoric, Social Intervention, and Fictive "Inven- 
tion" in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Spring 1997. Ms. Martin. 

Studies in the techniques and self-understanding of medieval and Renaissance 
writers. Trained in the art called "rhetoric," pre-modern writers designed their 
works to persuade and motivate readers to a particular stance or action, a 
conscious participation in social and political formation. How they shaped their 
fictions to suit their persuasive purposes is the focus of this seminar. Readings 
vary according to interests of seminar participants, but are likely to include 
selections from medieval rhetoric manuals, Nigel Wireker's Daun BumeltheAss, 
Dante Alighieri's Convivio, Geoffrey Chaucer's House of Fame, William 
Langland's Piers Plowman, Christine de Pisan's Book of the City of Ladies, Jack 
Upland and Friar Daw 's Reply, William Thynne's ( 1 532) edition of the Works 
of Geoffrey Chaucer, and Sidney's Arcadia/Defense of Poesy. This course 
satisfies the department's requirement for pre- 1 800 courses. Enrollment limited 
to 15 students. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

335c. The Canon. Spring 1997. Ms. Wilson. 

Examines the construction and reconstruction of the literary canon in the 
nineteenth and twentieth centuries. What idea of literary excellence does the 
canon promote at different historical moments'? What are different canons 
designed to include or exclude? Do different canons promote different ways of 
reading, or different readerships? Readings range over literary and cultural 
criticism and theory, as well as canonical and non-canonical authors including 
Dickens, Woolf, Hurston, and Morrison. Enrollment limited to 15 students. 

Prerequisite: Permission ol the instructor. 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. Thb Department. 
40Tc-404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. Tin; DEPARTMENT. 



Environmental Studies 103 

Environmental Studies 

Administered by the Environmental Studies Committee; 

Edward P. Laine, Chair and Program Director 

(See committee list, page 277.) 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Lecturer Adjunct Lecturer 

Jill Pearlman Edward S. Gilfillan Ellen K Baum 

Requirements for the Coordinate Major in Environmental Studies (ES) 
The major involves the completion of a departmental major and the following 
seven courses: 

Required environmental studies courses: 

1. ES 101, Introduction to Environmental Studies. 

2. Senior seminar: A culminating course of one semester is required of majors. 
Such courses are multidisciplinary, studying a topic from at least two or three 
areas of the curriculum. ES 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, or 396 will meet this 
requirement, as will EC 321. 

3. Five courses approved for environmental studies credit: These courses 
are designated "Environmental Studies" or are cross-listed with environmental 
studies. The distribution of these five courses is as follows: 

a. One course from each of the three curriculum areas: the sciences, social 
sciences, and arts and humanities. 

b. Two elective courses: These courses may be chosen from environmental 
studies or the approved cross-listings. However, students are urged to consider ES 
291-294 and 401-404, intermediate and advanced independent studies, in 
consultation with the program. 

First- Year Seminar 

For a full description of the following first-year seminar, see page 1 13. 
lie. Nature and Culture in the American Landscape. Spring 1997. Ms. 
Pearlman. 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

101. Introduction to Environmental Studies. Every fall. Mr. Gilfillan and 

Mr. Laine. 

An examination of global, regional, and local environmental issues from the 
perspective of the geophysical and oceanographic sciences. Emphasis on the role 
of the ocean and atmosphere system and its interactions and relation to the 
biosphere. Principles of science and numeracy are developed as needed to help in 
the understanding of the underpinnings of environmental problems. Enrollment 
limited to 75 students, with preference given to first- and second-year students. 
Required for ES majors. 



104 Courses of Instruction 

115a. Introduction to Environmental Sciences. Every spring. Mr. Gilfillan 

and Mr. Laine. 

An interdisciplinary introduction to the environmental sciences. Course 
material includes surficial and environmental geology and marine and aquatic 
ecology. In addition to classroom work, there are weekly sessions of laboratory 
work or field work that focus on local environmental problems. Enrollment 
limited to 25 students; preference given to students intending to major in either 
geology or environmental studies. 

136c. Environmental Analysis: Concepts, Institutions, Values, and Policy. 

Spring 1997. Spring 1998. Mr. Simon. 

Examines aspects of the environmental crisis, with special emphasis on 
philosophical and political issues. Topics include our relation to and responsibil- 
ity for nature in light of the present crisis; the adequacy of the conceptual and 
institutional resources of the Western tradition to address the crisis; sustainability ; 
and the interconnection of scientific, moral, political, economic, and policy 
factors. (Same as Philosophy 136.) 

200a. Marine Ecology. Every fall. Mr. Gilfillan. 

The relationships between organisms and their environment are considered in 
the context of animals and plants living in the sea. The concept of marine 
communities living in dynamic equilibrium with their physical-chemical envi- 
ronment is introduced, and the influence of human activities on the ecology of 
marine organisms is explored. (Same as Biology 156.) 

Prerequisite: A college-level science course or permission of the instructor. 

220b. Environmental Law. Fall 1997. The Department. 

This course examines critically some of the most important American environ- 
mental laws and applies them to environmental problems that affect the United 
States and the world. Students learn what the law currently requires and how it is 
administered by federal and state agencies. They are encouraged to examine the 
effectiveness of current law and consider alternative approaches. 

Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. Preference given to ES majors. 

241b. Principles of Land-Use Planning. Spring 1997. The Department. 

Land — how it is used, who controls it, the tension between private and public 
rights to it is central to today's environmental debate. Land-use planning is 
inevitably part of that debate. It is a bridge between the physical environment (the 
hind) and the social, economic, and political forces affecting that environment. 
The course exposes students to the physical principles of land-use planning and 
the legal and socioeconomic principles thai underlie it. 

Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. Preference given to ES majors. 

[244c. City, Anti-City, and Utopia: The Urban Tradition in America.) 

25Hc. Environmental Ethics. Fall 1997. Mr. Simon. 

The central issue in environmental ethics concerns what things in nature have 
moral standing and how conflicts of interest among them are to be resolved. After 
an introduction to ethical theory, topics to be covered include anthropocentrism, 



Environmental Studies 105 

the moral status of nonhuman sentient beings and of nonsentient living beings, 
preservation of endangered species and the wilderness, holism versus individu- 
alism, the land ethic, and deep ecology. Open only to sophomores, juniors, and 
seniors. (Same as Philosophy 258.) 

390. Seminar in Environmental Studies. Reform, Revolution, or Transfor- 
mation: Perspectives Drawn from Sexual, Racial, and Environmental Poli- 
tics. Fall 1997. Mr. Rensenbrink. 

This interdisciplinary seminar investigates the philosophic and political 
claims made by contemporary social movements for women, people of color, 
gays and lesbians, and the environment. Such problems as identity politics, 
political correctness, the public/private split, the gap between nature and human- 
ity, and the meaning of difference are explored. Special emphasis is given to the 
relation of these movements to the common good. The common good is treated 
both as a possible standard of political unity and as a challenge to reformist, 
revolutionary, or transformational action. Course work includes lectures, class 
discussion, reports, essays, and papers. Enrollment limited to 15 students. 
Preference given to junior and senior majors. (Same as Africana Studies 390 and 
Women's Studies 390.) 

391. Seminar in Environmental Studies: The Gulf of Maine. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Gilfillan. 

A study of the environmental challenges facing the Gulf of Maine and 
surrounding bioregions, with major emphasis on fisheries. Enrollment limited to 
15 students. Preference given to junior and senior ES majors. 

392. Seminar in Environmental Studies: Advanced Topics in Environmental 
Philosophy. Fall 1996. Mr. Simon. 

Topics may include conservation and our obligation to future generations; 
individualism, holism, and the construction of the moral community; normative 
aspects of policy formation; and philosophical problems concerning technology. 
Enrollment limited to 15 students. Preference given to senior philosophy majors 
and ES majors. (Same as Philosophy 392.) 

393. The Maine Environment. Spring 1997. Mr. Laine. 

Examination of environmental issues and problems in and around Maine. 
Each student is helped to design and carry out a project that focuses his or her 
interests and strengths on a problem of interest to local and regional environmen- 
tal organizations. Work is carried out both on and off campus. Students are 
encouraged to frame their analyses in terms of classic writings in the environmen- 
tal literature. Enrollment limited to 15 students. Preference given to junior and 
senior ES majors. 

394. Seminar in Environmental Studies: Chemicals in the Environment — 
Risks, Costs, and Policy. Spring 1997. Mr. Freeman. 

We release a bewildering variety of chemicals into the environment. Some 
releases are intentional (e.g., pesticides); some are byproducts of human activity 
(air and water pollutants); and some are the result of accidents. Once in the 



106 Courses of Instruction 

environment, these chemicals can result in risks to human health (cancer and other 
diseases) and to the integrity of ecological systems. Regulations to limit or 
prevent releases are costly and involve trade-offs. This seminar is organized 
around three major questions: How can the nature and magnitude of risks be 
determined? How does government currently make trade-offs? How should 
trade-offs be made in a society that desires to improve human welfare? Topics 
include the scientific basis for assessing risk to human health and ecosystems, 
benefit-cost and risk-benefit analysis, the present legal framework for regulation, 
and alternative approaches to regulation. Case studies include lead in the 
environment, PCBs, dioxins, pesticides in food, ozone and particulate matter air 
pollution, and control of airborne toxic chemicals. Enrollment limited to 15 
students. 

Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing and permission of the instructor. 

396a. Conservation Biology. Every other spring. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Wheelwright. 

The application of ecological and evolutionary principles to contemporary 
conservation problems. The seminar focuses on understanding the proximate 
causes for the loss of biodiversity, including habitat fragmentation and degrada- 
tion, the introduction of exotic species, and environmental change on a global 
scale. Explores models of population genetics, demography, life history theory, 
wildlife management, and host-parasite dynamics through readings in the pri- 
mary literature and through seminars by visiting speakers. Optional field trip to 
the Bowdoin Scientific Station on Kent Island. (Same as Biology 396.) 

Prerequisites: Biology 115 and 220, or permission of the instructor. 

291-294. Intermediate Independent Study. The Program. 
401-404. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Program. 

CROSS LISTINGS 

Cross listings arc courses offered by various departments that can be used to sa(ist\ 
requirements for the major in environmental studies. In addition to the courses listed below, 
students may discuss other possibilities with the Environmental Studies Program. For full 
course descriptions and prerequisites, see the appropriate department listings. 

Sciences 

Biology 14a. The Natural History of Maine. Spring 1997. Mr. Howland. 

Biology Ilia. Plant Physiology. Spring 1997. Ms. CARDON. 

Biology 115a. Kcology. Every fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Win i i WRIGHT. 

Biology 1 19a. Biology of Marine Organisms. Every fall. Fall 1996. 

Ms. Johnson. 

Biology 251a. Plant Physiological Kcology. Fall 1996. Ms. CaRDON. 

Geology I (Mia. Introduction to Environmental Geology. Fvery fall. Fall 1996. 
Mk. I. aim ami Mr, I.i \. 



Geology 200a. Geological Field Methods. Every fall. Fall 1996. The 

Department. 

Geology 278a. Quaternary Environments. Spring 1997. Spring 1999. Mr. Lea. 

Social Sciences 

Anthropology 231b,d. Native Peoples and Cultures of Arctic America. Fall 

1996. The Department. 

Anthropology 239b,d. Indigenous Peoples of North America. Spring 1997. 

The Department. 

Economics 218b. Economics of Environmental Quality and Resources. Fall 

1996. Mr. Freeman. 

Economics 321b. Ecological Economics and Sustainable Development. Fall 

1996. Mr. Vail. 

Government 112b. Environmental Politics and Policy. Fall 1996. Ms. Guber. 

*Sociology 214b. Science, Technology, and Society. Spring 1997. Ms. Bell. 

Humanities 

*Art 190c. Architectural Design I. Spring 1997. Mr. Glass 
^Courses marked with an asterisk will receive environmental studies credit with the 
approval of the instructor. It is expected that a substantial portion of the student's research 
efforts will focus on the environment. 



Film Studies 

Professor Assistant Professor Visiting Instructor 

Steven R. Cerf, Acting Chair Patricia A. Welschf Steve J. Wurtzler 

Film has emerged as one of the most important art forms of the twentieth century. 
Film studies at Bowdoin introduces students to the grammar, history, and 
literature of film in order to cultivate an understanding of both the vision and craft 
of film artists and of the views of society and culture expressed in cinema. 
Bowdoin College does not offer a major in film studies. 

First- Year Seminar 

[10c. Cultural Difference and the Crime Film.] 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

101c. Film Narrative. Every other fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Wurtzler. 

An introduction to a variety of methods used to study motion pictures, with 
consideration given to a variety of types of films from different countries and time 
periods. Techniques and strategies used to construct films, including: the image. 



108 Courses of Instruction 

mise-en-scene. editing. sound, and the orchestration of film techniques in larger, 
formal systems. The second portion of the course builds on this concern with film 
form by surveying some of the contextual factors shaping individual films and our 
experiences of them (including mode of production.genre.authorship. and ideol- 
ogy). No previous experience with film studies is required. Attendance at weekly 
evening screenings is required. 

201c. History of Film, 1895-1940. Fall 1997. Ms. Welsch. 

Examines the development of film from its origins to the American Studio era. 
Includes early work by Lumieres, Melies, and Porter, and continues with Griffith. 
Murnau. Eisenstein. Chaplin. Keaton, Stroheim. Pudovkin, Lang, Renoir, and 
von Sternberg. Special attention is paid to the practical and theoretical concerns 
over the coming of sound. Attendance at weekly evening screenings is required. 

202c. History of Film, 1940 to the Present. Spring 1998. Ms. Welsch. 

A consideration of the diverse production contexts and political circumstances 
influencing cinema history in the sound era. National film movements to be 
studied include neorealism, the French New Wave, and the New German Cinema, 
as well as the coming of age of Asian and Australian film. This course also 
explores the shift away from studio production in the United States, the major 
regulation systems, and the changes in popular film genres. Attendance at weekly 
evening screenings is required. 

216c. American Cinema and Culture During the Depression. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Wurtzler. 

Examines American cinema in the 1930s, in light of its social, political, and 
cultural contexts. The course begins with an introduction to the Hollywood studio 
system and the position of cinema in a larger culture of consumption. Next.the 
course examines some of the debates in the 1930s on the perceived social 
functions and potential dangers of Hollywood films. Through a series of case 
studies, we explore the ability of popular films to depict the Depression, to address 
issues of race and class, and to represent various political/social alternatives to the 
1 930s status quo. Throughout the course, American film is considered in light of 
other forms of representation. Attendance at weekly evening screenings is 
required. 

Prerequisite: One previous film studies course or permission of instructor. 

221c. German Expressionism and Its Legacy. Fall 1997. Ms. Welsch. 

Considers the flowering of German cinema during the Weimar Republic and 
its enormous impact on American film. Examines work produced in Germany 
from \ { )\ { ) to 1933, the films made by German expatriates in Hollywood after 
Hitler's rise to power, and the wide influence of the expressionist tradition in the 
following decades. Films include The Golem, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, 

NosferatU, Metropolis, M, Citizen Kane, The Woman in the Window, The Night 
OJ the Hunter, Blade Runner. Rnnihlejish, Kiss of the Spider Woman, and 

Paperhouse. Attendance at weekly evening screenings is required 



Film Studies 109 

[222c. Images of America in Film.] 

224c. The Films of Alfred Hitchcock. Spring 1997. Ms. Welsch. 

Considers the films of Alfred Hitchcock from his career in British silent 
cinema to the Hollywood productions of the 1970s. Examines his working 
methods and style of visual composition as well as his consistent themes and 
characterizations. Of particular interest are his adaptation of Daphne DuMaurier' s 
Rebecca as a way of exploring the tensions between literary sources and film, and 
between British and American production contexts. Ends with a brief look at 
Hitchcock's television career and his influence on recent film. Attendance at 
weekly evening screenings is required. 

309c. Public Memory and Film Versions of History. Fall 1996. Mr. Wurtzler. 

Focuses on the relationship between the political functions served by histori- 
cal accounts and different strategies of representing the past. Recent films such 
as Schindler's List, JFK, and Malcom X sparked debates about the relationship 
between cinema and history. Those debates extended beyond issues of authentic- 
ity and historical accuracy to the power of popular films to construct and revise 
collective memory and the ability of film versions of history to shape contempo- 
rary social and political agendas. The course explores these and other issues by 
examining a variety of types of films and other art forms. Address general issues 
(such as the nature of history, the importance of narrative in structuring our 
experience, and the contemporary social functions fulfilled by popular versions 
of history)in light of specific films and other ways of narrating the past. Writing- 
intensive, with required attendance at weekly evening screenings. 

Prerequisite: One previous film studies course or permission of instructor. 

[310c. Gay and Lesbian Cinema.] 

314c. Documentary Film: History, Theory, Practice. Spring 1997. Mr. 

Wurtzler. 

Provides an intensive consideration of the nonfiction film. Begins with a 
survey of the history of documentary film and the tradition of theoretical and 
critical writing accompanying its development. The balance of the course is 
devoted to a series of topics, including: the relationship between aesthetic 
practice and shifting conventions of realism, the impact of technological change 
on film aesthetics, the cinema's various social and political functions, the 
relationship between the nonfiction film and other modes of representing reality. 
Writing-intensive, with required attendance at weekly evening screenings. 

Prerequisite: One previous film studies course, or permission of the instructor. 



110 Courses of Instruction 

First- Year Seminars 

The purpose of the first-year seminar program is to introduce college-level 
disciplines and to contribute to students' understanding of the ways in which a 
specific discipline may relate to other areas in the humanities, social sciences, and 
sciences. A major emphasis of each seminar will be placed upon the improvement 
of students' skills — their ability to read texts effectively and to write prose that is 
carefully organized, concise, and firmly based upon evidence. 

Each year a number of departments offer first-year seminars. Enrollment in 
each is limited to 1 6 students. Sufficient seminars are offered to ensure that every 
first-year student will have the opportunity to participate during at least one 
semester of the first year. Registration for the seminars will take place before 
registration for other courses, to facilitate scheduling. A complete listing of first- 
year seminars being offered in the 1996-97 academic year follows: 

Africana Studies 10b,d. Racism. Spring 1997. Mr. Partridge. 
(Same as Sociology 10.) 

Africana Studies 14c,d. American Fiction in Black and White. Fall 1 996. 

MS. MUTHER. 

(Same as English 14.) 

Africana Studies 16c. Blue, Gray, and Black: The Civil War and African 
Americans. Spring 1997. Mr. Rael. 
(Same as History 16.) 

Asian Studies 12c,d. Religions of India in Contemporary Literature. Spring 
1998. Mr. Holt. 

(Same as Religion 12.) 

Asian Studies 23c,d. The First Emperor of China. Spring 1997. Mr. Smith. 
(Same as History 23.) 

Biology 14a. The Natural History of Maine. Spring 1997. Mr. Howland. 

A study of the geography and biology of Maine as revealed by literature and 
by direct observation. Readings begin with accounts of early exploration of the 
region, including Thoreau and other nineteenth-century writers' descriptions of 
Maine forests and coast, and extend to McPhce and other contemporary writers. 
Student writing assignments are directed toward the literature, personal observa- 
tion nature, and the interaction of the two. 

( lassies 1 6c. Cultural Connections in the Ancient Mediterranean. Fall 1 996. 
Mk. HlGGINBOTHAM. 

Studies the degree and the nature of cross-cultural interactions, explores the 
influence of one society on another, and examines the characteristics thai not only 
determine, hut also unite, the civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Africa, 
Greece, and Rome. Thematic topics include the ancient trading economies of 
('(Hindi and Athens, the spread of ancient technologies and manufacture, the 
development and evolution of monetary systems, public and private religion, and 



First- Year Seminars 111 

the debt that the "Classical" world owes to African and Near Eastern societies. 
The seminar incorporates study of the rich collection of ancient art and artifacts 
housed in the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. Here, the same evidence used by 
archaeologists and historians to study the contacts between ancient cultures will 
be examined (vases from Corinth and Athens, coins, votive terracotta figurines 
and other cultic instruments, portraiture, and implements of daily life.) 

Computer Science 10. Computers, Society, and Thought. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Tucker. 

Explores the many areas of social and ethical concern raised by the rapid 
evolution of computer technology, including privacy, security, computer crime, 
computer reliability, software piracy, and the effects of computers on the 
workplace. Parts of the course are devoted to an exploration of specific computer 
applications, including the Internet, graphics and visualization, and the prospects 
for artificial intelligence. Course work includes reading current articles, discus- 
sions, and developing the craft of writing expository and position papers. No 
technical background with computers is assumed. 

English 10c,d. English Literature and the Post-Colonial. Fall 1996. 

Mr. Chude-Sokei. 

Beginning with late Victorian, early modern British literature, this course 
traces the discourse of empire through its phases that culminate in the era of 
commonwealth/post-colonial writing. Issues include the relationship of literary 
style to cultural power and economic domination; the problems of "English" in 
a multi-national and multi-cultural literary context; the relationship between 
gender and geography, sex and race; and the still unresolved questions of 
nationalism and resistance. 

English lie. Lyricism. Fall 1996. Mr. Collings. 

Discusses the performance of aestheticized masculinities and the links be- 
tween song, pain, ecstasy, and death in a small number of key poems by 
Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats, Tennyson, Whitman, Yeats, and Crane. 

. English 12c. Gender and Class in Hollywood Romantic Comedy, 1934-86. 

Fall 1996. Mr. Litvak. 

Considers Hollywood comedies not just as entertainment, but as intelligent 
and provocative commentaries on the politics of gender and class in American 
culture. Films include It Happened One Night (1934), The Awful Truth (1937), 
Bringing Up Baby (1938), The Lady Eve (1941), Adam's Rib (1949), All About 
Eve (1950), Some Like It Hot (1959), The Apartment (1960), The Graduate 
( 1 967), Annie Hall ( 1 977), Tootsie ( 1 982), and Something Wild ( 1 986). Extensive 
readings in film criticism and theory. In addition to regular class sessions, 
attendance at evening screenings is required. 

English 13c. Plato to Piaget: Processes of Education. Fall 1996. Ms. Martin. 
Examines how people from antiquity to the present understand education to 
take place. Writing for the course includes reflections on our own experiences in 
being educated. 



1 1 2 Courses of Instruction 

English 14c,d. American Fiction in Black and White. Fall 1996. Ms. Muther. 
Focuses on questions of race and national identity, "double consciousness," 
resistance and representation, and historical memory in American fiction. Au- 
thors include Melville, Delany. Twain. Chesnutt. Du Bois, Faulkner. Hurston, 
O'Connor, and Morrison. (Same as Africana Studies 14.) 

English 15c. Celt-o-Files. Fall 1996. Ms. Reizbaum. 

An introduction and examination of the modern and contemporary literatures 
of Ireland. Scotland, and Wales, with a particular focus on Scotland in this 
semester. Considers the place of such literatures in national, cultural, and 
"canonical" terms. Includes poetry, prose, film, and music with such authors as 
Seamus Heaney. Eavan Boland, R. S. Thomas. Liz Lochhead, Fiona Pitt-Kethley, 
James Kelman, Janice Galloway, A. L. Kennedy, Brian Friel, Neil Jordan (The 
Crying Game). Bill Forsyth (Gregory's Girl), and The Proclaimers. A look back 
to the popularizations of such figures as Robert Burns, and to the present in such 
offerings as Braveheart. 

English 16c. An Introduction to the Drama. Fall 1996. Mr. Watterson. 

Begins with Aristotle's Poetics and the Theban plays of Sophocles and 
includes works by Shakespeare, Ibsen, Pirandello, Chekhov, O'Neill, Brecht, 
Beckett, and Miller. 

English 17c. Hawthorne. Fall 1996. Ms. Wilson. 

Critical interpretation of both the work and "Hawthorne" as iconic figure. 

English 20c. The Contemporary Essay. Spring 1997. Mr. Burroughs. 

The revival of the personal essay has been a notable feature of recent American 
writing. The form is no doubt attractive in part because it eludes definition and 
allows for a wide range of generic influences. Students write essays in the form, 
as well as essays about it. 

English 21c. Strange Cravings. Spring 1997. Mr. Collings. 

Examines the theme of fatal desire for the impossible object (gold, immortal- 
ity, lame, love, bliss) in works by such authors as Goethe, Godwin, De Quincey, 
Flaubert, Norris, and Dreiser. 

English 22c. Introduction to Poetry. Spring 1997. Ms. Kiuhii ■.. 

An introduction to various poetic forms from the Renaissance to the present, 
with special attention to poetic language and generic conventions. Emphasis will 
be on how to approach poetry, rather than on particular authors. 

English 23c. Modern Jewish Literature. Spring 1997. Ms. REEZBAUM. 

Literature by, about, and "through" Jews. This course examines the way in 
which Jews and Jewishness have become metaphors of modernity from a number 
nt different thematic and cultural perspectives. Considers the meaning of any 
category that includes Jewish" and moves from that to explore the possible 
representations in literature and film. The course divides mid-century with the 
Holocaust as a marker, lexis include Dracula, essays by Freud, Memoirs of an 
\nli Semite, Mans, The Great (ialshx, Goodbye Columbus, stories by Grace 
Paley and Leslea Newman. films such as Anne Frank Remembered And l.uropa. 
I uropa, and Israeli poetry (in translation) such as the post-1948 poems of Natan 
Alterman. 



First- Year Seminars 1 1 3 

English 24c. "When Do We Live?": British and American Boarding School 
Fiction. Spring 1997. Mr. Watterson. 

Traces the origin and evolution of the genre in Victorian England and its early 
importation into the United States. Topics for consideration include adolescence 
and institutional authority, the representation of gender, friendship and bonding, 
and class-consciousness and social mobility . Novels by Hughes, Spark, Benedictus, 
Campbell, Knowles, Salinger, and others, as well as nonfictional accounts, 
autobiographies, and readings in social history and literary criticism. Selected 
films are also screened and serve as a basis for discussion and writing assign- 
ments. 

English 25c. Writing the Self. Spring 1997. Ms. Wilson. 

Modern American autobiographical texts, probably including McCarthy, 
Nabokov, Millett, Mailer, Kingston, and Anzaldua. 

Environmental Studies lie. Nature and Culture in the American Land- 
scape. Spring 1997. Ms. Pearlman. 

Historically, its immeasurable physical space distinguished America from 
other places . A study of the American landscape in history and thought, the course 
focuses on Americans' changing perceptions of their environment as they shaped 
it in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The course draws from classic and 
recent studies and includes architectural, visual, and literary materials. 

History 10c. History on Film. Fall 1997. Mr. Nyhus. 

Explores topics in Renaissance history as realized by important modern 
directors. Considers such topics as urban life, the peasant family, the late 
medieval monarchy, witchcraft, and imperialism and the New World, as well as 
issues of historiography. Films include The Decameron (Pasolini), The Return of 
Martin Guerre (Vigne), The Seventh Seal (Bergman), Henry V (the Olivier 
version of Shakespeare's play), Day of Wrath (Dreyer), and Aguirre, the Wrath 
of God (Herzog). Ancillary readings from a variety of sources. 

History lie. Women in Britain and America: 1750-1920. Fall 1997. 
'Ms. McMahon. 

A comparative examination of the contribution of women to and the conse- 
quences for women of "modernization." Topics include industrialization and the 
varieties of employment for women, Victorian culture and domesticity, and 
women's rights and woman suffrage. Relies heavily on primary sources: letters, 
diaries, essays, prescriptive literature, fiction; secondary sources are used as 
guides in the reading of those contemporary sources. Designed to teach students 
how to subject primary and secondary source materials to a critical analysis. 

History 12c. Utopia: Intentional Communities in America, 1630-1990. Fall 
1996. Ms. McMahon. 

An examination of the evolution of Utopian visions that begins with John 
Winthrop's "City upon a Hill," explores the proliferation of both religious and 
secular communal ventures between 1780 and 1920, and concludes with a brief 
examination of late twentieth-century intentional communities. Readings include 



1 14 Courses of Instruction 

accounts by members (letters, diaries, essays, etc.), ''community" histories and 
apostate exposes, Utopian fiction, and scholarly historical analyses. Discussions 
and essays focus on teaching students how to subject primary and secondary 
source materials to critical analysis. 

History 14c. Many Americas: Cultural Interaction in the United States, 
1607-1*920. Spring 1998. Mr. Rael. 

A survey of American history focusing on moments in which interactions 
between diverse peoples of America played an important role in the development 
of the nation. Focuses on the experiences of Native Americans, African Ameri- 
cans, Mexican Americans, Asian Americans, and European ethnic groups. 
Students prepare papers based primarily upon analysis of primary source mate- 
rials. 

History 15c. One Hundred Years of Heterosexuality in America. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Laipson. 

This course places heterosexuality, a term first introduced into the English 
lexicon in 1896, in historical perspective and tries to understand its development 
in the twentieth century. What difference, if any, did the introduction of a new 
vocabulary of sexuality make to actual sexual behaviors and identities? What has 
it meant to be heterosexual in American culture: what kinds of activities, beliefs, 
attitudes, and practices does the term include and define? How have expectations 
of heterosexual behavior differed by gender, race, class, and age? And how has 
heterosexuality served to organize ideas about sexual deviance? The course 
strongly emphasizes critical reading and expository writing. 

Note: This course is offered as part of the curriculum in gay and lesbian studies. 

History 16c. Blue, Gray, and Black: The Civil War and African Americans. 

Spring 1997. Mr. Rael. 

Explores the history of the Civil War (1861-65) and the Reconstruction 
(1865-77), emphasizing the role of African Americans. Examines the role of 
slavery in the sectional crisis, and of race in antebellum America. The course then 
reviews the Civil War through the eyes of the black soldiers who fought in it, and 
of the black activists who helped transform the conflict to a war against slavery. 
Addresses the difficult and complicated issue of Reconstruction. (Same as 
Africans Studies 16.) 
History 17c,d. The Cuban Revolution. Fall 1997. Mr. Wells. 

The Cuban Revolution recently celebrated its thirtieth anniversary. This 
seminal oilers a retrospective o\' a revolution entering "middle age" and its 
prospects lor the future. Topics include U.S. -Cuban relations, economic and 
social justice versus political liberty, gender and race relations, and literature and 
film in a socialist society. 

History 19c,d. Contemporary Arj»entinu. Spring 1997. Mk. Wells. 

Examines modern Argentine society. Texts, novels, and films will help 
unravel Argentine history and its culture. Topics to be examined include the 

image ol tnegaucho; the impact of immigration; Peronism;the Dirty War; and the 

elu&ive Struggle for democracy, development, and social justice. 



First- Year Seminars 115 

History 21c. Players and Spectators: History, Culture, and Sports. Fall 1996. 
Ms. Tananbaum. 

Focuses on topics in the history of sports in Europe and America, exploring the 
changing cultural role of sports and the implications of race, gender, and class for 
players and spectators. 

History 23c,d. The First Emperor of China. Spring 1997. Mr. Smith. 

In 222 b.c.e. the First Emperor ended 300 years of civil war to found a Chinese 
empire that was to last until the early years of this century. How could this have 
occurred? We examine art, archaeology, literature, politics, and philosophy to 
create a complex historical portrait of this momentous development. (Same as 
Asian Studies 23.) 

Music 10c. The Musicals of Rodgers and Hammerstein. Spring 1997. 

Mr. McCalla. 

A study of some of the central achievements of American musical theater, the 
musicals of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II from Oklahoma! (1943) 
through The Sound of Music (1959). Besides musical and dramatic questions, the 
class will be concerned with issues of American identity; cultural interaction; and 
realism vs. idealism on one hand, and sentimentality on the other, as these arise 
in the various shows. No previous knowledge of music is required. 

Philosophy lie. Free Will. Spring 1998. Mr. Corish. 

Are our actions free, or at least partly free; or are they wholly caused, or 
determined, in some sense that makes the notion of freedom inappropriate in 
descriptions of actions? Are we really responsible agents, as our tradition tells us 
we are? Readings in contemporary and older materials are used as the basis for 
the seminar discussions. 

Philosophy 13c. The Souls of Animals. Fall 1996. Mr. Stuart. 

Do animals have souls? Do they have thoughts and beliefs? Do they feel pain? 
Are animals deserving of the same moral consideration as human beings? Or do 
they have any moral status at all? Readings from historical and contemporary 
.sources. 

Philosophy 16c. Moral Problems. Fall 1997. Mr. Sehon. 

We examine a number of contemporary moral issues, including freedom of 
speech, economic justice, gender and racial equality, affirmative action, abortion, 
animal rights, and the environment. Along the way, we investigate various 
questions about the nature of moral theory itself: Are there objective moral truths? 
Is moral relativism correct? Can we legislate morality? 

Philosophy 17c. Philosophy, Poetry, and Science. Spring 1997. Mr. Corish. 
Discusses the nature of each of the three subjects and their relations with each 
other. We consider the subjects first in a historical setting, the Greek, and take 
Plato as our primary focus. Then we move on to the modern and contemporary 
worlds. Readings are drawn from both ancient and modern authors. 



1 16 Courses of Instruction 

Philosophy 19c. Hellenistic Philosophy. Fall 1997. Mr. Stuart. 

The Hellenistic era spans the three centuries following Aristotle's death. In 
this era. three major schools — Stoicism, Epicurianism, and Skepticism — each 
aim at developing a philosophical system that will provide guidance in a 
complicated, frightening world. The results are of enduring interest because the 
world remains a complicated and frightening place. 

Physics 15a. Science Fiction, Science Fact. Spring 1997. Ms. Msall. 

Could we travel to the stars? Live forever? Fuse consciousness with a 
computer? Where does speculative fiction depart from reasonable projection of 
known science? The seminar explores the technical plausibility of the scenarios 
of popular science fiction and their underlying assumptions about our relationship 
to technology. 

Religion 10c. Adam and Eve and the Moral of the Story. Spring 1997. 
Ms. Makarushka. 

A study of the significance of the myth of origin and fall in Genesis for Western 
religious self-understanding. Comparison with myths of origin from other cul- 
tures. Analysis of the dominant interpretations of Genesis and their implications 
with regard to power and gender. Exploration of literary texts, films, and artworks 
that retell the Genesis myth. Reflections on the "moral of the story" as an 
expression of a culture's normative values. 

Religion 12c,d. Religions of India in Contemporary Literature. Spring 1998. 
Mr. Holt. 

An introduction to the religious cultures of Hindus and Buddhists in South 
Asia and how these cultures have been represented, imagined, and interpreted by 
modern European, American, and Indian writers of fiction. Frequent essays. 
(Same as Asian Studies 12.) 

Russian 20c. The Great Soviet Experiment through Film. Every other fall. 
Fall 1996. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

An interdisciplinary introduction to Russian culture during the time of the 
"Great Soviet Experiment." Focuses on films of the 1920s, the 1960s, and 
glasnost', times of avant-garde experiments. Art, architecture, theater, and 
literature are also examined. Themes include the building of a new society and the 
birth of the "new man" and "new woman"; eternal revolution; faith in science and 
technology; the problem of individual freedom in a collective society; laughter as 
a form <>l revolt; the "thaw" alter Stalin's death; and the demise of the Soviet 
Union in 1991. Readings include the short novels Love of Worker Bee, We, and 
One Day in the Life oflvOli Denisovich, the play Bed Bug, and essays on film and 

culture. Weekly viewing of slides and Russian films. No knowledge of Russian 
required. 

Sociology I01>,d. Racism. Spring 1997. Mr. PARTRIDGE. 

Examines issues of racism in the United Stales, with attention to the social 
psychology Oi racism, its history, its relationship to social structure, and its ethical 
and moral implications. (Same as Africana Studies 10.) 



First- Year Seminars 1 1 7 

Sociology lib. The Sociology of Everyday Life. Fall 1996. Mr. Henson. 

Explores the patterns of everyday life and the ways in which those patterns are 
recreated (socially constructed) through social activities and interaction. The 
course is organized around three major substantive areas: Interpersonal commu- 
nication, personal relationships, and community. Issues of gender and gender 
inequalities are central to the course. 

Sociology 12b. Constructing Social Problems. Spring 1998. Ms. De Andrade. 
Examines a variety of social "problems" in contemporary American society, 
including child abuse, immigration, missing children, drugs, and AIDS. Empha- 
sizes the processes by which social conditions come to be defined as social 
problems, and considers the implications of these definitions for the development 
of societal responses or social policy. Analyzes the roles of social institutions such 
as family, education, and health/medicine in the construction of social "prob- 
lems" in popular culture, with a focus on issues of race, class, and gender. 

Sociology 15b. Juggling Gender. Fall 1996. Ms. Cohn. 

Considers how individuals negotiate between socially constructed gender 
ideals and their personal identities. Topics include the conceptualization of 
gender, messages about gender in popular culture, how women and men juggle 
work and family life, and how sexual feelings and identities relate to the 
negotiation of gender. Course activities include reading monographs, viewing 
films, and analyzing works from popular culture. 

(Same as Women's Studies 15.) 

Sociology 16b. Sociology of Gender and the Military. Fall 1997. Ms. Cohn. 

An introduction to the nature of the military as an institution, and the complex 
ways in which gender has been central to its functioning. Considers the multiple 
ideals of masculinity constructed and mobilized in the military, and the complex 
interaction between the changing conceptions of gender that have arisen from 
recent social movements. Emphasizes contemporary debates on women in 
combat and gays and lesbians in the military. (Same as Women's Studies 16.) 

Note: This course is offered as part of the curriculum in gay and lesbian studies. 

Women's Studies 15b. Juggling Gender. Fall 1996. Ms. Cohn. 

(Same as Sociology 15.) 
Women's Studies 16b. Sociology of Gender and the Military. Fall 1997. Ms. 
Cohn. 

(Same as Sociology 16.) 



1 1 8 Courses of hist ruction 

Geology 

Professor Associate Professors 

Arthur M. Hussey II Edward P. Laine 

Peter D. Lea. Chair 

Requirements for the Major in Geology 

The major consists of the following core courses: Geology 101, 102, 200, 202, 
and 241; and no fewer than four courses from the following electives: Geology 
221, 222, 250, 262, 265, 270, and 278. Geology 100 ordinarily will not count 
toward the major except as approved individually by the department for excep- 
tional circumstances. Majors are advised that Chemistry 109, Physics 103, and 
Mathematics 171, or their equivalents are required by most graduate programs 
in geology. 

Because many upper-level courses are offered only in alternate years, students 
interested in majoring in geology should consult with the chair of the department 
as soon as possible to discuss their program. 

Interdisciplinary Majors 

The department participates in formal interdisciplinary programs in geology and 
physics and in geology and chemistry. See page 146. 

Requirements for the Minor in Geology 

The minor consists of two courses chosen from Geology 100, 101, and 102, 
and two courses chosen from Geology 200, 202, 221, 222, 241, 250, 262, 265, 
270, and 278. 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

100a. Introduction to Environmental Geology. Every fall. Mr. Laine and 
Mr. Lea. 

An introduction to aspects of geology that affect the environment and land use. 
Topics include floods and surface-water quality, ground-water contamination, 
and coastal erosion. Weekly labs and field trips emphasize local examples: Maine 
rivers, lakes, and coast. 

Enrollment limited to 35 students. Not open to students who have taken 
Geology 101. 

101a. Introduction to Physical Geology. Every semester. Fall 1996. 
Mk. Hi ssi v and Mr. I.i a. Spring 1997. Mk. I -i a. 

The composition and Structure Of the earth and the processes that shape the 
Surface Ol the earth, field and indoor laboratory studies include the recognition 
Ol common rocks and minerals, the interpretation and use of topographic and 
geologic maps, and dynamics of processes that shape OUT landscape. Three 
lectures and one three hour lah per week. No previous experience in science 
courses is assumed. 



Geology 119 

102a. Introduction to Historical Geology. Every spring. Mr. Hussey. 

The interpretation of geologic history from the rock record and a review of the 
evolution of the earth and its inhabitants. Laboratory work includes the recogni- 
tion of fossils and their modes of preservation, interpretation of geologic maps, 
and the geologic history of the principal tectonic belts of North America. Three 
hours of lecture, one three-hour lab per week, and a weekend field trip. 

Prerequisite: Geology 101 or permission of the instructor. 

200a. Geological Field Methods. Every fall. The Department. 

An introduction to geological field techniques, designed to teach students how 
to solve geological problems by collecting and analyzing data in the local field 
environment. Topics include geological mapping, sub-bottom profiling of local 
bays or lakes, and investigation of the relationship between landforms and surface 
processes. Includes several weekend field trips. 

Prerequisite: Geology 100 or 101, or permission of the Department. 
202a. Mineralogy. Every spring. Mr. Hussey. 

Elementary crystallography, crystal chemistry, structure, and optical proper- 
ties of minerals; mineral associations and genesis. Laboratory exercises empha- 
size hand-specimen identification of major rock-forming minerals and ore 
minerals, and the use of the petrographic microscope for examination and 
identification of minerals in thin section and oil immersions. Three hours of 
lecture and one three-hour lab per week. 

Prerequisite: Geology 101 or permission of the instructor. 

221a. Sedimentology. Fall 1997. Fall 1999. Mr. Lea. 

An examination of sedimentary processes and the composition of sedimentary 
rocks. Process-related topics include the behavior of sediment-moving fluids, 
dynamics of sediment transport and deposition, and interpretation of depositional 
processes from sedimentary structure and texture. Petrologic topics include 
identification of sediments in hand specimen and thin section, and diagenesis of 
sedimentary rocks. Weekly lab includes local field trips. 
- Prerequisites: Geology 101 or permission of the instructor. 

222a. Stratigraphy and Depositional Systems. Spring 1998. Spring 2000. 
Mr. Lea. 

Survey of the earth's depositional systems, both continental and marine, with 
emphasis on interpretation of sedimentary environment from sedimentary struc- 
tures and facies relationships; stratigraphic techniques for interpreting earth 
history; and introduction to subsurface analysis of sedimentary basins. 

Prerequisite: Geology 101 or permission of the instructor. 

241a. Structural Geology. Fall 1996. Fall 1998. Mr. Hussey. 

The primary and secondary structures of rocks, and the interpretation of crustal 
deformation from these features. Laboratory work includes strain analysis, field 
techniques, structural interpretation of geologic maps, construction of cross 
sections, and the use of stereographic projections and orthographic constructions 



120 Courses of Instruction 

in the solution of structural problems and data presentation. Three hours of lecture 
and one three-hour lab per week. Frequent field trips during lab periods and 
weekends. 

Prerequisite: Geology 101 or permission of the instructor. 

250a. Marine Geology and Tectonics. Spring 1997. Spring 1999. Mr. Laine. 

The geological and geophysical bases of the plate tectonics model. The 
influence of plate tectonics on major events in oceanographic and climatic 
evolution. Deep-sea sedimentary processes in the modern and ancient ocean as 
revealed through sampling and remote sensing. Focus in the laboratory on the 
interpretation of seismic reflection profiles from both the deep ocean and local 
coastal waters. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. 

Prerequisite: Geology 101 or permission of the instructor. 

262a. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Fall 1997. Fall 1999. Mr. Hussey. 

The classification, description, and genesis of the common igneous and 
metamorphic rock types. Laboratory work is devoted to the identification of rocks 
in hand specimen and examination of thin sections with the use of the polarizing 
microscope. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Weekend 
field trip during April. 

Prerequisite: Geology 202. 

265a. Geophysics. Spring 1998. Spring 2000. Mr. Laine. 

An introduction to interpretation methods in geophysics. Topics include 
seismic reflection and refraction methods, gravity and magnetic modeling, and 
electrical and thermal prospecting. Specific applications of each of these methods 
are drawn from the fields of marine geophysics, regional geology, hydrology, and 
environmental geology. Students should expect to spend several full Saturdays in 
the field making geophysical observations. 

Prerequisites: Physics 103, Mathematics 161, and one of the following — 
Geology 101, Physics 223, or Physics 227. 

270a. Surface Processes and Landforms. Fall 1996. Fall 1998. Mr. Lea. 

Survey of the processes that shape the earth's landscapes, including streams, 
waves, wind, and glaciers. Equilibrium versus non-equilibrium landforms. pro- 
cess rates and sensitivity to change, and influence of climate and tectonisin on 
landforms. Weekly lab emphasizes local field trips. 

Prerequisite: Geology 100 or 101 or permission of the instructor. 

278a. Quaternary Environments. Spring 1997. Spring 1999. Mr. Lea. 

The Quaternary period— the last 1.6 million years — has witnessed cyclic 
glaciation and climatic change and the development of modem landscapes ami 
ecosystems. This course examines methods of Quaternary climatic reconstruc- 
tion, the geologic record ol 'Quaternary environmental change, anil implications 
I or i he earth's future. Topics include Quaternary glacial systems: climatic records 
of ocean seilimeiils and glacier ice; response ol plant and animal communities to 
environmental change; and theories of climatic change. Labs and field trips 
emphasize local records of Quaternary environmental change. 

Prerequisite: Geology 100 or 101 or permission of the instructor. 



291a-294a. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 
401a-404a. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 

German 

Professors Teaching Fellow 

Helen L. Cafferty, Chair A. Nicole Stahlmann 

Steven R. Cerf 
James L. Hodge 

Requirements for the Major in German 

The major consists of seven courses, of which one may be chosen from 51, 52 and 
the others from 205-402. Prospective majors, including those who begin with 
first- or second-year German at Bowdoin, may arrange an accelerated program, 
usually including study abroad. Majors are encouraged to consider one of a 
number of study-abroad programs with different calendars and formats. 

Requirements for the Minor in German 

The minor consists of German 102 or equivalent, plus any four courses, of which 
two must be in the language (203-398). 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

51c. German Literature and Culture in English Translation. Every fall. 

Enrollment limited to 50 students. This course may be repeated for credit with 
the contents changed. 

The Literary Imagination and the Holocaust. Fall 1996. Mr. 
Cerf. 

An examination of the literary treatment of the Holocaust, a period 
between 1933 and 1945, during which 1 1 million innocent people 
were systematically murdered by the Nazis. Four different literary 
genres are examined: the diary and memoir, drama, poetry, and the 
novel. Three basic sets of questions are raised by the course: How 
could such slaughter take place in the twentieth century? To what 
extent is literature capable of evoking this period and what different 
aspects of the Holocaust are stressed by the different genres? What 
can our study of the Holocaust teach us with regard to contemporary 
issues surrounding totalitarianism and racism? 

52c. Myth and Heroic Epic of Europe. Spring 1997. Mr. Hodge. 

Myths, legends, sagas, and other folk literature of the Germanic, Celtic, Slavic, 
and Finno-Ugric traditions, e.g., the prose and poetic Eddas, Song of the 
Volsungs, Beowulf, Lay of the Nibelungs, the Mabinogion, the Cycle of Finn, the 
Cycle of Ulster, Marko the Prince, and the Kalevala. Where possible and 
desirable, comparisons may be drawn with other mythologies; mythological and 
legendary material may be supplemented by relevant folkloric, Arthurian, and 
semihistorical literature. Taught in English, Enrollment limited to 50 students. 



122 Courses of Instruction 

101c. Elementary German I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Hodge. 

German 101 is the first language course in German and is open to all students 
without prerequisite. Three hours per week of training in grammar, speaking, 
composition, and reading. One hour of conversation/drill with teaching assistant 
or teaching fellow. Language laboratory also available. The course requires 
regular quizzes and a final examination. 

102c. Elementary German II. Every spring. Spring 1997. Ms. Cafferty. 

Continuation of German 101. Three hours per week of training in grammar, 
speaking, composition, and reading. One hour of conversation/drill with teaching 
assistant or teaching fellow. Language laboratory also available. The course 
requires regular quizzes and a final examination. 

Prerequisite: German 101 or equivalent. 

203c. Intermediate German I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Cafferty. 

Three hours per week of reading, speaking, composition, and review of 
grammar. One hour of conversation/drill with teaching assistant or teaching 
fellow. Language laboratory also available. 

Prerequisite: German 102 or equivalent. 

204c. Intermediate German II. Every spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Cerf. 

Continuation of German 203. Three hours per week of reading, speaking, 
composition, and review of grammar. One hour of conversation/drill with 
teaching assistant or teaching fellow. Language laboratory also available. 

Prerequisite: German 203 or equivalent. 

205c. Advanced German. Every year. Fall 1996. Mr. Cerf. 

Designed to introduce aspects of German culture while increasing oral 
fluency, writing skills, and comprehension. 

Prerequisite: German 204 or equivalent. 

308c. Introduction to German Literature. Every year. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Hodge. 

Introduction to methods of interpretation and critical analysis of works of 
German literature by genre: e.g., prose fiction, expository prose, lyric poetry, 
drama, opera, film, etc. Develops students' sensitivity to literary structures and 
techniques and introduces terminology for describing and analyzing texts. 

Prerequisite: German 204 or equivalent. 

313c. The Development of Literary Classicism. 1 all L997. Tin DEPARTMENT. 

Begins with the reaction against the Age of Reason and continues into the later 
works of Goethe and Schiller. 

Prerequisite: German 204 or equivalent. 

314c. The Romantic Movement. Spring 1998. I'm DepARTMI NT. 

Its literary philosophy, several schools of thought, and preferred genres, 

including consideration of such representative oi influential figures as Tieck, W. 

and I'. Schlegel, Kleist, Arnim. Hrentano, Chamisso. LiehendorlT, E. T. A. 

Hoffmann, and Schopenhauer. 

Prerequisite: German 204 or equivalent. 



German 123 

315c. Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries I. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Hodge. 

German literature from approximately 1 830 to 1945. Such authors as Hebbel, 
Storm, Meyer, Keller, Hauptmann, Hofmannsthal, Mann, Kafka, and Brecht are 
included. 

Prerequisite: German 204 or equivalent. 

316c. Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries II. Spring 1997. 

Mr. Cerf. 

Continuation of German 315. German literature from approximately 1830 to 
1945. Such authors as Hebbel, Storm, Meyer, Keller, Hauptmann, Hofmannsthal, 
Mann, Kafka, and Brecht are included. 

Prerequisite: German 204 or equivalent. 

317c. German Literature since 1945. Fall 1996. Ms. Cafferty. 

Representative postwar authors from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. 
Prerequisite: German 204 or equivalent. 

319c. The Short Prose Form. Fall 1997. The Department. 

Unique theory, form, and content of the German Novelle as it has developed 
from Goethe to the present. 

Prerequisite: German 204 or equivalent. 

398c. Seminar in Aspects of German Literature and Culture. Every spring. 

The Department. 

Work in a specific area of German literature not covered in other departmental 

courses, e.g., individual authors, literary movements, genres, cultural influences, 

and literary-historical periods. This course may be repeated for credit with the 

contents changed. 

Prerequisite: German 204 or equivalent. 

East German Literature and Culture. Spring 1 997. Ms. Cafferty. 
Examines the literature and literary culture unique to the German 
Democratic Republic, with attention to the cultural politics of 
German unification. Among areas covered are the political and 
historical context, socialist tradition in the arts, Kulturpolitik and 
censorship, socialist realism, interpretations of myth and history as 
socialist struggle (Sisyphys, Icarus, the Spanish Civil War, Thomas 
Miinzer), socialist tragedy, the individual versus the collective, the 
evolving role of literature in GDR society, the debate on the role of 
the artist in East Germany, conformity versus resistance, Utopian 
socialism versus realexistierender Sozialismus. Authors include 
Brecht, Seghers, Biermann, Plenzdorf, Miiller, Wolf, Braun, and 
others. 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

401c^404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



124 Courses of Instruction 

Government and Legal Studies 

Professors Associate Professors Senior Lecturer 

Charles R. Beitz Janet M. Martint Kent John Chabotar 

Richard E. Morgan Marcia A. Weigle Adjunct Lecturer 

Christian P. Potholm** Paul N. Franco Richard A. Wiley 

Allen L. Springer Assistant Professor 

Jean M. Yarbrough. Chair John M. Owen 

\ Isiting Tollman Professor Visiting Assistant Professor 

William E. Leuchtenburg Deborah Guber 

Requirements for the Major in Government and Legal Studies 

Courses within the department are divided into four fields: 

American government: Government 105, 1 1 1, 1 12, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 

206, 209, 210-211, 215, 250, 255, 270, 301, 302, 304, 305, and 341; 
Comparative politics: Government 102, 104, 107, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 230, 

235, 268, 275, 280, 281, 285, 320, 321, 360, and 362; 
Political theory: Government 106, 108, 240, 241, 244, 245, 250, 255, 341, 342, 

344, and 345; and 
International relations: Government 103, 1 10, 160, 226, 227, 235, 260, 261, 270, 

271, 275, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 302, 361, 362, 363, and 364. 
Every major is expected to complete an area of concentration in one of these 
fields. 

The major consists of one Level A course and seven Level B and/or Level C 
courses, distributed as follows: 

1 . A field of concentration, selected from the above list, in which at least three 
Level B and/or Level C courses are taken. 

2. At least one Level A or Level B course in each of three fields outside the field 
of concentration. 

3. Students seeking to graduate with honors in government and legal studies 
must petition the department. Interested students should contact the honors 
director for specific details. Students must prepare an honors paper, which is 
normally the product of two semesters of independent study work, and have that 
paper approved by the department. One semester of independent study work may 
be counted toward the eight-course departmental requirement and the three- 
course field concentration. 

Requirements for the Minor in Government and Legal Studies 

A minor in government and legal Studies will consist of one Level A course and 

four Level B or C courses from three of the departmental subfields. 



Government and Legal Studies 1 25 

LEVEL A COURSES 

Introductory Seminars 

All introductory seminars are designed to provide an introduction to a particular 
aspect of government and legal studies. Students are encouraged to analyze and 
discuss important political concepts and issues, while developing research and 
writing skills. 

Enrollment is limited to 20 students in each seminar. First-year students are 
given first priority; sophomores are given second priority. If there are any 
remaining places, juniors and seniors may be admitted with the permission of the 
instructor. 

103b. The Pursuit of Peace. Fall 1996. Mr. Springer. 

Examines different strategies for preventing and controlling armed conflict in 
international society, and emphasizes the role of diplomacy, international law, 
and international organizations in the peace-making process. 

104b. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Spring 1997. Ms. Weigle. 

A rigorous introduction to comparative politics through an examination of 
state-society relations, political linkages (parties, interest groups, social move- 
ments), and political culture. The class is based on an analysis of three sets of 
countries — liberal democracies (Europe), communist/post-communist systems 
(U.S.S.R./Russia), authoritarian regimes (Latin America and Africa) — and is 
designed to develop skills in comparative political analysis. 

[105b. American Politics: Representation, Participation, and Power.] 

[106b. Fundamental Questions: Exercises in Political Theory.] 

[107b. Democracy and the Good Life.] 

108b. Liberty Ancient and Modern. Fall 1996. Mr. Franco. 

An introduction to political philosophy, focusing on the fundamental contrast 
between the classical and modern horizons. After considering the treatment of 
liberty and democracy by ancient authors, the course examines the foundations 
of modern liberal democracy and its career in the United States. Authors include 
Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Locke, Jefferson, the Federalists, and Tocqueville. 

[109b. Sources and Types of Conflict in International Society.] 

[110b. Patterns and Trends in International Conflict.] 

111b. Understanding Maine Politics. Fall 1996. Mr. Potholm. 

A look at politics in the State of Maine since World War II. Subjects covered 
include the dynamics of Republican and Democratic rivalries and the efficacy of 
the Independent voter, the rise of the Green and Reform parties, the growing 
importance of ballot measure initiatives, and the interaction of ethnicity and 
politics in the Pine Tree state. 



1 26 Courses of Instruction 

112b. Environmental Politics and Policy. Fall 1996. Ms. Guber. 

An introduction to environmental politics and policy-making in the United 
States, focusing on the role of national political actors and institutions. The 
importance of science and scientific uncertainty in shaping government decisions 
regarding the use of scarce natural resources will also be discussed. Case studies 
include national parks, endangered species, and pesticide management. 

Introductory Lectures 

150b. Introduction to American Government. Fall 1996. Mr. Morgan. 

Traces the development of constitutional government in America with special 
reference to the tensions between the key principles of liberty, equality, and self 
government. The emphasis will be on how, both yesterday and today, Americans 
convert their political conflicts into conflicts over constitutional forms, and seek 
to force institutional change. The course moves from a consideration of American 
"first principles" to a consideration of the divisive political issues of our time in 
light of these principles. 

160b. Introduction to International Relations. Spring 1997. Mr. Owen. 

Identifies and explains patterns of interaction among nation-states. Focuses on 
developments since World War II, but many lectures draw on material from other 
periods. Such topics as the nature of humankind and the causes of war, revolution- 
ary change, and the role of international law and organization are considered. 
Enrollment limited to 75 students. 

LEVEL B COURSES 

Level B courses are designed generally for students with a previous background 
in government and legal studies. We recommend that a student have taken a Level 
A course. First-year students who have not taken a Level A course require 
permission of the instructor. Course requirements will vary, but most courses at 
this level adopt a lecture format. All Level B courses are limited to 50 students. 

201b. Law and Society. Spring 1997. Mr. Morgan. 

An examination of the American criminal justice system. Although primary 
locus is on the constitutional requirements bearing on criminal justice, attention 
is paid to conflicting strategies on crime control, to police and prison reform, and 
to the philosophical underpinnings of the criminal law. 

Prerequisite: Junior standing. 

[202b. The American Presidency.) 

203b. American Political Parties and Elections. Fall 1996. Ms. Gum k. 

Examines U.S. elections and political parties. Topics to be discussed include 
electoral realignments throughout history, voting for President and Congress. 
party competition, voter turnout, incumbency advantage, and the electoral 
foundations Ol divided party control of government. 



Government and Legal Studies 1 27 

[204b. Congress and the Policy Process.] 

206b. Colloquium on the Presidency and American Society, 1930 to the 

Present. Fall 1996. Mr. Leuchtenburg. 

Focuses on assessments of U. S. presidents from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Bill 
Clinton. A substantial amount of reading is assigned, and students are expected 
to participate actively each week in discussion. Enrollment is limited to 22 
students. (Same as History 232.) 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

209b. Public Opinion and Voting Behavior. Spring 1997. Ms. Guber. 

An examination of public opinion and mass political behavior in the United 
States. Among the topics explored are the processes by which people develop 
their political attitudes and beliefs, the quality of public opinion, the interplay 
between mass attitudes and public policy, and the motivations that underlie 
political participation and electoral choice. 

210b. Constitutional Law I. Fall 1996. Mr. Morgan. 

The first semester deals with the development of American constitutionalism, 
the power of judicial review, federalism, and separation of powers. 

Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. For classes after 2000, Government 
150 or 250. 

211b. Constitutional Law II: Civil Rights and Liberties. Every spring. 
Mr. Morgan. 

The second semester deals with questions arising under the First and Four- 
teenth Amendments. 

Prerequisite: Government 210. 

215b. Public Policy and Administration. Spring 1997. Mr. Chabotar. 

An introduction to governmental and nonprofit decision making, with empha- 
sis on strategic planning, fiscal and personnel administration, issues of public 
interest and merit system, and responses to bureaucratic, political, and economic 
pressures. Focus on policy making in education, criminal justice, and the arts. 

223b,d. African Politics. Fall 1996. Mr. Potholm. 

An examination of the underlying political realities of modern Africa. Empha- 
sis on the sociological, economic, historical, and political phenomena that affect 
the course of politics on the continent. While no attempt is made to cover each 
specific country, several broad topics, such as hierarchical and polyarchical forms 
of decision-making, are examined in depth. A panel discussion with African 
students and scholars usually is held at the end of the course. (Same as Africana 
Studies 223.) 

224b. West European Politics. Fall 1997. Ms. Weigle. 

An examination of West European domestic politics, focusing on Britain, 
France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, and/or Spain. We take both an area 
studies approach, examining each country as a unique case study, and a function- 
alist approach, comparing political party systems, public policies, and European 
social and political movements. The European Union is covered in a separate 
course and is not a part of this course. 



1 2s Courses oj Instruction 

225b. I he Politics of the European Union. Fall 1996. Ms. Wi m i . 

Since 1958, the countries of Western Europe have been at tempting to carry out 
,i process of political, social, and economic integration under the auspices of first 
the European Community (1958-1991) and. after the Maastrict Treats, the 

European Union ( 1 992r-present). The course exammes me rjrocesses of European 

integration from 1958 to the present in three venues: integration theory (the 
transition from national to all-European policies); political institutions (the 
European Commission, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice, 
the Council of Ministers); the European Union policies (the all-European welfare 
state, the legal order, expansion to include the new Central European liberal 
democracies). Students complete a research paper and use it as the basis for 
participation in the Model-EU role-playing session at the end of the semester. 

|226b,d. Middle East Politics.] 

230b. Post-Communist Russian Politics. Fall 1996. Ms. Wi km 

The first half of the course examines theories of post-communist transitions, 
the roots of contemporary Russian politics in Gorbachev's Soviet Union, ami the 
explosive transition from the communist to the post-communist system. In the 
second half, we analyze the mechanisms of political change in current Russian 
politics and ask if liberal democracy or authoritarianism will take root in the ashes 
of the Soviet system. 

240b. Classical Political Philosophy. Fall 1996. Ms YARBROl oh. 

Examines the answers of Greek and Roman political philosophers, as well as 
medieval theologians, to the most pressing human questions: What is the best wa\ 
to live? What is the relationship of the individual to the political community? 
What is justice, and how important a virtue is it'.' Can we rely on human reason 
to give answers to these questions, or are the answers to our central human 
concerns ultimate!) dependent upon revelation and faith'.' If so. what are the 

political consequences? 

241b. Modern Political Philosophy. Spring 1997. Mk. FraN< 0. 

A surve\ ol modern political philosophy from Machiavclh to Hegel. Exam- 
ines the overthrow ol the classical hori/on, the movement of human will and 

freedom to the center of political thought, the idea ofthe social contract, the origin 
and meaning ol rights, the relationship between freedom and equality, the role ol 
democracy, and the replacement ol nature b) historj as the source of human 

meaning. Authors include Machia\elh. Ilobhes. I.ocke. Hume. Rousseau. Kant. 

and Hegel. 

244b. Liberalism and Its ( ritics. I all 1996. Mk. Ik \\< <>. 

\n examination <>i liberal democratic doctrine A\n\ ol religious, cultural, ami 
radical criticisms ol n in the nineteenth century. Authors include Burke. 
rccque\ ille, Mill. Marx, ami Nietzsche. 



Government and Legal Studies 1 29 

245b. Contemporary Political Philosophy. Spring 1997. Mr. Franco. 

A survey of political philosophy in Europe and the United States since 1945. 
Examines a broad array of topics, including the revival of political philosophy, 
relativism, rationalism, contemporary liberal theory, communitarianism, conser- 
vatism, feminism, and postmodernism. Authors may include Strauss, Arendt, 
Oakeshott, Hayek, Rawls, Sandel, Taylor, Walzer, Habermas, and Foucault. 

250b. American Political Thought. Spring 1997. Ms. Yarbrough. 

Examines the political thought of American statesmen and writers from the 
Founding to the twentieth century. Readings include the Federalist Papers, the 
writings of Thomas Jefferson, the Anti-federalists, Tocqueville, Thoreau, Calhoun, 
Lincoln, Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Booker T. Washington, Martin 
Luther King, and others. 

255b. Approaches to Political Science: Quantitative Analysis in Political 
Science. Spring 1997. Ms. Guber. 

Considers the use of statistical evidence in the study of politics. Students learn 
about the techniques of quantitative evidence and research design — including 
descriptive statistics, causal inference, hypothesis testing, and linear and multiple 
regression. These tools are applied to a variety of political subjects, including 
electoral analysis, political economy, public opinion, and polling. The purpose is 
to develop good judgment when evaluating statistical studies done in political 
science. 

260b. International Law. Fall 1996. Mr. Springer. 

The modern state system, the role of law in its operation, the principles and 
practices that have developed, and the problems involved in their application. 

261b. International Organization. Spring 1997. Mr. Springer. 

The development of international institutions, including the United Nations 
and the European Community. 

270b. American Foreign Policy: Its Formulation and the Forces Determin- 
ing Its Direction. Spring 1997. Mr. Springer. 

The major theories concerning the sources and conduct of American foreign 
policy since World War II. Emphasizes the interrelationship of political, social. 
and economic forces that shape U.S. diplomacy. 

275b. Advanced International Politics: Theories of Peace and Power. 1 all 
1996. Mr. Owen. 

Explores theories as guides to understanding international relations past, 
present, and future. Questions include: What are the essential differences between 
politics among nations and politics within nations? Do nations always relate to 
one another mainly in terms of power, or do culture, economies, ideas, and 
institutions matter? What is the significance of non-state entities such as the 
United Nations, multinational corporations, and religions organizations? 

[283b. International Environmental Law and Organization.] 



130 Courses of Instruction 

285b. European and Russian Foreign Policies in the Post-Cold War Era. 

Fall 1997. Ms. Weigle. 

The end of the Cold War with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 has 
completely altered the shape of international relations and geopolitical processes 
all across the globe. This course examines the struggle by the countries of Western 
Europe, Eastern and Central Europe, and Russia to reshape a new world order 
through emerging foreign policies. Our goal is to understand the domestic and 
national interests that drive emerging foreign policies in Germany, Britain, 
France, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Yugoslavia, the Baltics, and 
Russia, and to understand the resulting impact on the future structure of interna- 
tional relations. 

[286b. International Relations in East Asia.] 

287b. Nationalism in World Politics. Fall 1996. Mr. Owen. 

Even as technology seems to be drawing the peoples of the world together, 
nationalism is moving them apart. Nascent nations seem to be appearing every- 
where and demanding statehood. This course examines the historical origins of 
nations and nationalism, why so many nations are hostile to cosmopolitanism, the 
relationship between nationalism and democracy, the rise of state sovereignty, 
and the importance of these issues for international relations today. 

291b-294b. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

LEVEL C COURSES 

Level C courses provide seniors (and juniors, with the permission of the 
instructor) an opportunity to do advanced work within their fields of concentra- 
tion. This may be done in the context of a seminar or through independent study 
with a member of the department, or through the honors seminar. 

302b. Advanced Seminar in Law and National Security. Fall 1996. Mr. 
Wiley. 

Defines "national security" — defense or military, economic, technological, 
environmental, and immigration control. Examines law of separation of powers, 
war (declared, undeclared, and covert), internal security (emergency powers and 
intelligence agency activities), access to information (Freedom of Information 
Act and restraints on publication), international economic activity controls, and 
technology transfer restrictions. Considers roles of state and local government . 
law and regulation. 

[304b. Advanced Seminar in American Politics: Presidential-Congressional 
Relations.] 

305b. The United States Supreme Court from the 1930s to the Present. 

I all 1996. MR. I.M . III! Mil IRQ. 

The course gives students an opportunity to write research papers based on 
original sources, including cases and law journal articles, on topics in the history 
ol the Supreme Court from the Chief J ust iceship of Charles Evans Hughes to that 
of William Rehnquist Bnrollmenl is limited to 12 students. (Same as History 
330.) 

Prerequisite: Permission Of the instructor. 



History 



131 



320b. Politics and Anti-politics in East Central Europe. Every spring. Spring 
1997. Ms. Weigle. 

Senior seminar on political and social development in East Central Europe 
from 1 9 1 8, the birth of independent statehood, to the present, after the states broke 
free of communist rule to rebuild themselves on the foundations of national 
culture. Novels and films complement political science literature and primary 
source documents. 

341b. Advanced Seminar in Political Theory: Jeffersonian Legacies. 

Spring 1997. Ms. Yarbrough. 

[345b. Advanced Seminar in Political Theory: The Political Philosophy of 
German Idealism — Kant to Hegel.] 

361b. Advanced Seminar in International Relations: Conflict Simulation 
and Conflict Resolution. Spring 1998. Mr. Potholm. 

364b. Ethics and International Relations. Spring 1997. Mr. Owen. 

Is international relations wholly a realm of power and necessity, or does 
morality have a place? Topics include realism and idealism, just war and pacifism, 
human rights, sovereignty and foreign intervention, distribution of wealth, 
refugees, and ecological issues. 

370b. Advanced Seminar in Public Policy and Administration: Fiscal Ad- 
ministration. Spring 1998. Mr. Chabotar. 
Prerequisite: Government 215. 

401b-404b. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



History 



Professors 
Daniel Levinet 
' Paul L. Nyhus 
Allen Wells, Chair 
Visiting Tollman Professor 
William E. Leuchtenburg 



Associate Professors Visiting Assistant Professors 



John M. Karl 
Sarah F. McMahon 
Kidder Smith 
Randolph Stakeman 
Assistant Professors 
Patrick J. Rael 
Susan L. Tananbaum 



David A. Graff 
Sree Padma 
Visiting Instructor 
Peter Laipson 



Requirements for the Major in History 

The departmental offerings are divided into the following fields: Europe (may be 
divided into two fields: Europe to 1 7 1 5 and Europe since 1 500), Great Britain, the 
United States, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In meeting the field requirements, 
courses in Europe between 1 500 and 1715 may be counted toward early or modern 
Europe but not toward both of them. At least one field must be in Asia, Africa, or 
Latin America. Students may, with departmental approval, define fields that are 
different from those specified above. The program chosen to meet the require- 
ments for the major in history must be approved by a departmental advisor. 



1 32 Courses of Instruction 

The major consists of ten courses, distributed as follows: 

1 . A primary field of concentration, selected from the above list, in which four 
or more courses are taken. One of the courses must be numbered in the 300s, 
selected with departmental approval, in which a research essay is written. 

2. Two supplemental fields, in each of which two courses are taken. 

3. In addition, each student must take two courses in fields outside history but 
related to his or her primary field of concentration. These courses might be taken, 
for example, in art history, government, English, any of the language depart- 
ments, anthropology, sociology, and classics. 

All history majors seeking departmental honors will enroll in at least one 
semester of the Honors Seminar (History 451, 452). Its primary requirement is 
the research and writing of the honors thesis. In addition, the seminar is to provide 
a forum in which the students, together with the faculty, can discuss their work 
and the larger historical questions that grow out of it. To be eligible to register for 
Honors, a student must have higher than a straight B average in courses taken in 
the department. 

With departmental approval a student may offer for credit toward the history 
major, college-level work in history at other institutions. This work may represent 
fields other than those that are available at Bowdoin. A student who anticipates 
study away from Bowdoin should discuss with the department, as early in his or 
her college career as possible, a plan for the history major that includes work at 
Bowdoin and elsewhere. 

The first-year seminars listed under History 10-25 are not required for the 
major, but such seminars may be counted toward the required ten courses. 

Before electing to major in history, a student should have completed or have 
in progress at least two college-level courses in history. 

History majors are encouraged to develop competence in one or more foreign 
languages and to use this competence in their historical reading and research. 
Knowledge of a foreign language is particularly important for students planning 
graduate work. 

Each major must select a departmental advisor. A student should plan, in 
consultation with his or her advisor, a program that progresses from introductory 
to advanced levels. The courses numbered in the 300s presuppose a reasonable 
background understanding. They are open with the consent of the instructor to 
history majors and other students, normally juniors and seniors. 

Enrollment in history courses numbered 50-289 is limited to 50 students each. 

Requirements for the Minor in History 

The minor consists of five courses, three to be taken in a field of concentration 
chosen from the list specified by the department for a major. The remaining two 
are to be in a subsidiary field selected from the same list. 
last Asian studies Concentration 

Majors in history may elect the Basl Asian studies concentration, which consists 
dI the following requirements: lour courses in East Asian history, including at 
least one research seminar: two courses in a field of history other than East Asian; 
and lour semesters of Chinese or Japanese language. 



History 133 

Foreign study for students interested in East Asian studies is highly recom- 
mended. Established programs in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and the People's 
Republic of China are available. Consult the instructor in East Asian history for 
information about various programs. 

Course Selection for First- Year Students 

Although courses numbered 10-25 and 101-102 are designed as introductory 
courses, first-year students may enroll in any courses numbered 201-289. 

First- Year Seminars 

The following seminars are introductory in nature. They are designed for first- 
year students who have little background in history generally or in the period and 
area in which the particular topic falls. Enrollment is limited to 1 6 students in each 
seminar. 

Objectives are (a) to cover the essential information relating to the topic, 
together with a reasonable grounding in background information; (b) to illustrate 
the manner in which historians (as well as those who approach some of the topics 
from the point of view of other disciplines) have dealt with certain significant 
questions of historical inquiry; and (c) to train critical and analytical writing skills. 

The seminars are based on extensive reading, class discussion, oral reports, 
two or three short critical essays, and an examination. 

For a full description of the following first-year seminars, see pages 113-115. 

10c. History on Film. Fall 1997. Mr. Nyhus. 

lie. Women in Britain and America: 1750-1920. Fall 1997. Ms. McMahon. 

12c. Utopia: Intentional Communities in America, 1630-1990. Fall 1996. 

Ms. McMahon. 

14c. Many Americas: Cultural Interaction in the United States, 1607-1920. 

Spring 1998. Mr. Rael. 

15c. One Hundred Years of Heterosexuality in America. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Laipson. 

16c. Blue, Gray, and Black: The Civil War and African Americans. Spring 
1997. Mr. Rael. 

17c,d. The Cuban Revolution. Fall 1997. Mr. Wells. 

19c,d. Contemporary Argentina. Spring 1997. Mr. Wells. 

21c. Players and Spectators: History, Culture, and Sports. Fall 1996. 
Ms. Tananbaum. 

23c,d. The First Emperor of China. Spring 1997. Mr. Smith. 
(Same as Asian Studies 23.) 



134 Courses of Instruction 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

[103c,d. Asian Civilizations.] 

105c. Medieval Spain. Every other year. Fall 1997. Mr. Nyhus. 

A survey of medieval Spain serving as an introduction to medieval studies. 
Reviews the many cultures — Visigothic, Islamic, Jewish, and Christian — that 
flourished in medieval Spain and the relations among these cultures. 

131c,d. The African-American Autobiography. Fall 1997. Mr. Stakeman. 

A survey of African-American thought and experience as it is revealed 
through the autobiography, one of the first literary genres developed by African 
Americans. (Same as Africana Studies 102.) 

200c. Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology. Fall 1996. Ms. Millender. 

Explores the nature of slavery in both archaic and classical Greek society and 
republican and imperial Roman society. Through close examination of the 
literature, art, and archaeological remains from these periods, this course exam- 
ines the processes that led to the exploitation of slave labor in both societies, how 
slavery functioned within the ancient economy and in ancient political systems, 
whether it had any racial basis, and how it was judged socially, morally, and 
philosophically. Comparisons are made between these two slave societies and 
later examples, particularly that of the United States before the Civil War, in order 
to understand what was unique about slavery in the ancient world. The course also 
considers modern historiography on ancient slavery and how this affects our 
understanding of slavery in two societies removed both in time and space from the 
modern world. (Same as Classics 228.) 

201c. Greek History Survey: The Emergence of the Greek City-State. Spring 
1998. Ms. Millender. 

A chronological survey of archaic and classical Greek history and civilization 
from the traditional foundation of the Olympic games in 776 B.C. to the fall of the 
Athenian empire in 404 B.C. Three main themes are developed: political theory 
and practice, warfare, and gender relations in ancient Greece. Emphasis is placed 
on the interpretation of ancient evidence, including primary literary works, 
inscriptions, and relevant archaeological material. Attention is also given to 
historical methods, particularly textual criticism and the utilization of different, 
and sometimes conflicting, types of evidence. (Same as Classics 211.) 

202c. Conquest, Expansion, and Conflict: The Development of the Roman 
Empire 264 iu .1.-14 CJE. Spring 1997. Ms. Mii.i.i m>i k. 

Examines Rome's rapid transformation into the leading power in the Mediter- 
ranean and the political, social, cultural, and economic changes thai this extended 
period of growth produced in Roman society. Following a general introduction 
to early Roman history and institutions, this course traces Rome's usurpation of 
Carthaginian power in the West and conquest of the Hellenistic Fast, and 
investigates the forces that led to the fall of the Roman Republic and the rise of 
the Roman Empire under the guidance of Augustus. Rome's first emperor. 
Emphasis is placed on the interpretation ol ancient evidence, including primary 
literary works, inscriptions, and relevant archaeological material. (Same as 
( lassies 212.) 



History 135 

203c. Europe in the Middle Ages, 1050-1300. Spring 1997. Mr. Nyhus. 

A survey covering political and social institutions as well as intellectual and 
cultural movements of Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 

205c. Italy during the Renaissance. Spring 1997. Mr. Nyhus. 

A survey of the political, social, and cultural history of Italy, 1300-1500. 

206c. Northern Europe during the Renaissance and Early Reformation. 

Fall 1996. Mr. Nyhus. 

A survey of the political and social history of northern Europe, 1450-1530, 
with special emphasis on the cultural impact of the Renaissance and early 
Reformation. 

207c. Culture and Society in Sixteenth- Century Europe. Spring 1998. 
Mr. Nyhus. 

A survey of Europe in the sixteenth century paying equal attention to 
Mediterranean and northern societies. Special focus on the relation of literature, 
art, and music to the study of societies. 

[211c. Europe 1517-1715: Reformation to Louis XIV.] 

212c. The Revolutionary Era, 1750-1848. Fall 1996. Mr. Karl. 

After considering developments leading to revolution, the course focuses on 
the French Revolution, the rise of Napoleon, and the impact of both upon the rest 
of Europe. 

214c. Europe 1939 to the Present. Fall 1998. Ms. Tananbaum. 

A social history of the last fifty years of European history, with a focus on the 
history of World War II, the origins of the cold war, the division of Europe, 
Eastern Europe under Stalinist rule, the revival of Western Europe, the Western 
Alliance, the European union, and social, political, economic, and cultural 
changes in Europe since 1945. 

215c. Nazi Germany, 1930-1945. Spring 1997. Mr. Karl. 

After a brief examination of the post- World War I scene, the course focuses 
-on Hitler's coming to power, establishment of the dictatorship, instruments of 
control, road to the Holocaust, resistance, and everyday life under a totalitarian 
regime. 

[217c. History of Russia to 1825.] 

[218c. History of Russia: 1825 to the Present.] 

[220c. Judaism, Christianity, and Antisemitism.] 

221c. History of England, 1485-1688. Fall 1997. Ms. Tananbaum. 

A survey of the political, cultural, religious, social, and economic history of 
early modern England from the reign of Henry VII, the first Tudor ruler, to the 
outbreak of the Glorious Revolution. Topics for consideration include the Tudor 
and Stuart monarchs, the Elizabethan Settlement, the English Civil War, Oliver 
Cromwell, and the Restoration. 



1 36 Courses of Inst nation 

223c. History of England, 1837 to the 1990s. Fall 1996. Ms. Tananbaum. 

A social history of modern Britain from the rise of urban industrial society in 
the mid-eighteenth century to the present. Topics include the impact of the 
industrial revolution, acculturation of the working classes, the impact of liberal- 
ism, the reform movement, and Victorian society. Concludes with an analysis of 
the domestic impact of the world wars and of contemporary society. 

229c. The Growth of the Welfare State in Britain and America: 1834 to the 
Present. Spring 1998. Mr. Levine. 

A study in the comparative history of the ideology and institutions of the 
welfare state in two countries that are similar in some ways but quite different in 
others. Readings in the laws, legislative debates, ideological statements, and 
economic and sociological analyses. 

[230c. Interpretations of American History.] 

231c. Social History of Colonial America, 1607-1763. Spring 1998. 
Ms. McMahon. 

A study of the founding and growth of the British colonies in North America. 
Explores the problems of creating a new society in a strange environment; the 
effects of particular goals and expectations on the development of the thirteen 
colonies; the gradual transformation of English, African, and Indian cultures; and 
the later problems of colonial maturity and stability as the emerging Americans 
outgrew the British imperial system. 

232c. Colloquium on the Presidency and American Society, 1930 to the 
Present. Fall 1996. Mr. Leuchtenburg. 

Focuses on assessments of U. S. presidents from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Bill 
Clinton. A substantial amount of reading is assigned, and students are expected 
to participate actively each week in discussion. Enrollment is limited to 22 
students. (Same as Government 206.) 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

233c. American Society in the New Nation. Fall 1996. Ms. McMahon. 

A social history of the United States from the Revolutionary era through the 
age of Jackson. Topics include the social, economic, and ideological roots of the 
movement for American independence; the struggle to determine the scope of the 
Constitution and the shape of the new republic; the emergence of an American 
identity; and the diverging histories of the North, South, and West in the early 

nineteenth century. 

234c. The (.olden Land: Jews in American Society. Spring 1997. 

Ms. Tananbaum. 

A social history of Jewish settlement and life in America from the colonial 

period to the present I fses literature, films, and primary documents to explore the 

social and religious patterns ol each wave of immigration, analyze the response 
within and in the Jewish community, and consider the experience of American 
Jews in the context of American and Jewish history. 



History 137 

236c,d. The History of African Americans, 1619-1865. Fall 1996. Mr. Rael. 
Explores the history of African Americans in the nation through the Civil War. 
Focuses on issues of African- American acculturation and identity formation, the 
contributions of African Americans to American culture, and the influence of 
American society and institutions on the experiences of black people. Through- 
out, emphasis is placed on recovering the voices of African Americans through 
primary sources. (Same as Africana Studies 236.) 

237c,d. The History of African Americans, 1865 to the Present. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Rael. 

Explores the history of African Americans from the end of the Civil War to the 
present. Focuses on issues such as the dual nature of black identity, the emergence 
of a national leadership, the development of protest strategies, the impact of 
industrialization and urbanization, and the emergence of black cultural styles. 
Throughout, emphasis is placed on recovering the voices of African Americans 
through primary sources. (Same as Africana Studies 237.) 

238c. America in the Nineteenth Century. Fall 1997. Mr. Rael. 

The course focuses on the United States in its century of great transition. Uses 
the concept of the "public sphere" to attempt a synthesis of nineteenth-century 
American history that includes the story of industrialization, urbanization, and 
party politics. The course tests to see if the "public sphere" can contain the stories 
of the excluded, including the extermination of Native Americans, the enslave- 
ment of African- Americans, and the marginalization of women. 

239c. The Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Spring 1998. Mr. Rael. 
Examines the period between about 1850 and about 1880. Emphasis on 
politics, economics, the Supreme Court, and, above all, race relations. Topics 
include the rise of the Republican party, abolitionism, slavery as an institution and 
slave society, sectionalism, the war itself and its implications, the politics of 
Reconstruction, the Freedman's Bureau, and the establishment of a new basis for 
white domination. (Same as Africana Studies 239.) 

240c. The United States since 1945. Fall 1997. Mr. Levine. 

Consideration of social, intellectual, political, and international history. Top- 
ics include the cold war; the survival of the New Deal; the changing role of 
organized labor; Keynesian, post-Keynesian, or anti-Keynesian economic poli- 
cies; and the urban crisis. Readings common to the whole class and the opportu- 
nity for each student to read more deeply in a topic of his or her own choice. 
Pre registration limited to first- and second-year students. Others may enroll as 
room is available. 

241c. American History from 1877 to the Present. Fall 1996. Mr. Laipson. 

This survey course provides a general introduction to key themes and issues 
in late nineteenth- and twentieth-century American history. Although attending 
to a full range of concerns, from politics to the history of ideas, the course places 
particular emphasis on social history (the experience of "ordinary people") and 
cultural history (institutions and patterns of thought important to Americans' self- 
conception). 



138 Courses of Instruction 

242c. Becoming Modern: The 1920s. Spring 1997. Mr. Laipson. 

This course studies the transformations in American culture in the 1920s. 
Examines the origins and development of "the modern temper" in American life 
and thought. Topics include the nature of intellectual and artistic modernism; 
changes in political economy, technology, and material culture and their influ- 
ence; the enduring tension between progressive and reactionary tendencies in 
social thought; and the achievements and struggles of minority populations in 
American life. 

243c. The Civil Rights Movement. Spring 1998. Mr. Levine. 

Concentrates on the period from 1954 to 1970 and shows how various 
individuals and groups have been pressing for racial justice for decades. Special 
attention is paid to social action groups ranging from the NAACP to the SNCC, 
and to important individuals, both well known (Booker T. Washington) and less 
well known (John Doar). Readings mostly in primary sources. Extensive use of 
the PBS video series "Eyes on the Prize." (Same as Africana Studies 241.) 

246c. Women in American History, 1600-1900. Spring 1997. Ms. McMahon. 
A social history of American women from the colonial period through the 
nineteenth century. Examines the changing roles and circumstances of women in 
both public and private spheres, focusing on family responsibilities, paid and 
unpaid work, education, ideals of womanhood, women's rights, and feminism. 
Class, ethnic, religious, and racial differences — as well as common experi- 
ences — are explored. 

248c. Family and Community in American History. Fall 1 997. Ms. McMahon. 
Examines the American family as a functioning social and economic unit 
within the community from the colonial period to the present. Topics include 
gender relationships; the purpose of marriage; philosophies of child-rearing; 
demographic changes in family structure; organization of work and leisure time; 
relationships between nuclear families and both kinship and neighborhood 
networks; and the effects of industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and 
social and geographic mobility on patterns of family life. 

250c,d. History of Mexico. Fall 1996. Mr. Wells. 

A survey of Mexican history from pre-Columbian times to the present. Topics 
to be examined include the evolving character of indigenous societies, the nature 
of the Encounter, the colonial legacy, the chaotic nineteenth century, the Mexican 
Revolution, and U.S. -Mexican relations. Contemporary problems will also be 
addressed. 

252c,d. Colonial Latin America. Fall 1997. Mr. Wi i i s. 

Introduces students to the history of Latin America from pre-Columbian times 
lo about I X25. Traces developments fundamental to the establishment of colonial 
rule, drawing out regional comparisons of indigenous resistance and accommo- 
dation. Topics include the nature of indigenous societies encountered by Europe- 
ans; exploitation of African and Indian labor; evangelization and the role of the 
church; the evolution of race, gender, and class hierarchies in colonial society; and 
the origins of independence in Spanish America and Brazil. 



History 139 

255c,d. Modern Latin America. Spring 1998. Mr. Wells. 

Traces the principal economic, social, and political transformations in Latin 
America from the wars of independence to the present. Focuses on the national 
trajectories of Mexico, Cuba, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile, with some 
attention to the countries of Central America. Topics include colonial legacies and 
the aftermath of independence; the consolidation of nation-states and their 
insertion in the world economy; the evolution of land and labor systems; the 
politics of state-building, reform, and revolution; industrialization and class 
formation; military regimes and foreign intervention; and the emergence of social 
movements. 

[256c,d- Comparative Slavery.] 

258c,d. Latin American Revolutions. Spring 1997. Mr. Wells. 

Examines revolutionary change in Latin America from a historical perspec- 
tive, concentrating on two successful revolutions, those of Cuba and Nicaragua, 
and one case of thwarted revolutionary action, in Chile. Popular images and 
orthodox interpretations are challenged and new propositions about these pro- 
cesses tested. External and internal dimensions of each movement are analyzed, 
and each revolution is discussed in the full context of the country's historical 
development. 

[259c,d. The Modern Middle East: The Arab-Israeli Conflict.] 

262c,d. Slavery and the Slave Trade in Precolonial Africa. Spring 1998. 
Mr. Stakeman. 

An examination of slavery within Africa, the slave trade on the African 
continent, and African connections to the intercontinental slave trade to the New 
World. Investigates the role of slavery in African societies, the influence of Islam 
on slavery, the conduct and economic role of the slave trade, and the social, 
political, and economic effects of slavery and the slave trade on African states and 
societies. (Same as Africana Studies 262.) 

264c,d. Islamic Societies in Africa. Fall 1996. Mr. Stakeman. 

An examination of Islam as a theological system and as an ideology that orders 
social relations in some African societies. The course will place particular 
emphasis on the role of women in African Islamic societies. (Same as Africana 
Studies 264.) 

265c,d. The Political Economy of Southern Africa. Fall 1996. Mr. Stakeman. 
An introduction to the political and economic processes that have shaped 
black/white relations in the region and an examination of the prospects for the 
development of a successful multi-racial society, economic development, and 
political stability. (Same as Africana Studies 265.) 

266c,d. History of East Africa. Spring 1997. Mr. Stakeman. 

An examination of the political and economic history of East Africa from 
precolonial societies to the present: topics will include pastoralist and agricultur- 
ist societies, state formation, colonialism, nationalism, and post-colonial Kenya 
and Tanzania. (Same as Africana Studies 266.) 



140 Courses of Instruction 

267c,d. West Africa from Colonialism to Independence. Spring 1998. 
Mr. Stakeman. 

An examination of the political and economic history of West Africa to try to 
understand the region's present conditions and future prospects. Topics include 
the imposition of colonial rule, the colonial restructuring of African society, the 
rise of nationalist movements, the first and second generations of independence, 
regional alliances, development strategies, the place of the region in the world 
economy, and the military in politics. (Same as Africana Studies 267.) 

270c,d. Chinese Thought in the Classical Period. Spring 1997. Mr. Smith. 

An introduction to the competing schools of Chinese thought in the time of 
Confucius and his successors. (Same as Asian Studies 270.) 

271c,d. The Material Culture of Ancient China. Fall 1998. Mr. Smith. 

Addresses material culture in China from ca. 400 to 100 B.C.. while the great 
unification of empire was occurring. Topics include what people ate; how they 
wrote, fought, and built; how we know such things about them; and how this 
civilization can be compared with others. (Same as Asian Studies 271.) 

274c,d. Chinese Society in the Ch'ing. Spring 1998. Mr. Smith. 

An introduction to premodern China, focusing on the first half of the Ch'ing 
dynasty (1644-1911). Discussion of societal relations, state organization, and 
ideology. Culminates in a day-long simulation of elite society in the eighteenth 
century. (Same as Asian Studies 274.) 

275c,d. Modern China. Fall 1997. Mr. Smith. 

An introduction to the history of China from 1840 to the present. Studies the 
confrontation with Western imperialism, the fall of empire, the Republican 
period, and the People's Republic. (Same as Asian Studies 275.) 

276c,d. A History of Tibet. Fall 1996. Mr. Smith. 

Examines three questions: What was old Tibet? Is Tibet part of China? What 
are conditions there now? Analyzes the complex interactions of politics and 
society with Buddhist doctrine and practice. (Same as Asian Studies 276.) 

278c,d. The Foundations of Tokugawa Japan. Spring 1998. Mr. Smith. 

Addresses problems in the creation and early development of the Tokugawa 
( 1600 1868) State and society, including the transformation of samurai from 
professional warriors into professional bureaucrats and the unanticipated growth 
of a quasi-autonomous urban culture. (Same as Asian Studies 278.) 
283i,d. Japan from Prehistory to Tokugawa. Spring 1997. Mr. Graff. 

Introduces students to the history of Japan from (he prehistoric origins of 
Japanese civilization to the zenith of the Tokugawa shogunate in the early 
eighteenth century. Topics include early state formation, the cross-fertilization of 

Buddhist and Shinto beliefs, (lie transfer Of political authority from courtiers to 

warriors, the advent of European influences in the late sixteenth century, and the 

earliest stirrings ol Japanese nationalism. Particular attention will he devoted to 

the ways in which Japan's institutional, intellectual, and cultural borrowings from 

other lands (especially China) have interacted with indigenous traditions and 
values. (Same as Asian Studies 283.) 



History 141 

284c,d. History of Modern Japan. Fall 1996. Mr. Graff. 

A survey of Japanese history from approximately 1800 to the present. Topics 
include the political and social order in the last years of the Tokugawa shogunate, 
the Meiji Restoration and modernization programs, ultranationalism and the 
Fifteen- Years' War in Asia and the Pacific, and the postwar economic miracle. 
(Same as Asian Studies 284.) 

285c,d. Modern Southeast Asia. Fall 1996. Ms. Padma. 

Analysis of those factors of Southeast Asian history (e.g., topography and 
natural resources, ethnicity, language, and religion) that have created a sense of 
the whole, but which have also fostered a sense of uniqueness among various 
peoples of the region. Topics include specific geographical aspects of the 
archipelago and the mainland, trade that attracted people from all over the world, 
"Indianization," Chinese and Muslim cultural influences, European colonial 
expansion, the rise of nationalism and independence movements. Readings will 
foster a comprehensive understanding of the whole region from the early periods 
of history, but will concentrate on the modern era. (Same as Asian Studies 285.) 

288c,d. Modern India. Spring 1997. Ms. Padma. 

Historical analysis of the impact of British colonialism, the reforms and 
revivals of Indian culture and society in the nineteenth century, the political 
struggle for independence in the twentieth century culminating in the partition 
into India and Pakistan, and the post-independence socio-political experience. 
Readings include biographies and modern Indian fiction focusing on the relations 
between religion and politics, the tensions between tradition and modernity, and 
the changing roles and self-perceptions of women in society. (Same as Asian 
Studies 288.) 

289c. 1896 — The "Modern World" Begins. Spring 1998. Team taught by Mr. 
Emery and Mr. Levine, with the cooperation of other faculty and staff. 

An examination of the world at a particular time (the 1890s). Focuses on 
developments in the physical and social sciences as well as on the emergence of 
anew social structure. Themes include the discovery of X-rays, radioactivity, and 
'the electron; power relationships among nations and the "new imperialism"; the 
consequences of industrialism and the increasing consciousness of the social 
costs of urban life; new ways of perceiving in the visual arts, music, and literature; 
new intellectual trends, such as "instrumentalism," changes in education, and the 
professionalization of intellectual life. For each theme, the course looks at 
examples of "how it was" and how the twentieth century was emerging from the 
nineteenth. Participants examine documents from the 1 890s as well as secondary 
works on the period. 

Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. 



142 Courses of Instruction 

Intermediate Seminars 

These seminars offer a more intensive pattern of discussion and writing than is 
available in history survey courses. Enrollment is limited to sixteen students. 
They are intended for majors and non-majors alike but, because they are more 
advanced, they may require previous related course work or the permission of the 
instructor (see individual course descriptions). In most cases, they are not open 
to first-year students. They do not fulfill the history major requirement for a 300- 
level seminar. 

210c. The Stalin Era. Spring 1997. Mr. Karl. 

Focuses on the rise of Stalin, collectivization, secret police terror, slave labor 
camps. Great Purges, and the War. Seeks to assess their effect on the everyday 
lives of the masses through critical use of memoirs and other personal accounts. 

228c. Medicine, Public Health, and History. Spring 1997. Ms. Tananbaum. 

This seminar explores major medical developments in Europe and America. 
It analyzes social, cultural, and historical factors that influence our perceptions of 
sickness, health, patients, practitioners, and medical treatment. 

Prerequisite: Two courses in European or American history or permission of 
the instructor. 

235c,d. The Plantation: Race and Slavery in the Americas. Fall 1996. Mr. 
Rael. 

This course uses the concept of the cash-crop plantation as a lens for examining 
a range of issues regarding race, slavery, and colonialism in the Western 
Hemisphere (c.1500- c.1900). Examines slavery in its Old World context, the 
role of the plantation in the commercial revolution, the impact of European 
rivalries on New World slavery, slave acculturation and resistance, the develop- 
ment of African-American cultures and families, and the process and conse- 
quences of emancipation. (Same as Africana Studies 235.) 

Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and previous coursework in African- Ameri- 
can or African history, or Africana Studies; or permission of the instructor. 

245c. Work and Play in Urban America: 1860-1940. Spring 1997. Mr. 
Laipson. 

Examines how the categories of "work" and "play" mutually inform and 
construct one another in urban American life. Investigates a variety of sites and 
institutions of leisure and labor, from saloons and department stores to baseball 
games and amusement parks. Topics include the relationship between consumer 
culture, leisure, and social control; urbanization and the use of social space; and 
the ways that race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality created and constrained 
opportunities for work and play. 

269c,d. The Pan African Idea. Spring 1997. Mr. StaKBMAN. 

An examination of the growth of B Pan African sense of identity and the 
exchange Of political and cultural ideas among African and African diaspora 
societies in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (Same as Africana Studies 
269., 

Prerequisite: Previous course in Africana Studies, African-American or 
African history; or permission of the instructor. 



History 143 

Problems Courses 

Courses 300 through 373 involve the close investigation of certain aspects of the 
areas and periods represented. Following a reading in and a critical discussion of 
representative primary and secondary sources, students develop specialized 
aspects as research projects, culminating in oral presentations and written essays. 
Adequate background is assumed, the extent of it depending on whether these 
courses build upon introductory courses found elsewhere in the history curricu- 
lum. Enrollment in these courses requires the consent of the instructor and is 
limited to 16 students. Majors in fields other than history are encouraged to 
consider these seminars. 

Problems in Early European History 

300c. Visual Images and Social Conflict in the Sixteenth Century. Fall 1996. 

Mr. Nyhus. 

A research seminar that analyzes painting and more popular art, such as 
woodcuts, as interpretations of social conflicts in the sixteenth century. 

Problems in Modern European History 

310c. Nazi Germany, 1933-1945. Fall 1996. Mr. Karl. 

A research seminar, with a major research project. Open to seniors, and to 
others with the permission of the instructor. 

Problems in British History 

322c. Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in British Society. Spring 1998. 

Ms. Tananbaum. 

An analysis of multiculturalism in Britain. Explores the impact of immigration 
on English society, notions of cultural pluralism, and the changing definitions and 
implications of gender in England from the late eighteenth century to the present. 
Students undertake research projects utilizing primary sources. 

Problems in American History 

330b. The United States Supreme Court from the 1930s to the Present. Fall 

1996. Mr. Leuchtenburg. 

The course gives students an opportunity to write research papers based on 
original sources, including cases and law journal articles, on topics in the history 
of the Supreme Court from the Chief Justiceship of Charles Evans Hughes to that 
of William Rehnquist. Enrollment is limited to 12 students. (Same as Govern- 
ment 305.) 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

331c. A History of Women's Voices in America. Spring 1 998. Ms. McMahon. 

An examination of women's voices in American history: private letters, 
journals, and autobiographies; short stories and novels; advice literature; essays 
and addresses. Research topics focus on the content and form of the writings as 
they illuminate women's responses to their historical situation. 

Prerequisite: History 246 or 248, or permission of the instructor. 



144 Courses of Instruction 

332c. Community in America, 1600-1900. Spring 1997. Ms. McMahon. 

Explores the ideals of community in American history, focusing on change, 
continuity, and diversity in the social, economic, and cultural realities of commu- 
nity experience. Examines the formation of new communities on a "frontier" that 
moved westward from the Atlantic to the Pacific; the changing face of community 
that accompanied modernization, urbanization, and suburbanization; and the 
attempts to create alternative communities either separate from or contained 
\\ ithin established communities. 

[333c. Research in Twentieth-Century African-American History.] 

[334c. The Progressive Movement.] 

336c,d. Research in Nineteenth-Century African-American History. 

Fall 1997. Mr. Rael. 

Students will prepare a research paper written from primary historical sources. 
Topics address such issues as African Americans in the Revolutionary era, the end 
of slavery in the North, a host of problems relating to slavery in the South, free 
black life, the Civil War and black Americans, mass emancipation. Reconstruc- 
tion, and the Jim Crow period. (Same as Africana Studies 336.) 

Prerequisite: Any course in U.S. history. Preference given to students with 
background in African-American history. 

Problems in Latin American History 

351c,d. The Mexican Revolution. Fall 1998. Mr. Wells. 

An examination of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) and its impact on 
modern Mexican society. Topics include the role of state formation since the 
revolution; agrarian reform; U.S. -Mexican relations; the debt crisis; and immi- 
gration and other "border" issues. 

Prerequisite: History 252 or 255. 

352c,d. Land and Labor in Latin America. Spring 1998. Mr. Wells. 

Examines some of the most significant conceptual problems related to Latin 
American agrarian history. Topics include pre-Columbian land and labor pat- 
terns; haciendas and plantations; slavery, debt peonage, and other forms of 
coerced labor; and the role of family elite networks throughout Latin America. 

Prerequisite: History 252 or History 255. 

355c,d. Economic Theory and the Problem of Underdevelopment in Latin 
America. Fall 1996. Mr. Wi-i.i.s. 

The first part of this seminar examines economic theories thai historically have 
been advanced to explain the process of development (and underdevelopment) in 
Latin America. In the latter portion of the course. Students test these theories by 
applying them to specific economic problems currently facing Latin America. 

Prerequisite: History 252 or 255. 
361c African Radical Thought. Tail 1997. Mr. Si am man. 

An examination of the writings and speeches of African nationalists and 
radical critics of African and European society. (Same as Africana Studies 361.) 



Interdisciplinary Majors 145 

Problems in Asian History 

370c,d. Problems in Chinese History. Every fall. Mr. Smith. 

Reviews the whole of Chinese history. Students develop their research skills 
and write a substantial research paper. (Same as Asian Studies 370.) 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

401-404c. Advanced Independent Study. The Department. 

451c, 452c. Honors Seminar. Every year. The Department. 



Interdisciplinary Majors 

A student may, with the approval of the departments concerned and the Recording 
Committee, design an interdisciplinary major to meet an individual, cultural, or 
professional objective. 

Bowdoin has seven interdisciplinary major programs that do not require the 
approval of the Recording Committee because the departments concerned have 
formalized their requirements. These programs are in art history and archaeology, 
art history and visual arts, chemical physics, computer science and mathematics, 
geology and chemistry, geology and physics, and mathematics and economics. A 
student wishing to pursue one of these majors needs the approval of the 
departments concerned. 

Art History and Archaeology 

Requirements 

1 . Art 101, 212, 222, and one of Art 302 through 388; Archaeology 101, 102, 

and any three additional archaeology courses, at least one of which must be at the 
300 level. 

2. Any two art history courses numbered 10 through 388. 

3. One of the following: Classics 51, 211, 212, or 291 (Independent Study in 
Ancient History); Philosophy 111; or an appropriate course in religion at the 200 
level. 

4. Either Art 401 or Classics 401 (Independent Study in Archaeology). 

Art History and Visual Arts 

Requirements 

1. Art 101. 

2. Art History: Art 222, 242, 252, or 254; one 300-level seminar; and two 
additional courses numbered 200 or higher. 

3. Visual Arts: Art 150, 160, 250, or 260; and three additional studio courses 
numbered 270 or higher. 



146 Courses of Instruction 

Chemical Physics 

Requirements 

1 Chemistry 109,251; Mathematics 161, 171, and 181 or 223; Physics 103, 

227, 300. 

2. Either Chemistry 252 or Physics 310. 

3. Three courses from Chemistry 252, 254, 332, 335, 340, 350, 401, 402; 
Physics 223, 228, 229, 310, 320, 350, 451, 452. At least two of these must be 
below the 400 level. 

Computer Science and Mathematics 

Requirements 

1 . Six courses in computer science as follows: Computer Science 101, 210, 
220, and 231, and two electives numbered 250 or above. 

2. Mathematics 289 (the same as Computer Science 289). 

3. Six courses in mathematics as follows: Mathematics 181, 222, 225, and 

228, and two electives from among Mathematics 244, 249, 262, and 288. 

Geology and Chemistry 

Requirements 

1 . Chemistry 109 and four courses from the following: Chemistry 210, 225, 
226, 240, 251, and approved advanced courses. 

2. Geology 101, 102, 200, 202, and 262. 

3. Two courses from the following: Geology 221, 222, 241, 250, 265, and 278. 

4. Physics 103 and Mathematics 161 and 171. 

There are many different accents a student can give to this major, depending 
on his or her interests. For this reason, the student should consult with the geology 
and chemistry departments in selecting electives. 

Geology and Physics 

Requirements 

1 Chemistry 109; Geology 101, 102, 200, 241, 262; Mathematics 161, 171; 
Physics 103,223,227. 

2. Either Physics 255 or 300. 

3. Two additional courses in geology and/or physics. 

Mathematics and Economics 

Requirements 

I . Six courses in mathematics as follows: Mathematics 181, 222, 225, 265; 
ami two Of Mathematics 224, 249, 264, 269. 

2 Either Computer Science 210 or Mathematics 244 or 255 or 305. 

I Pour courses in economics as follows: Economics 255, 256, 316, and one 
other 300-level course. 



Latin American Studies 147 

Latin American Studies 

Administered by the Latin American Studies Committee; John Turner, Chair 
(See committee list, page 277.) 

Latin American studies is an integrated interdisciplinary program that explores 
the cultural heritage of Mesoamerica, the Caribbean, and the South American 
continent. This multidisciplinary approach is complemented by a concentration 
in a specific discipline. Competence in Spanish (or another appropriate language 
with the approval of the administering committee) is required, and it is recom- 
mended that students participate in a study-away program in Latin America. Upon 
their return, students who study away should consider an independent study 
course to take advantage of their recent educational experience. 

Requirements for the Minor in Latin American Studies 

The minor consists of at least one course at Bowdoin beyond the intermediate 
level in Spanish, History 255 (Modern Latin American History), and three 
additional courses, two of which must be outside the student' s major department. 
Independent studies can meet requirements for the minor only with the approval 
by the Latin American Studies Committee of a written prospectus of the 
independent study. 

The Latin American studies courses below may also be used to formulate a 
student-designed major. 

CROSS LISTINGS 

Cross listings are courses offered by various departments that can be used to 
satisfy requirements for the minor in Latin American studies. For full course 
descriptions and prerequisites, see the appropriate department listings. 

Anthropology 

237b,d. Anthropological Issues in Latin America. Fall 1997. Ms. Degarrod. 

238b,d. Native Peoples of South America. Fall 1996. Ms. Degarrod. 

Art History 

130c,d« Introduction to Art from Ancient Mexico and Peru. Spring 1 997. Ms. 
Wegner. 

History 

17c,d. The Cuban Revolution. Fall 1997. Mr. Wells. 
19c,d. Contemporary Argentina. Spring 1997. Mr. Wells. 
250c,d. History of Mexico. Fall 1996. Mr. Wells. 
252c,d. Colonial Latin America. Fall 1997. Mr. Wells. 



148 Courses of Instruction 

255c\d. Modern Latin America. Spring 1998. Mr. Wells. 

[256c,d. Comparative Slavery.] 

258c,d. Latin American Revolutions. Spring 1997. Mr. Wells. 

351c,d. The Mexican Revolution. Fall 1998. Mr. Wells. 

352c,d. Land and Labor in Latin America. Spring 1998. Mr. Wells. 

355c,d. Economic Theory and the Problem of Underdevelopment in Latin 

America. Fall 1996. Mr. Wells. 

Spanish 

205c. Advanced Spoken and Written Spanish. Every fall. Mr. Turner. 

207c. Hispanic American Cultures. Fall 1996. Mr. Yepes. 

313c,d. Indigenous and Hispanic Literature of Colonial Latin America. 

Spring 1998. Ms. Jaffe. 

323c. Spanish American Short Story. Fall 1996. Mr. Yepes. 



Mathematics 

Professors Associate Professor 

William H. Barker! Rosemary A. Roberts 

Stephen T. Fisk Assistant Professors 

Charles A. Grobe, Jr. Adam B. Levy 

R. Wells Johnson, Chair Helen E. Moore 

James E. Wardf Visiting Assistant Professors 

Samuel Kaplan 
Moira McDermott 

Requirements for the Major in Mathematics 

A major consists of at least eight courses numbered 200 or above, including at 
least one of the following — Mathematics 262, 263, or a course numbered in the 
300s. 

A student must submit a planned program of courses to the department when 
he or she declares a major. That program should include both theoretical and 
applied mathematics courses, and it may be changed later with the approval of the 
departmental advisor. 

All majors should take basic courses in algebra (e.g.. Mathematics 222 or 
262) and in analysis (e.g.. Mathematics 223 or 263), and they are strongly 
encouraged to complete at least one sequence in a specific area of mathematics. 
I hose areas are algebra (Mathematics 222, 262, and 302); analysis (Mathemat- 
ics 243, 263, and 303); applied mathematics (Mathematics 224, 264, and 304); 
probability and statistics (Mathematics 225, 265, and 305); and geometry 
(Mathematics 247 and 287). In exceptional circumstances, a student may 
substitute a quantitative course from another department for one of the eight 



Mathematics 149 

mathematics courses required for the major, but such a substitution must be 
approved in advance by the department. Without specific departmental approval, 
no course which counts toward another department's major or minor may be 
counted toward a mathematics major or minor. 

Majors who have demonstrated that they are capable of intensive advanced 
work are encouraged to undertake independent study projects. With the prior 
approval of the department, such a project counts toward the major requirement 
and may lead to graduation with honors in mathematics. 

Requirements for the Minor in Mathematics 

A minor in mathematics consists of a minimum of four courses numbered 200 or 
above, at least one of which must be Mathematics 243, 247, or any mathematics 
course numbered 262 or above. For students who major in computer science and 
who therefore take Mathematics 228, 231, and 289, the minor consists of a 
minimum of three additional courses numbered 200 or above, at least one of 
which must be Mathematics 243, 247, or any mathematics course numbered 262 
or above. 

Interdisciplinary Majors 

The department participates in interdisciplinary programs in mathematics and 
economics and in computer science and mathematics. See page 146. 

Listed below are some of the courses recommended to students with the 
indicated interests. 

For secondary school teaching: Computer Science 101, Mathematics 222, 
225, 242, 247, 262, 263, 265, 288. 

For graduate study: Mathematics 222, 223, 243, 262, 263, and at least one 
course numbered in the 300s. 

For engineering and applied mathematics: Mathematics 223, 224, 225, 243, 

244. 264, 265, 288, 304. 

For mathematical economics and econometrics: Mathematics 222, 223 or 
263, 225, 244, 249, 265, 269, 288, 305, and Economics 316. 

For computer science: Computer Science 220, 231; Mathematics 222, 225, 
228, 244, 249, 262, 265, 288, 289. 

For operations research and management science: Mathematics 222, 225, 

249. 265, 269, 288, 305, and Economics 316. 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

60a. Introduction to College Mathematics. Every spring. The Department. 

Material selected from the following topics: combinatorics, probability, 
modern algebra, logic, linear programming, and computer programming. This 
course, followed by Mathematics 75 or 161, is intended as a one-year introduc- 
tion to mathematics and is recommended for those students who intend to take 
only one year of college mathematics. 



1 50 Courses of Instruction 

75a. Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis. Every spring. Spring 1997. 
Mrs. Roberts. 

Students learn to draw conclusions from data using exploratory data analysis 
and statistical techniques. Examples are drawn primarily from the life sciences. 
The course includes topics from exploratory data analysis, the planning and 
design of experiments, and statistical inference for normal measurements. The 
computer is used extensively. Open to students whose secondary school back- 
ground has included at least three years of mathematics. Not open to students who 
have taken a college-level statistics course (such as Psychology 250 or Econom- 
ics 257). 

161a. Differential Calculus. Every semester. The Department. 

Functions, including the trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic func- 
tions; the derivative and the rules for differentiation; the anti-derivative; applica- 
tions of the derivative and the anti-derivative. Four to five hours of class meetings 
and computer laboratory sessions per week, on average. Open to students who 
have taken at least three years of mathematics in secondary school. 

171a. Integral Calculus. Every semester. The Department. 

The definite integral; the Fundamental theorems; improper integrals; applica- 
tions of the definite integral; differential equations; and approximations including 
Taylor polynomials and Fourier series. Four to five hours of class meetings and 
computer laboratory sessions per week, on average. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 161 or equivalent. 

172a. Integral Calculus, Advanced Section. Every fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Johnson. 
A review of numerical integration and techniques of integration. Improper 
integrals. Approximations using Taylor polynomials and infinite series. Empha- 
sis on differential equation models and their solutions. Four to five hours of class 
meetings and computer laboratory sessions per week, on average. Open to 
students whose backgrounds include the equivalent of Mathematics 161 and the 
first half of Mathematics 171. Designed for first-year students who have 
completed an AB Advanced Placement calculus course in their secondary 
schools. 

181a. Multivariate Calculus. Every semester. The Department. 

Multivariate calculus in two and three dimensions. Vectors and curves in two 
and three dimensions; partial and directional derivatives; the gradient; the chain 
rule in higher dimensions; double and triple integration; polar, cylindrical, and 
spherical coordinates; line integration; conservative vector fields; and Green's 
theorem. Four t<> five hours of class meetings and computer laboratory sessions 
per week, on average. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 171 or equivalent. 



Mathematics 151 

222a. Linear Algebra. Every spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Grobe. 

Topics include vectors, matrices, determinants, vector spaces, inner product 
spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and quadratic 
forms. Applications to linear equations, conies, quadric surfaces, least-squares 
approximation, and Fourier series. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 181 or permission of the instructor. 

223a. Vector Calculus. Fall 1997. The Department. 

The basic concepts of multivariate and vector calculus. Topics include 
continuity; the derivative as best affine approximation; the chain rule; Taylor's 
theorem and applications to optimization; Lagrange multipliers; linear transfor- 
mations and Jacobians; multiple integration and change of variables; line and 
surface integration; gradient, divergence, and curl; conservative vector fields; and 
integral theorems of Green, Gauss, and Stokes. Applications from economics and 
the physical sciences are discussed as time permits. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 181. 

224a. Applied Mathematics: Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equa- 
tions. Every other fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Levy. 

An introduction to ordinary differential equations with diverse applications to 
problems arising in the natural and social sciences. Studies both the quantitative 
expression of solutions to ordinary differential equations, as well as the qualita- 
tive behavior of these solutions. Topics include first-order equations and higher- 
order linear equations with applications in qualitative stability and oscillation 
theory, Laplace transforms, series solutions, and the existence and uniqueness 
theorems. A few numerical methods are introduced during the course. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 171. 

225a. Probability. Every fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Kaplan. 

A study of the mathematical models used to formalize nondeterministic or 
"chance" phenomena. General topics include combinatorial models, probability 
spaces, conditional probability, discrete and continuous random variables, inde- 
pendence and expected values. Specific probability densities, such as the bino- 
mial, Poisson, exponential, and normal, are discussed in depth. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 181. 

228a. Discrete Mathematical Structures. Every spring. Mr. Johnson. 

An introduction to logic, reasoning, and the discrete mathematical structures 
that are important in computer science. Topics include propositional logic, types 
of proof, induction and recursion, sets, counting, functions, relations, and graphs. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 161 or permission of the instructor. 

231a. Algorithms. Every fall. Fall 1996. Fall 1997. Mr. Garnick. 

The study of algorithms concerns programming for computational efficiency, 
as well as problem-solving techniques. The course covers practical algorithms 
and theoretical issues in the design and analysis of algorithms. Topics include 



152 Courses of Instruction 

trees, graphs, sorting, dynamic programming. NP-completeness. and approxima- 
tion algorithms. Laboratory experiments are used to illustrate principles. (Same 
as Computer Science 231.) 

Prerequisites: Computer Science 210 and Mathematics 228, or permission 
of the instructor. 

242a. Number Theory. Every other fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Johnson. 

A standard course in elementary number theory which traces the historical 
development and includes the major contributions of Euclid. Fermat, Euler, 
Gauss, and Dirichlet. Prime numbers, factorization, and number-theoretic func- 
tions. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes. Fermat' s theorem and its conse- 
quences. Congruences and the law of quadratic reciprocity. The problem of 
unique factorization in various number systems. Integer solutions to algebraic 
equations. Primes in arithmetic progressions. An effort is made to collect along 
the way a list of unsolved problems. 

243a. Functions of a Complex Variable. Every other spring. Spring 1998. The 
Department. 

The differential and integral calculus of functions of a complex variable. 
Cauchy's theorem and Cauchy's integral formula, power series, singularities, 
Taylor's theorem, Laurent's theorem, the residue calculus, harmonic functions, 
and conformal mapping. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 171. 

244a. Numerical Methods. Every other spring. Spring 1998. Mr. Levy. 

An introduction to the numerical solutions of mathematical problems. Topics 
include methods for solving linear systems, approximation theory, numerical 
differentiation and integration, and numerical methods for differential equations. 
Whenever possible, numerical techniques (using Mathematica) are used to solve 
mathematical problems generated by applied physical examples. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 181 or 222. 

247a. Geometry. Every other fall. Fall 1997. Ms. Moore. 

An introduction to the differential geometry of curves and surfaces. Topics 
include curvature, geodesies, area, the Gauss map, and the relationship between 
curvature and topology. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 222 or 223, or permission of the instructor. 

249a. Linear Programming and Optimization. Every other fall. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Fisk. 

A survey of some of the mathematical techniques for optimizing various 
quantities, many of which arise naturally in economies and. more generally, in 
i ompetitive situations. Production problems, resource allocation problems, trans- 
portation problems, and the theory of network Hows. Game theory ami strategies 
foi matrix games. Emphasis on convex and linear programming methods, but 
othei nonlinear optimization techniques are presented. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 181. 



Mathematics 153 

255a. Applied Multivariate Statistics. Every other fall. Fall 1997. Mr. Fisk. 

An introduction to the techniques of applied multivariate analysis based on 
matrix algebra and the multivariate normal distribution. Topics to be discussed 
include discriminant analysis, principal components, factor analysis, canonical 
correlation, multidimensional scaling, classification, and graphical techniques. 
Students learn how to run and interpret the output from the statistical package 
Splus. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 265. 

262a. Introduction to Algebraic Structures. Every other fall. Fall 1997. 
Mr. Ward. 

A study of the basic arithmetic and algebraic structure of the common number 
systems, polynomials, and matrices. Axioms for groups, rings, and fields, and an 
investigation into general abstract systems that satisfy certain arithmetic axioms. 
Properties of mappings that preserve algebraic structure. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 222, or Mathematics 181 and permission of the 
instructor. 

263a. Introduction to Analysis. Every other fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Moore. 

Emphasizes proof and develops the rudiments of mathematical analysis. 
Topics include an introduction to the theory of sets and topology of metric spaces, 
sequences and series, continuity, differentiability, and the theory of Riemann 
integration. Additional topics may be chosen as time permits. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 181. 

264a. Applied Mathematics: Introduction to Dynamical Systems. Every other 
spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Levy. 

Emphasis on the qualitative behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems found 
in the natural and social sciences. Both discrete and continuous dynamical 
systems will be studied. Topics include chaos, strange attractors, and fractals. 
Mathematica will be used as an integral part of this course. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 181 or 224. 

265a. Statistics. Every spring. Spring 1997. Mrs. Roberts. 

An introduction to the fundamentals of mathematical statistics. General topics 
include likelihood methods, point and interval estimation, and tests of signifi- 
cance. Applications include inference about binomial, Poisson, and exponential 
models, frequency data, and analysis of normal measurements. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 225. 

269a. Seminar in Operations Research and Mathematical Models. Every 
other spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Fisk. 

Selected topics in operations research and some of the mathematical models 
used in economics. Emphasis is on probabilistic models, stochastic processes, and 
simulation, with applications to decision analysis, inventory theory, forecasting, 
and queueing theory. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 225 or permission of the instructor. 



154 Courses of Instruction 

287a. Advanced Topics in Geometry. Every other spring. Spring 1998. 
Ms. Moore. 

One or more selected topics from classical geometry, differential geometry, or 
geometric analysis. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 247. 

288a. Combinatorics and Graph Theory. Every other spring. Spring 1 997. The 
Department. 

An introduction to combinatorics and graph theory. Topics to be covered may 
include enumeration, matching theory, generating functions, partially ordered 
sets, Latin squares, designs, and graph algorithms. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 228 or 262 or 263 or permission of the instructor. 

289a. Theory of Computation. Every spring. Spring 1997. Spring 1998. The 
Department. 

Examines the theoretical principles that determine how much computational 
power is required to solve particular classes of problems. Topics include regular 
and context-free languages; finite, stack, and tape machines; and solvable versus 
unsolvable problems. (Same as Computer Science 289.) 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 228 or permission of the instructor. 

302a. Advanced Topics in Algebra. Every other spring. Spring 1998. 
The Department. 

One or more specialized topics from abstract algebra and its applications. 
Topics may include group representation theory, coding theory, symmetries, ring 
theory, finite fields and field theory, algebraic numbers, and Diophantine equa- 
tions. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 262. 

303a. Advanced Topics in Analysis. Every other spring. Spring 1997. 
Ms. Moore. 

One or more selected topics from analysis. Possible topics include geometric 
measure theory, Lebesgue general measure and integration theory, Fourier 
analysis, rlilbert and Banach space theory, and spectral theory. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 263. 

304a. Advanced Topics in Applied Mathematics. Every other fall. Fall 1997. 
Mr. Levy. 

One or more selected topics in applied mathematics. Material selected from 
the following: Fourier series, partial differential equations, integral equations, 
calculus of variations, bifurcation theory, asymptotic analysis, applied functional 
analysis, and topics in malhcinatical physics. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 181 and 224 or 264. 

305a. Advanced Topics in Probability and Statistics. Every other fall. Fall 
1996. Mrs. ROBERTS. 

One or more spcciali/cil topics in probability and statistics. Possible topics 
include Degression analysis, nonparametric statistics, logistic regression, and 
other linear and nonlinear approaches to modeling data. Emphasis is on the 



Music 155 

mathematical derivation of the statistical procedures and on the application of the 
statistical theory to real-life problems. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 222 and 265 or permission of the instructor. 

291a-294a. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

401a^404a. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



Music 

Professor Director of the Bowdoin Chorus 

Elliott S. Schwartz Anthony F. Antolini 

Associate Professors Director of the Bowdoin Orchestra 

Robert K. Greenlee Paul Ross 

James W. McCalla, Chair Director of Concert Band 

John Morneau 

Requirements for the Major in Music 

The major in music consists of Music 101 or exemption, 200, 203, 303, 304; 
Music 301, 302; one topics course (either Music 351, 352 or 361, 362); one year 
of individual performance studies; one year of ensemble performance studies; 
and one elective course in music. 

Requirements for the Minor in Music 

The minor in music consists of Music 101, 103, 200, one music elective at the 200 
or 300 level; one year of individual performance studies; one year of ensemble 
performance studies; and one other elective in music. 

First- Year Seminar 

For a full description of the following first-year seminar, see page 115. 

10c. The Musicals of Rodgers and Hammerstein. Spring 1 997. Mr. McCalla 

Introductory, Intermediate, an Advanced Courses 

101c. Theory I: Fundamentals of Music Theory. Every year. Fall 1996. The 

Department. 

A course in the basic elements of Western music and their notation, through 
the essentials of diatonic harmony. The class concentrates equally on written 
theory and musicianship skills to develop musical literacy. Frequent written 
assignments, drills, and quizzes. Students with musical backgrounds who wish to 
pass out of Theory I must take the placement test at the beginning of the fall 
semester. 

103c. The Listening Experience. Every other year. Spring 1997. Mr. Schwartz. 

An introductory survey of music, concentrating on the development of 

perceptive listening. Using a wide range of examples drawn from diverse cultural 

traditions and historical periods, we will focus on basic elements — melodic 



156 Courses of Instruction 

contour. rh\ thru, tone color — and their combining into textures, forms, stylistic 
patterns, and expressive symbols. The class also considers social contexts, 
instruments, the rituals of performance, and the changing influence of technology 
upon music-making and music perception. Attendance at concerts and other 
performance venues is an integral component of the course. Previous musical 
experience or the ability to read music is not necessary, as the course is intended 
for students at all levels. 

121c. History of Jazz. Every other year. Fall 1996. Mr. McCalla. 

A survey of jazz from its African-American roots in the late nineteenth century 
to the present. Emphasis on musical characteristics — styles, forms, types of 
ensemble, important performers — with some attention to the cultural and social 
position of jazz in this country and its interaction with other musics. (Same as 
Africana Studies 121.) 

Music 130 through 149 are topics courses in specific aspects of music history 
and literature, designed for students with little or no background in music. Course 
titles and contents may change every semester. 
132c. The Beethoven Symphonies. Fall 1996. Mr. McCalla. 

A chronological study of the nine symphonies as examples of Beethoven's 
compositional styles, of the classical style in general, and as a musical expression 
of the Enlightenment worldview. Emphasis is placed on the formal structure of 
the works, the progressive development of Beethoven's musical thinking, and the 
changing musical world around him. 

134c. Contemporary Music. Fall 1996. Mr. Schwartz. 

A survey of music since 1890, beginning at the turn of the century (Mahler, 
Dehussy) and continuing to the present day. Changes in aesthetics, technology, 
social contexts, and musical materials, with reference to impressionism: the 
twelve-tone school; neoclassicism; developments in electronic, multimedia, and 
"chance'* techniques; and the most recent collage and minimalist approaches. 
Special attention is given to Ives, Stravinsky, Cage, and the influence of non- 
Western music. 

137c. Studies in Music Literature: Music in England. Spring 1997. Mr. 
Schwartz. 

A survey of English music from the Middle Ages to the present, including the 
contributions of such major figures as Dunstable, Purccll, Dowland, Handel. 
Elgar, Delius, Vaughan Williams, Britten, and Tippetl. Music's social role and 
relationships to other arts are also discussed, with special emphasis on the 
Elizabethan era. the Victorian period, anil the twentieth century. Class activities 
include attendance at concerts of English music anil lectures by visiting British 

composers and critics. 

Prerequisite: One course in music, English history, or English literature. 



Music 157 

200c. Theory II: Diatonic and Chromatic Harmony I. Every year. 
Spring 1997. The Department. 

Study of diatonic and chromatic harmony and of simple tonal forms, empha- 
sizing analysis and part-writing of music from the late eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries. Three class hours plus two hours weekly in the musicianship 
skills laboratory. 

Prerequisite: Music 101 or equivalent. 

203c. Counterpoint. Every other year. Fall 1996. The Department. 

Practice in contrapuntal composition in eighteenth-century tonal styles. 
Prerequisite: Music 200. 

210c. Topics in Jazz History: The Great Women Singers. Fall 1997. 

Mr. McCalla. 

A study of the most influential female singers in jazz history, including Bessie 
Smith, Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Carmen McRae, Sarah Vaughan, Dinah 
Washington, and Betty Carter. Reading of biographies, autobiographies, and 
historical source materials, along with tracing the singers' careers through their 
recordings. Other issues addressed include their sometimes anomalous positions 
as singers in a largely instrumental musical genre, as women in an otherwise 
almost entirely male professional world, and as blacks in a white-dominated 
industry. (Same as Africana Studies 210.) 

Prerequisite: Music 121. 

214c. Traditions of Vocal Performance. Spring 1997. Mr. Greenlee. 

A cross-cultural and chronological study of vocal practices, including western 
European performance in historical contexts; practices in Tibet, Mongolia, 
Ireland, South Africa, and Latin America; and the vocal styles of folk music, jazz, 
rock, and country music. Recorded examples are examined from musical, 
acoustical, and physiological perspectives. 

Music 301 and 302 are intended primarily for music majors and minors. Music 
200 is prerequisite or co-requisite. 

301c. Music History: Antiquity to 1750. Every other year. Fall 1996. Mr. 
Greenlee. 

302c. Music History: 1750 to the Present. Every other year. Spring 1997. Mr. 

McCalla. 

303c. Theory III: Chromatic Harmony. Every other year. Fall 1997. The 

Department. 

Study of chromatic harmony and formal analysis of works from nineteenth- 
century music. 

Prerequisite: Music 200. 



1 5 8 Courses of Instruction 

304c. Theory IV: Twentieth-Century Harmony. Every other year. Spring 
1998. The Department. 

Study of the various harmonic systems of twentieth-century music, from post- 
tonal works (Debussy, Ravel, Stravinsky) through atonality (Ives, Schoenberg) 
to serialism (Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern), neoclassicism (Bartok), 
neoromanticism. and contemporary "minimalism." 

Prerequisite: Music 303. 

361c. Topics in Music History: Orchestration. Every other year. Fall 1996. 
Mr. Schwartz. 

Transcription, arrangement, and free composition for ensembles of stringed, 
woodwind, and brass instruments, percussion, and piano, the primary aim being 
that of effective instrumentation. Intensive study of orchestral and chamber 
scores drawn from the music literature. 

Prerequisite: Music 200. 

PERFORMANCE STUDIES 

Up to six credits of individual performance and ensemble courses together 
may be taken for graduation credit. Applied Performance Studies and Chamber 
Ensembles bear differing course numbers, depending on the semester of study. 
Lessons, ensembles, and Chamber Ensembles may be taken as non-credit 
courses. 

235c-242c. Individual Performance Studies. Every year. 

The following provisions govern applied music for credit and Chamber 
Ensembles for credit: 

1 . Individual performance courses and Chamber Ensembles are intended for 
the continued study of instruments with which the student is already familiar. 
Students must take at least two consecutive semesters of study on the same 
instrument/same chamber ensemble to receive one-half credit per semester 
and to receive the reduced rate. 

2. Admission is by audition only. Only students who are intermediate or 
beyond in the development of their skills are admitted. Students may enroll only 
with the consent of the department. 

3. Beginning with the second semester of lessons/coaching, students are 
expected to play in a Repertory Class midway through the semester, and must 
participate in Juries at the end of each semester. 

4. To receive credit and a grade for Individual Performance Studies and/or 
Chamber Ensembles, the Student musl complete Iwo other music credits within 
the first two and a hwlf years cf study or by graduation, whichever comes first. The 
Student may choose these credits from any two of the following courses: Music 
101, 103, 130-149, 200, Orchestra (Music 261), Band (Music 221), Chamber 
Choir ( Music 27 1 ). or ( 'horns (Music 251). At least one of these courses must he 

started b) the second semester of the first year of study. At least one course must 
not be an ensemble. 



Music 159 

5. One-half credit is granted for each semester of study. To receive credit, 
students must sign up in the Office of Student Records at the beginning of each 
semester. 

6. Students taking lessons pay a fee of $300 for twelve one-hour lessons per 
semester; in their junior and senior years, music majors may take four half-credits 
(four semesters) of lessons free of charge, and music minors may take two half- 
credits (two semesters) free of charge. In some cases, the student may have to 
travel off campus to receive instruction. Instruction is offered as available on 
orchestral and chamber instruments for which a significant body of written 
literature exists. 

7. Students in Chamber Ensembles will pay a total fee of $300 (to be divided 
equally among participants) for 12 one-hour coaching sessions per semester. 
Music majors and minors do not receive coaching sessions free of charge. Each 
member of the Chamber Ensemble must be signed up for credit. 

Instructors for 1996-97 include Julia Adams (viola), Charles Bechler (jazz 
piano), Linda Blanchard (voice), Naydene Bowder (piano and harpsichord), Neil 
Boyer (oboe), Susan Brady (French horn), Judith Cornell (voice), Ray Cornils 
(organ), John Johnstone (guitar), Charles Kaufmann (bassoon), Stephen 
Kecskemethy (violin), Deirdre Manning (flute), Shirley Mathews (piano and 
harpsichord), Joyce Moulton (piano), Gilbert Peltola (saxophone), Betty Rines 
(trumpet), Paul Ross (cello), George Rubino (bass), and Scott Vaillancourt 
(trombone and tuba). 

Ensemble Performance Studies. Every year. 
221c-228c. Concert Band. Mr. Morneau. 
251c-258c. Chorus. Mr. Antolini. 
261c-268c. Orchestra. Mr. Ross. 
271c-278c. Chamber Choir. Mr. Greenlee. 
281c-288c. Chamber Ensembles. The Department. 

- The following provisions govern ensemble: 

1 . Students are admitted to an ensemble only with the consent of the instructor. 

2. One-half credit is granted for each semester of study. To receive credit, the 
student must sign up in the office of Student Records. 

3. Grade is Credit/Fail. 

4. Ensembles meet regularly for a minimum of three hours weekly. 

5. All ensembles require public performance. 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 
401c-404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



160 Courses of Instruction 

Neuroscience 

Administered by the Neuroscience Committee; Daniel D. Kurylo, Chair 
(See committee list, page 277.) 

Requirements for the Major in Neuroscience 

/. Core Courses 

A. Biology: 

Biology 104a, Introductory Biology. 
Biology 203a, Comparative Neurobiology. 
Biology 305a, Neuroethology, or 
Biology 1 14a, Comparative Physiology. 

B. Psychology: 

Psychology 101b, Introduction to Psychology. 

Psychology 247a, Physiological Psychology. 

and two of the following: 

Psychology 270b, Cognition. 

Psychology 245a, Human Neuropsychology. 

Psychology 273a, Sensation and Perception. 

Psychology 312a, Cognitive Neuroscience. 

C. Chemistry: 

Chemistry 225a, Elementary Organic Chemistry. 

D. Statistics/Mathematics: 

Psychology 250b, Statistical Analysis, or 

Mathematics 75a, An Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis. 
//. Additional Courses Required 

In addition to the nine core courses, two courses are required from the lists below, 
at least one of which must be in biology. 
A. Biology: 

1 12a, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 

1 14a, Comparative Physiology. 

117a, Developmental Biology. 

121a, Cell Biology. 

261a, Biochemistry I. 

304a, Topics in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (with approval). 

305a, Neuroethology. 

321a, Advanced Physiology. 



Philosophy 161 



B. Psychology: 

210b, Infant and Child Development. 
215b, Learning and Behavior. 
245a, Human Neuropsychology. 
249a, Visual Neuroscience. 
260b, Abnormal Personality. 
270b, Cognition. 

271b, Language: A Developmental Perspective. 
273a, Sensation and Perception. 
310b, Clinical Psychology. 
312a, Cognitive Neuroscience. 
361b, Cognitive Development. 
///. Recommended Courses 

Philosophy 225c, The Nature of Scientific Thought. 
Physics 103a, Mechanics and Matter. 
Sociology 251b, Sociology of Health and Illness. 



Philosophy 

Professor Assistant Professors 

Denis J. Corish Scott R. Sehon* 

Associate Professor Matthew F. Stuart** 

Lawrence H. Simon, Chair Visiting Assistant Professor 

Sarah Conly 

Requirements for the Major in Philosophy 

The major consists of eight courses, which must include Philosophy 111 and 112; 

Philosophy 223; at least one other course from the group numbered in the 200s; 
and two from the group numbered in the 300s. The remaining two courses may 
be from any level. 

Requirements for the Minor in Philosophy 

The minor consists of four courses, which must include Philosophy 111 and 112 
and one course from the group numbered in the 200s. The fourth course may be 
from any level. 

First-Year Seminars 

Enrollment is limited to 16 students for each seminar. First-year students arc 
given first preference for the available places; sophomores are given second 
preference. If there are any remaining places, juniors and seniors may be admitted 
with permission of the instructor. 

Topics change from time to time but are restricted in scope and make no 
pretense to being an introduction to the whole field of philosophy. They are topics 



1 62 Courses of Instruction 

in which contemporary debate is lively and as yet unsettled and to which 

contributions are often being made by more than one field of learning. For a full 

description of the following first-year seminars, see pages 115-116. 

lie. Free Will. Spring 1998. Mr. Corish. 

13c. The Souls of Animals. Fall 1996. Mr. Stuart. 

16c. Moral Problems. Fall 1997. Mr. Sehon. 

17c. Philosophy, Poetry, and Science. Spring 1997. Mr. Corish. 

19c. Hellenistic Philosophy. Fall 1997. Mr. Stuart. 

Introductory Courses 

Introductory courses are open to all students regardless of year and count towards 

the major. They do not presuppose any background in philosophy and are good 

"first" courses. 

111c. Ancient Philosophy. Fall 1996. Fall 1997. Mr. Corish. 

The sources and prototypes of Western thought. Emphasis on Plato and 
Aristotle, with some attention given to the pre-Socratic philosophers who 
influenced them and to the Stoics and Epicureans. Medieval philosophy is more 
briefly considered, to show the interaction of Christianity and Greek thought. 

112c. Early Modern Philosophy. Spring 1997. Ms. Conly. Spring 1998. Mr. 
Stuart. 

A survey of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century European philosophy, focus- 
ing on discussions of the ultimate nature of reality and our knowledge of it. Topics 
include the nature of the mind and its relation to the body, God's relation to the 
world, and the free will problem. Readings from Descartes, Leibniz, Hume, Kant, 
and others. 

136c. Environmental Analysis: Concepts, Institutions, Values, and Policy. 

Spring 1997. Spring 1998. Mr. Simon. 

Examines aspects of the environmental crisis, with special emphasis on 
philosophical and political issues. Topics include our relation to and responsibil- 
ity for nature in light of the present crisis; the adequacy of the conceptual and 
i nsti tut ional resources of the Western tradition to address the crisis; sustainability; 
and the interconnection of scientific, moral, political, economic, and policy 
factors. (Same as Environmental Studies 136.) 

152c. Death. Fall L#97. Mr. Stuart. 

We consider distinctively philosophical questions about death: Do we have 
immortal souls? Is immortality even desirable? Is death a bad thing? Is suicide 
morally permissible? Does the inevitability of death rob life of its meaning'.' 

Readings from historical and contemporary sources. 



Philosophy 163 

Intermediate Courses 

With the exception of Philosophy 200, intermediate courses are open to all 
students without prerequisite. 

200c. Nineteenth-Century Philosophy: Post-Kantians. Fall 1996. Mr. Simon. 

A study of philosophical developments in the nineteenth century that have had 
an important influence on contemporary thought: Kant; the development of 
idealism through Fichte and Hegel; and reactions to Hegel by Marx and Nietzsche. 
Focus on issues in political philosophy and philosophy of history. 

Prerequisite: Philosophy 112 or permission of the instructor. 

210c. Philosophy of Mind. Spring 1997. Mr. Sehon. 

We see ourselves as rational agents: we have beliefs, desires, intentions, 
wishes, hopes, etc.; we also have the ability to perform actions, and we are 
responsible for actions we freely choose. Is our conception of ourselves as rational 
agents consistent with our scientific conception of human beings as biological 
organisms? Can there be a science of the mind, and, if so, what is its status relative 
to other sciences? What is the relationship between mind and body? Can we have 
free will — or moral responsibility — if determinism is true? Readings primarily 
from contemporary sources. 

221c. History of Ethics. Spring 1998. Mr. Simon. 

How should one live? What is the good? What is my duty? What is the proper 
method for doing ethics? The fundamental questions of ethics are examined in 
classic texts including works of Aristotle, Hume, Mill, Kant, and Nietzsche. 

222c. Political Philosophy. Fall 1997. Mr. Simon. 

Examines some of the major issues and concepts in political philosophy, 
including political obligation and consent, freedom and coercion, justice, equal- 
ity, democracy, and the nature of liberalism. Readings primarily from contempo- 
rary sources. 

223a. Logic and Formal Systems. Fall 1997. Fall 1998. Mr. Sehon. 

An introduction to the concepts and principles of symbolic logic: validity, 
-logical truth, truth-functional and quantificational inference, formal languages 
and formal systems, proof procedures, and axiomatization. Possible attention to 
issues in the philosophy of logic and to modal logic (the logic of necessity and 
possibility). No background in mathematics is presupposed. 

224c. Feminism and Philosophy. Spring 1997. Ms. Conly. 

Feminist theory addresses the present culture and political position of women, 
suggests what that position should be, and tries to determine what means would 
lead from the present to the ideal. In this effort, a wealth of questions arise: What 
is a woman? How similar/different are women and men? Are present institutions, 
such as heterosexuality, marriage, and the family, detrimental to women? We 
examine the most influential and interesting ideas feminist theorists have had on 
these topics. 



1 64 Courses of Instruction 

225c. The Nature of Scientific Thought. Fall 1996. Mr. Corish. 

A historical and methodological study of scientific thought as exemplified in 
the natural sciences. Against a historical background ranging from the beginnings 
of early modern science to the twentieth century, such topics as scientific inquiry, 
hypothesis, confirmation, scientific laws, theory, and theoretical reduction are 
studied. The readings include such authors as Burtt, Butterfield, Duhem, Hempel, 
Koyre, Kuhn. Nagel. Poincare, Popper, and Toulmin, as well as classical authors 
such as Galileo, Descartes, Newton, Berkeley, and Leibniz. 

226c. Epistemology. Spring 1998. Mr. Stuart. 

What is knowledge? Do we have any? Is all knowledge based on sense- 
experience? A survey of recent work in the theory of knowledge. Topics include 
skepticism, empirical knowledge, a priori knowledge, and justification. 

[227c. Metaphysics.] 

237c. Language and Reality. Spring 1998. Mr. Sehon. 

Twentieth-century analytic philosophy has been characterized by a concern 
with language: philosophers have looked to the nature of language and meaning 
in hopes of solving or dissolving traditional philosophical disputes. We examine 
the writings of a number of authors in this tradition, including Carnap, Ayer, 
Quine, Putnam, and Kripke. Topics include linguistic meaning, reference, truth, 
and the relations between language and the world and between language and 
thought. 

[238c. Feminism and Liberalism.] 

240c. Aesthetics. Fall 1996. Ms. Conly. 

What is art? What is beauty? How do the different forms of art achieve their 
goals? What makes a work of art successful? The course studies works of 
literature, music, and painting, with readings from philosophers who have 
discussed these issues, in order to formulate answers to these questions. 

241c. Philosophy of Law. Fall 1996. Ms. Conly. 

An introduction to legal theory. Central questions include: What is law? What 
is the relationship of law to morality? What is the nature of judicial reasoning? 
Particular legal issues include the nature and status of privacy rights (e.g., 
contraception, abortion, and the right to die); the legitimacy of restrictions on 
speech and expression (e.g., pornography, hate speech); the nature of equality 
rights (e.g., race and gender); and the right to liberty (e.g.. homosexuality). 
Readings include traditional, contemporary, and feminist legal theory; case 
studies; and court decisions. 

242c. Philosophy of Religion. Spring 1997. Mr. Si HON. 

Does God exist? Can the existence of God be proven? Can it bedisproven? Is 
ii rational to believe in God? What does it mean to say that God exists (or does not 

exist).' What distinguishes religious beliefs from non-religious beliefs'.' What is 

the relation between religion and morality.' Between religion and science? The 
course approaches these and related questions through a variety of historical and 

contemporary sources, including Anselm, Aquinas, Descartes. Hume. Ayer, and 
Wittgenstein. 



Philosophy 165 

258c. Environmental Ethics. Fall 1997. Mr. Simon. 

The central issue in environmental ethics concerns what things in nature have 
moral standing and how conflicts of interest among them are to be resolved. After 
an introduction to ethical theory, topics to be covered include anthropocentrism, 
the moral status of nonhuman sentient beings and of nonsentient living beings, 
preservation of endangered species and the wilderness, holism versus individu- 
alism, the land ethic, and deep ecology. Open only to sophomores, juniors, and 
seniors. (Same as Environmental Studies 258.) 

Advanced Courses 

Although courses numbered in the 300s are advanced seminars primarily in- 
tended for majors in philosophy, adequately prepared students from other fields 
are also welcome. Besides stated prerequisites, at least one of the courses from the 
group numbered in the 200s will also be found a helpful preparation. 

331c. Plato. Spring 1998. Mr. Corish. 

A study of some of the principal dialogues of Plato, drawn chiefly from his 
middle and later periods. The instructor selects the dialogues that will be read, but 
topics to be studied depend on the particular interests of the students. 

Prerequisite: Philosophy 111 or permission of the instructor. 

332c. The Origins of Analytic Philosophy. Spring 1998. Mr. Sehon. 

An examination of the beginnings of analytic philosophy. The course exam- 
ines the major works from the period 1879-1921 of the three progenitors of this 
philosophical movement: Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and Ludwig 
Wittgenstein. Topics include objectivity and truth, logic, and inference, and the 
foundations of mathematics. 

Prerequisite: Philosophy 223 or permission of the instructor. 

334c. Topics in Medieval Philosophy. Fall 1997. Mr. Corish. 

An examination of some fundamental medieval views concerning humans and 
their environment. Special attention is paid to the Aristotelian worldview as made 
over to Christian specifications, and to its decline in favor of the modern scientific 
view. Particular emphasis on the views of one philosopher, St. Thomas Aquinas. 

Prerequisite: Philosophy 111 or permission of the instructor. 

335c. The Philosophy of Aristotle. Spring 1997. Mr. Corish. 

A textual study of the basics of Aristotle's philosophy. Aristotle's relationship 
to Plato, his criticism of the Platonic doctrine of Forms, and Aristotle's own 
doctrines of substance, causation, actuality, potentiality, form, and matter are 
discussed. Some of the Aristotelian disciplines of logic, physics, metaphysics, 
psychology, and moral philosophy are examined in terms of detailed specific 
doctrines, such as that of kinds of being, the highest being, the soul, and virtue. 

Prerequisite: Philosophy 111 or permission of the instructor. 



166 Courses of Instruction 

337c. Hume. Fall 1996. Mr. Stuart. 

A careful reading of the masterful Treatise of Human Nature, a work that 
Hume wrote while still in his twenties. Time permitting, we also look at Hume's 
later writings on metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of religion. Topics 
include empiricism, causation, skepticism about the external world, the passions, 
and the source of moral judgments. 

Prerequisite: Philosophy 112 or permission of the instructor. 

[338c. Kant.] 

340c. Contemporary Ethical Theory. Spring 1997. Mr. Simon. 

Examines debates in recent ethical theory and normative ethics. Possible 
topics include realism and moral skepticism, explanation and justification in 
ethics, consequentialism and its critics, whether morality is overly demanding, 
the sources of normativity, and the relation of ethics to science. 

Prerequisite: Philosophy 112 or 221, or permission of the instructor. 

[342c. Quine and Davidson.] 

[344c. Philosophy of Time.] 

392. Advanced Topics in Environmental Philosophy. Fall 1996. Mr. Simon. 
Examines philosophical, moral, and policy issues regarding the environmen- 
tal crisis, including the nature of the crisis, the meaning of sustainability, and how 
best to mobilize an adequate response to the crisis. Enrollment limited to 15 
students. Preference given to senior philosophy and environmental studies 
majors. (Same as Environmental Studies 392.) 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

401c-404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



Physics and Astronomy 



Professor Emeritus Associate Professors Assistant Professors 

Elroy O. LaCasee, Jr. Dale A. Sypherst Madeleine E. Msall 

Professor James H. Turner. Chair Stephen G. Naculieht 

Guy T. Emery Visiting Assistant 

Professor 
Ari W. Epstein 
Teaching Associate 

David l.. Roberts 
Requirements for the Major in Physics 

The major program depends i<> some extent on the student's goals, which should 
be discussed with the department Those who intend io do graduate work in 

physics or an allied field should plan Io do an honors project For those 

« considering a program in engineering, consult page 36. A major student with an 



Physics and Astronomy 1 67 

interest in an interdisciplinary area such as geophysics, biophysics, or oceanog- 
raphy will choose appropriate courses in related departments. Secondary school 
teaching requires a broad base in science courses, as well as the necessary courses 
for teacher certification. For a career in industrial management, some courses in 
economics and government should be included. 

In any case, a major in physics is expected to complete Mathematics 161, 171, 
Physics 103, 223, 227, 228, and four more approved courses, one of which may 
be Mathematics 181 or above. For honors work, a student is expected to complete 
Mathematics 181, and Physics 103, 223, 227, 228, 300, 310, 451, and four more 
courses, one of which may be in mathematics above 181. Students interested in 
interdisciplinary work may, with permission, substitute courses from other 
departments. Geology 265, Geophysics, is an approved physics course. 

Requirements for the Minor in Physics 

The minor consists of at least four Bowdoin courses numbered 103 or higher, at 
least one of which is from the set of Physics 223, 227, and 228. 

Interdisciplinary Majors 

The department participates in interdisciplinary programs in chemical physics, 
and geology and physics. See page 146. 

First- Year Seminar 

For a full description of the following first-year seminar, see page 1 16. 
15a. Science Fiction, Science Fact. Spring 1997. Ms. Msall. 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

62a. Contemporary Astronomy. Spring 1997. Mr. Epstein. 

A mix of qualitative and quantitative discussion of the nature of stars and 
galaxies, stellar evolution, the origin of the solar system and its properties, and the 
principal cosmological theories. Enrollment limited to 50 students. Students who 
have taken or who are taking Physics 103 will not receive credit for this course. 

63a. Physics of the Twentieth Century. Every fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Epstein. 

Explores the growth of twentieth-century physics, including theoretical devel- 
opments like relativity, quantum mechanics, and symmetry-based thinking, and 
the rise of new subdisciplines such as atomic physics, condensed-matter physics, 
nuclear physics, and particle physics. Some attention is given to the societal 
context of physics, the institutions of the discipline, and the relations between 
"pure" and "applied" physics. 

Prerequisite: Ordinary secondary school mathematics. Enrollment is limited 
to 50 students. Students who have taken or who are taking Physics 103 concur- 
rently will not receive credit for this course. 



168 Courses of Instruction 

103a. Mechanics and Matter. Every semester. Fall 1996. Mr. Emery. Spring 
1997. Ms. Msall. 

Covers the fundamental constituents of matter, conservation laws, and forces 
and interactions from subatomic to molecular to macroscopic systems. Intended 
to give a broad overview of physics, introducing both classical and modern 
concepts. Three hours of laboratory work per week. 

Prerequisite: Previous credit or concurrent registration in Mathematics 161 
or higher. Students who have taken or who are taking Chemistry 251 concur- 
rently will not receive credit for this course. The fall semester is intended for first- 
and second-year students. Juniors and seniors are strongly encouraged to take this 
course in the spring. 

223a. Electric Fields and Circuits. Every spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Turner. 

The basic phenomena of the electromagnetic interaction are introduced. The 
basic relations are then specialized for a more detailed study of linear network 
theory. Laboratory work stresses the fundamentals of electronic instrumentation 
and measurement. Three hours of laboratory work per week. 

Prerequisites: A grade of at least C in Physics 103 and previous credit or 
concurrent registration in Mathematics 171 or higher, or permission of the 
instructor. 

227a. Waves and Quanta. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Msall. 

Wave motion occurs in many areas of physics. A discussion of basic wave 
behavior and the principle of superposition leads to a study of wave propagation 
and its relationship to coherence, interference, and diffraction. The wave model 
of the atom provides an introduction to atomic spectra. The laboratory work 
provides experience with optical methods and instruments. 

Prerequisites: A grade of at least C in Physics 103 and previous credit or 
concurrent registration in Mathematics 171 or higher, or permission of the 
instructor. 

228a. Modern Physics. Every spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Em ho . 

An introduction to the basic concepts and laws of nuclear and particle ph\ sics, 
covering the principles of relativity and quantum theory, particle accelerators, 
nuclear structure and reactions, and the behavior of elementary particles. The 
physics of radioactivity and the biological, medical, and ecological applications 
of radiation arc given special emphasis through weekly laboratory exercises with 
radioactive materials and nuclear instrumentation. Three hours o( laboratory 

work per week. 

Prerequisites: A grade of at least C in Physics 103 and previous credit or 
concurrent registration in Mathematics 171 or higher, or permission of the 

instructor. 

22')a. statistical Physics. Every other fall. Fall l ul >7. The Departmi NT. 
The course develops a framework capable o\' predicting the properties of 

systems with many particles. This framework, combined with simple atomic and 
molecular models, leads to an Understanding of such concepts as entropy, 



Physics and Astronomy 169 

absolute temperature, and the canonical distribution. Some probability theory is 
developed as a mathematical tool. 

Prerequisites: A grade of at least C in Physics 103 and previous credit or 
concurrent registration in Mathematics 171 or higher, or permission of the 
instructor. 

240a. Modern Electronics. Every other fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Turner. 

A brief introduction to the physics of semiconductors and semiconductor 
devices, culminating in an understanding of the structure of integrated circuits. 
Topics will include a description of currently available integrated circuits for 
analog and digital applications and their use in modern electronic instrumenta- 
tion. Weekly laboratory exercises with integrated circuits. 

Prerequisite: A grade of at least C in Physics 103. 

255a. Physical Oceanography. Spring 1997. Mr. Epstein. 

An introduction to physical oceanography, and surface and internal waves. 
Some attention is given to the problems of instrumentation and the techniques of 
measurement. 

Prerequisite: A grade of at least C in Physics 103. 

262a. Astrophysics and Celestial Mechanics. Spring 1998. The Department. 

A quantitative discussion that introduces the principal topics of astrophysics, 
including stellar structure and evolution, planetary physics, and cosmology. 

Prerequisite: A grade of at least C in Physics 103. 

291a-294a. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

Topics to be arranged by the student and the staff. If the investigations concern 
the teaching of physics, this course may satisfy certain of the requirements for the 
Maine State Teacher's Certificate. 

Prerequisite: Normally, a previous physics course at the 200 level. 

300a. Methods of Theoretical Physics. Every spring. Spring 1 997. Mr. LaCasce. 

Mathematics is the language of physics. Similar mathematical techniques 
occur in different areas of physics. A physical situation may first be expressed in 
mathematical terms, usually in the form of a differential or integral equation. 
After the formal mathematical solution is obtained, the physical conditions 
determine the physically viable result. Examples are drawn from heat flow, 
gravitational fields, and electrostatic fields. 

Prerequisites: Mathematics 181 or 223, and Physics 223, 227, or 228, or 
permission of the instructor. 

310a. Introductory Quantum Mechanics. Every fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Turner. 

An introduction to quantum theory, solutions of Schroedinger equations, and 
their applications to atomic systems. 

Prerequisites: Physics 227 and 300. 

320a. Electromagnetic Theory. Every other fall. Fall 1997. The Department. 

First the Maxwell relations are presented as a natural extension of basic 
experimental laws; then emphasis is given to the radiation and transmission of 
electromagnetic waves. 

Prerequisites: Physics 223 and 300, or permission of the instructor. 



170 Courses of Instruction 

350a. Solid State Physics. Fall 1997 or Spring 1998. The Department. 

The physics of solids, including crystal structure, lattice vibrations, and energy 
band theory. 

Prerequisite: Physics 310. 

370a. Advanced Mechanics. Every other fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Epstein. 

A thorough review of particle dynamics, followed by the development of 
Lagrange's and Hamilton's equations and their applications to rigid body motion 
and the oscillations of coupled systems. 

Prerequisite: Physics 300 or permission of the instructor. 

380a. Elementary Particles and Nuclei. Usually every other spring. 
Spring 1997. Mr. Emery. 

The phenomenology of elementary particles and of nuclei, their structure and 
interactions, the application of symmetry principles, and the experimental meth- 
ods used in these fields. 

Prerequisite: Physics 310. 

401a-404a. Advanced Independent Study. The Department. 

Topics to be arranged by the student and the staff. 

Prerequisite: Normally, a previous physics course at the 300 level. 

451a-452a. Honors. The Department. 

Programs of study are available in semiconductor physics, microfabrication, 
superconductivity and superfluidity, the physics of metals, general relativity, 
biophysics, and nuclear physics. Work done in these topics normally serves as the 
basis for an honors paper. 

Prerequisite: Physics 310. 



Psychology 

Professors Visiting Assistant Professors 

Alfred H. Fuchs, Chair Daniel D. Kurylo 

Barbara S. Held R. Brooke Lea 

Melinda Y. Small Adjunct Assistant Professor 

Associate Professors Donna B. Hayashi 

Suzanne B. Lovett 

Paul E. Schaffnert 

Students in the Department of Psychology may elect a major within the psychol- 
ogy program, or they may elect an interdisciplinary major in ncuroscicncc. 
BpOI180red jointly by the Departments Of Psychology and Biology (see Neuro- 

Bcience, pages 160-61). The program in psychology examines contemporary 
perspectives on principles of human behavior, in areas ranging from cognition, 

language, and neurophysiology to interpersonal relations, psychopathology, and 
problem solving. Its approach emphasizes scientific methods of inquiry and 
analysis. 



Psychology 171 

Requirements for the Major in Psychology 

The psychology major includes a total of nine courses numbered 100 or above. 
These courses are selected by students with their advisors and are subject to 
departmental review. The nine courses include Psychology 101, Psychology 
250; two psychology laboratory courses numbered 260-279, which must be taken 
after statistics and if possible before the senior year; and two courses numbered 
300-399. Majors are encouraged to consider an independent study course on a 
library, laboratory, or field research project during the senior year. 

Students who are considering a major in psychology are encouraged to enroll 
in Psychology 101 during their first year at Bowdoin and to complete Psychology 
250 in the spring of their first year or the fall of their second year. Those who plan 
to study away from campus for one or both semesters of their junior year should 
complete at least one laboratory course before leaving for their off-campus 
experience and should plan to enroll in two 300-level courses after returning to 
campus. 

Requirements for the Minor in Psychology 

The psychology minor consists of five courses numbered 1 00 or above, including 
Psychology 101, Psychology 250, and one psychology laboratory course. 

Students who are interested in teaching as a career should consult with the 
Department of Education for courses to be included in their undergraduate 
program. Ordinarily, students of education will find much of relevance in 
Psychology 210, 214, 219, 270, and 361; these courses cover the topics usually 
included in educational psychology. In addition, prospective teachers may find 
Psychology 211, 212, 271, and 320 compatible with their interests and helpful in 
their preparation for teaching. 

Requirements for the Major in Neuroscience 

See Neuroscience, pages 160-61. 

COURSES IN PSYCHOLOGY 

Introductory Course 

101b. Introduction to Psychology. Every fall. Ms. Lovett and Mr. Lea. Every 
spring. Mr. Fuchs and Ms. Held. 

A general introduction to the major concerns of contemporary psychology, 
including physiological psychology, perception, learning, cognition, language, 
development, personality, intelligence, and abnormal and social behavior. Rec- 
ommended for first- and second-year students. Juniors and seniors should enroll 
in the spring semester. 



172 Courses of Instruction 

Intermediate Courses 

210b. Infant and Child Development. Every spring. Ms. Lovett. 

A survey of major changes in psychological functioning from conception 
through childhood. Several theoretical perspectives are used to consider how 
physical, personality, social, and cognitive changes jointly influence the develop- 
ing child's interactions with the environment. Students have the option of either 
a) participating in a three-hour weekly practicum at a local daycare center or b) 
planning and conducting research projects. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101. 

211b. Personality. Every fall. Ms. Held. 

A comparative survey of theoretical and empirical attempts to explain person- 
ality and its development. The relationships of psychoanalytic, interpersonal, 
humanistic, and behavioral approaches to current research are considered. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101. 

212b. Social Psychology. Every spring, but not offered in Spring 1997. 
Spring 1998. Mr. Schaffner. 

A survey of theory and research on psychological aspects of social behavior. 
Topics include conformity, self-concept, social cognition, attitudes, prejudice 
and racism, interpersonal relationships, and cultural variations in social behavior. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101 or Sociology 101. 

213b. Adult Development and Aging. Every fall. Mr. Fuchs. 

An examination of research and theory relevant to the understanding of the 
changes that occur from early adulthood to later years. Particular emphasis is 
placed on issues in the research on aging and changes in individual functioning 
associated with age. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101. 

214b. Learning and Behavior. Every fall. Mr. Fuchs. 

Examines the methodologies, phenomena, and theories of classical and 
operant conditioning and current research on animal cognition. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101. 

219b. Human Learning, Memory, and Thinking. Every fall. Ms. Smai i . 

The factors that influence our acquisition ami use of knowledge and cognitive 
skills are examined. Topics include attention, intelligence, imagery, comprehen- 
sion, cognitive strategies, individual differences, motivation, problem solving, 
and creativity. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101. 
1 222b. Law and Psychology.] 
1 223b. Psychology of Politics.] 
245a. Muniiin Neuropsychology. Every fall. Mr. Ki rylo. 

A Burvej i>i the effects iA brain injury on an individual's psychological 

functioning. Neurological disorders SUCh as stroke, penetrating head injury. 
Closed head injury, anil neurodegenerative diseases are examined. Emphasis is 



Psychology 173 

placed on the clinical assessment of changes and impairments in psychological 
functioning that result from injury. Students participate in a simulated assessment 
of patients with neurological disorders. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101 or Biology 104. 

247a. Physiological Psychology. Every fall. Mr. Kurylo. 

An introductory survey of the biological correlates of basic psychological 
processes. An examination is first made of neural physiology and central nervous 
system anatomy. Topics then include sensory/motor systems, mechanisms of 
sleep, memory, split-brain patients, effects of psychoactive drugs, and the 
physiological basis of thought disorders. Demonstrations of brain anatomy and 
cortical activity are provided. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101 or Biology 104. 

249a. Visual Neuroscience. Every other year. Fall 1997. Mr. Kurylo. 

Examines the major issues in the study of the visual system. Studies how 
physical stimuli are transduced into neural signals and how the brain processes 
these signals to derive our vibrant and detailed perception of the visual world. 
Visual information processing is examined separately at the retinal, precortical, 
sensory cortical, and cortical association levels. The impact of neuropathology at 
each level of processing on visual perception is also discussed. A review is made 
of current research literature in the fields of neurophysiology, psychophysics, and 
anatomy as they relate to the visual system. Topics include the perception of color, 
motion, depth, and form. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101 or Biology 104. 

250b. Statistical Analysis. Every fall. Ms. Lovett. Every spring. Mr. Kurylo. 

An introduction to the use of descriptive and inferential statistics and design 
in behavioral research. Weekly laboratory work in computerized data analysis. 
Required of majors no later than the junior year, and preferably by the sophomore 
year. Enrollment limited to 32 students. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101. 

Courses that Satisfy the Laboratory Requirement 
- 260b. Abnormal Personality. Every spring. Ms. Held. 

A general survey of the nature, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of common 
patterns of mental disorders. The course may be taken for one of two purposes: 
Section A. Laboratory course credit. 

Prerequisites: Psychology 101, 211, and 250. Enrollment limited to 14 
students, who will participate in a supervised practicum at a local psychi- 
atric unit. 
Section B. Non-laboratory course credit. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101 and 21 1. Participation in the practicum is 
optional, contingent upon openings in the program. 



1 74 Courses of Instruction 

270b. Cognition. Every fall. Mr. Lea. 

An analysis of research methodology and experimental investigations in 
cognition, which includes attention, memory, comprehension, thinking, and 
problem solving. Laboratory work, including experimental design. 

Prerequisites: Psychology 101 and 250. 

271b. Language Development. Every spring. Ms. Lovett. 

Major aspects of how we produce and understand language are considered by 
examining research and theory concerning how language develops in both normal 
and atypical populations and how early language is similar to and different from 
adult language. Students design and execute research projects in weekly labora- 
tory work. 

Prerequisites: Psychology 101, 210, and 250. 

272b. Research in Social Behavior. Every fall. Not offered in Fall 1996. 
Mr. Schaffner. 

A laboratory course on research design and methodology in social and 
personality psychology, focusing on a topic of current theoretical importance. 
Students plan and carry out original research. 

Prerequisites: Psychology 211 or 212, and 250. 

273a. Sensation and Perception. Every spring. Mr. Kurylo. 

A survey of the basic phenomena and problems of perception and sensory 
psychology. Topics include experimental measurements; coding of qualities such 
as color, form, pitch, touch, and pain; the influence of early experience and 
attention; and an examination of abnormal perceptions (dyslexia, aphasia, etc.), 
including their diagnosis and treatment. There will be a weekly lab. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101 and 250. 

Advanced Courses 

300b. Topics in Psychology: The Psychology of Language and 
Communication. Spring 1997. Mr. Lea. 

An examination of psychological factors that affect the comprehension of oral 
and written language. Topics include the origins of language, how language can 
control thought, the role of mutual knowledge in comprehension, principles that 
underlie coherence in discourse, the role of inferences in text comprehension, 
how figurative language is understood, and the potential role of gender in 
comprehension failures. Readings from psycholinguistics, philosophy, 
sociolinguistics, grader studies, social psychology, and cognitive psychology, 
l-.inphasis is placed M available research methods so that Students can design an 
original study. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 270 or 271, or permission of the instructor. 

3l()b. Clinical Psychology. Ever) fall. Ms. Hi i d, 

The history and development of clinical psychology, including an emphasis on 

current controversies regarding ethical and legal issues. Major portions of the 
course ate devoted to theory and research concerning psychological assessment 
and types of psycho! hcrapics. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 211 and 260. 



Psychology 175 

311b. History of Psychology. Every spring. Mr. Fuchs. 

An examination of the historical development of the methods, theories, and 
data of psychology as it has emerged as a field of inquiry, an academic discipline, 
and a profession in the past 150 years. 

Prerequisites: Psychology 101, 250, one laboratory course, and an additional 
course numbered 200 or above. 

312a. Cognitive Neuroscience. Every spring. Mr. Kurylo. 

A survey of modern interdisciplinary approaches to examining high-order 
cognitive functions. Topics include functional neural imaging techniques (e.g., 
fMRI, PET), modern theories of cortical function, strategy formation and behav- 
ioral control, mental imagery and spatial cognition, attention and consciousness, 
and abstract reasoning. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 247 (or Psychobiology 265) or Psychology 245 (or 
Psychobiology 245). 

[315a. Sensory/Motor Transformation.] 

320b. Social Development. Every other year. Fall 1996. Ms. Hayashi. 

The development of social behavior and social understanding from infancy to 
early adulthood. Emphasis on empirical research and related theories of social 
development. Topics include the development of aggression, altruism, morality, 
prejudice and racism, sex-role stereotypes and sex-appropriate behavior, and peer 
relationships, as well as the impact of parent-child relationships on social 
development. 

Prerequisites: Psychology 101, 210, 250, and one laboratory course. 

325b. Organizational Behavior. Every spring, but not offered in Spring 1997. 
Spring 1998. Mr. Schaffner. 

Examines how people experience work in modern human organizations. 
Topics include motivation, performance, commitment, and satisfaction; affect 
and cognition at work; interpersonal influence; coordination of activity; anticipa- 
tion, planning, and decision making; organization-environment dynamics; and 
the enactment of organizational change. Organizations studied include student 
athletic clubs, fast-food restaurants, automobile manufacturers, battered women's 
" shelters, nuclear aircraft carriers, amusement parks, and others. 

Prerequisite: Psychology 101, one psychology course numbered 260-279, or 
permission of the instructor. 

361b. Children's Learning and Cognitive Development. Every spring. 
Ms. Small. 

Examines the development of mental representation, learning, and cognitive 
processes from infancy to early adulthood. Emphasis on experimental research 
and related theories of cognitive development and learning. Topics include 
perception, memory, beliefs, comprehension, learning strategies, reasoning, and 
problem solving. 

Prerequisites: Psychology 210 or 219, and 250. 

291b-294b. Intermediate Independent Study. 
401b-404b. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. 



176 Courses of Instruction 

Religion 

Professors Associate Professor 

John C. Holt Irena S. M. Makarushka. Chair 

Burke O. Long Joint Appointment with 

Africans Studies 

Instructor Eddie S. Glaude. Jr. 

The Department of Religion offers students opportunities to study the major 
religions of the world, East and West, ancient and modern, from a variety of 
academic viewpoints and without sectarian bias. 

Each major is assigned a departmental advisor who assists the student in 
formulating a plan of study in religion and related courses in other departments. 
The advisor also provides counsel in career planning and graduate study. 

Requirements for the Major in Religion 

The major consists of at least eight courses in religion approved by the depart- 
ment. Required courses include Religion 101 (Introduction to the Study of 
Religion); three courses at the 200 level distributed so as to include the study of 
Western religions and cultures as well as Asian religions and cultures; and one 
advanced topics seminar numbered 390. In addition, candidates for honors must 
register for a ninth course, advanced independent study, as part of their honors 
projects. (See below, "Honors in Religion.") 

No more than one first-year seminar may be counted toward the major. 
Religion 101 should be taken by the end of the sophomore year. In order to enroll 
in the 390-level seminar, a major normally will be expected to have taken four of 
the eight required courses. This seminar is also open to qualified nonmajors with 
permission of the instructor. 

Honors in Religion 

Students contemplating honors candidacy should possess a record of distinction 
in departmental courses, including those that support the project, a clearly 
articulated and well-focused research proposal, and a high measure of motivation 
and scholarly maturity. Normally, proposals for honors projects shall be submit- 
ted lor departmental approval along with registration for advanced independent 
study, and in any case no later than the end of the second week of the semester in 
which the project is undertaken. It is recommended, however, that honors 
candidates incorporate work from the major seminar (Religion 390 or higher) as 
pari ill their honors projects, or complete two semesters of independent study in 
preparing research papers lor honors consideration. In this latter case, proposals 
are due no later than the second week of the fall semester of the senior year. 

Requirements for the Minor in Religion 

A minor consists ol five courses -Religion 101, lour courses at the 200 level or 

higher; among these electivea beyond Religion 101, ai least one course shall be 

in Westein religions and cultures and one in Asian religions and cultures. 



Religion 111 

First- Year Seminars 

These courses are introductory in nature, focusing on the study of a specific 
aspect of religion, and may draw on other fields of learning. They are not intended 
as prerequisites for more advanced courses in the department unless specifically 
designated as such. They include readings, discussions, reports, and writing. 
Topics change from time to time to reflect emerging or debated issues in the study 
of religion. 

Enrollment is limited to 16 students for each seminar. First-year students are 
given priority for available spaces. For a full description of the following first- 
year seminars, see page 116. 

10c. Adam and Eve and the Moral of the Story. Spring 1 997. Ms. Makarushka. 

12c,d. Religions of India in Contemporary Literature. Spring 1 998 . Mr. Holt. 
(Same as Asian Studies 12.) 

Introductory Course 

101c. Introduction to the Study of Religion. Fall 1996. Mr. Holt. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Long. 

Basic concepts, methods, and issues in the study of religion, with special 
reference to examples comparing and contrasting Eastern and Western religions. 
Lectures, discussions, and readings in classic texts and modern interpretations. 

Intermediate Courses 

202c. Judaic Origins. Fall 1996. Mr. Long. 

A study of the varieties of Jewish religion in the Graeco-Roman world and the 
emergence of rabbinic Judaism. Considers paradigmatic texts and events that 
shaped early Jewish thought and practice, and which influence modern practice 
and scholarly investigations of Jewish origins. Analysis of primary sources along 
with modern interpretations. 

203c. Christian Origins. Spring 1997. Mr. Long. 

A study of the varieties of Christian expression in relation to other cultures of 
. the Graeco-Roman world. Considers paradigmatic texts that shaped early Chris- 
tian thought and practice, and which continue to influence contemporary Chris- 
tianity as well as modern investigations of Christian beginnings. Analysis of 
primary sources along with modern interpretations. 

205c. The Bible and Liberationist Thought. Fall 1996. Mr. Long. 

An exploration of influential texts from the Bible and their role in shaping 
values and cultural attitudes. Analysis of interpretations by African-American, 
Latin American, and feminist scholars who seek biblical warrant for social 
change. Attention is also given to writers who reject biblical authority while 
dealing with the powerful presence of the Bible in current debates. 

220c,d. Hinduism. Fall 1996. Mr. Holt. 

A study of traditional Hindu culture (philosophy, mythology, art, ritual, yoga, 
devotionalism, and caste) in the ancient and medieval periods of India's religious 
history. (Same as Asian Studies 240.) 



178 Courses of Instruction 

22 led. Religion and Literature in Modern South Asia. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Holt. 

Twentieth century works of fiction reflecting the ways in which Hinduism and 
Buddhism have been understood socially (gender, caste, and class), politically 
(reactionary or revolutionary), psychologically (functional or dysfunctional), and 
philosophically (soterioloically and cosmologically). (Same as Asian Studies 
241.) 

222c,d. Buddhist Thought. Fall 1997. Mr. Holt. 

An examination of the principal Buddhist categories of thought as these arise 
in representative genres of Buddhist literature, including the Pali Nikayas of 
Theravada tradition and the Sanskrit Sutras of Mahayana. (Same as Asian 
Studies 242.) 

249c. Western Religious Thought. Fall 1996. Ms. Makarushka. 

A study of the significant ideas and texts of the ancient Greek tradition, 
Judaism. Christianity, and Islam. Diversity within traditions, as well as similari- 
ties and differences among them, is emphasized. Selected texts include dialogue, 
sacred scriptures, poetry, mystical writings, treatise, fiction, and artworks. Focus 
on how historical and cultural contexts contribute to the construction of concepts 
such as virtue, wisdom, and holiness. 

250c. Western Religion and Its Critics. Spring 1997. Ms. Makarushka. 

A study of modern and postmodern challenges to Western religious traditions. 
Readings from works of Hume. Darwin, Feuerbach. Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud, 
and liberation theologies including feminism. 

251c. The Problem of Evil. Fall 1997. Ms. Makarushka. 

Explores Western myths and symbols of evil that express the experience of 
defilement, sin, guilt, and suffering as disclosed in a wide range of religious, 
philosophical, and literary texts and films. Reflection on questions concerning the 
existence of God, human finitude, and the cultural construction of normative 
values. 

260c,d. Religious History of African Americans. Fall 1996. Mr. Glaude. 

History and role of religion among African Americans from slavery to the 
present. Inquiry into the significance of modernity and postmodernity on the 
religious experience of African Americans. Focus on major topics, including: 
transmission and transformation of African religions in the Americas: religious 
culture of slaves and slaveholders in the antebellum South; development of 
independent black chinches in the early nineteenth century: effects of emancipa- 
tion, migration, and urbanization upon black religious life; relation of race, 
religion, and American nationalism (both white and black). (Same as Africana 

Studies 250.) 



Religion 179 

261c. Prophecy and Social Criticism in the United States. Spring 1997. 
Mr. Glaude. 

Examination of the religious and philosophical roots of prophecy as a form of 
social criticism in American intellectual and religious history. Max Weber, Eric 
Voeglin, Sacvan Bercovitch, and Michael Walzer serve as key points of departure 
in assessing prophetic criticism's insights and limitations. Focus on the role of 
black prophetic critics such as James Baldwin, Martin L. King, Jr., and Cornel 
West in confronting issues of race, economic disparity, and mass culture, and 
themes such as American exceptionalism and white supremacy. (Same as 
Africana Studies 251.) 

262c,d. Race and African- American Thought. Fall 1996. Mr. Glaude. 

An interdisciplinary examination of the complex array of African- American 
cultural practices from slavery to postmodern times. Close readings of classic and 
contemporary texts of African-American experiences and the encounter with 
issues such as dread, death, and despair; joy, hope, and triumph. Readings will 
include works from W.E.B. Du Bois, Cornel West, Orlando Paterson, Paula 
Giddins, Richard Wright, and James Baldwin. (Same as Africana Studies 252.) 

Advanced Courses 

The following courses study in depth a topic of limited scope but major 
importance, such as one or two individuals, a movement, type, concept, problem, 
historical period, or theme. Topics change from time to time. Courses may be 
repeated for credit with the contents changed. Religion 390 is required for majors, 
and normally presupposes that four of eight required courses have been taken. 

323c,d. Buddhism, Culture, and Society in South and Southeast Asia. 

Spring 1998. Mr. Holt. 

A study of the ways in which Buddhist religious sentiments are expressed 
aesthetically and politically within the social and cultural histories of India, Sri 
Lanka, Burma, and Thailand. Emphasis on the transformation of Buddhism from 
a world-renouncing ethic to a foundational ideology of society and culture. (Same 
as Asian Studies 343.) 

Prerequisite: Religion 101 or 222 or permission of the instructor. 

330c,d. The Quest for a Nation: Black Nationalism and America. Spring 
1998. Mr. Glaude. 

Exploration of the concept of nation in the popular and political imagination 
of nineteenth and twentieth century African-American intellectuals. Focus on key 
figures of each period and on historical events that track the various uses of the 
word. Emphasis on the processes of transfer that take place between religious and 
racial identities that yield the national community are explored from two distinc- 
tive angles: white and black America. (Same as Africana Studies 330.) 

Prerequisite: Religion 101 and one additional course in religion, or permission 
of the instructor. 



180 Courses of Instruction 

380c,d. Recent Studies in South and Southeast Asian Religions and Cultures. 

Spring 1997. Mr. Holt. 

A critical reading of recent monographs and ethnographies by leading scholars 
focusing on important problems of contemporary interest in the interdisciplinary 
study of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam in South and Southeast Asia (religion 
in the Hindu family, women's spirituality, life passages, popular worship of 
Ganesa and Krsna. Sikh identity, rise of Islam, and Buddhist beliefs and practices 
in Southeast Asia), followed by the writing of a term paper on a topic selected by 
students in consultation with the instructor. (Same as Asian Studies 380.) 

Prerequisite: Religion 101 or permission of the instructor. 

390c. Advanced Topics in Religion. 

Word and Image. Fall 1996. Ms. Makarushka. 

Reading of visual images (painting, sculpture, and film) that 
"narrate" culturally constructed interpretations of significant texts 
of Western and Asian religious traditions. Critical exploration of text 
and context through a multiplicity of postmodern interpretative 
frameworks, including feminism and deconstruction. Discussion of 
how meaning — the "truth" of the text — both reflects and shapes 
cultural values and notions of normativity. Focus on the politics of 
representation. 

Prerequisites: Any two courses in religion, or permission of the 
instructor. 

Theories About Religion. Fall 1997. Mr. Holt. 

A seminar investigating the various ways in which religion has 
been understood theoretically (non-apologetically) in the intellec- 
tual traditions of the West from the sixteenth century to the present. 
Readings include works of Freud, Durkheim (and their European 
predecessors), Weber, Marx, James, Eliade, and Geertz, among 
others. Emphasis is placed on developing one's own theoretical 
approach to religious phenomena. A substantial seminar paper is 
required. 

Prerequisite: Religion 101 or permission of the instructor. 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. The Department. 

401 -404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. The DEPARTMENT. 



Professor 
John H. Turner 
Associate Professors 
Janice A. Jaffe, Chair 
Robert R. Nunn** 
William C. VanderWolk 



Romance Languages 

Romance Languages 

Assistant Professors 
Marie E. Barbierif 
Leakthina Oilier 
Instructor 
Enrique Yepes 
Visiting Instructors 
Sarah M. Nelson 
Veronica M. Azcue 



181 



Lecturer 
Rosa Pellegrini 
Teaching Fellows 
Ana Martin 
Agnes Boury 
Virginie Le Gall 



The Department of Romance Languages offers courses in French, Spanish, and 
Italian language, literature, and culture. Native speakers are involved in most 
language courses. Unless otherwise indicated, all literature courses are conducted 
in the respective language. 

Study Abroad 

A period of study in an appropriate country, usually in the junior year, is strongly 
encouraged for all students of language. Bowdoin College is affiliated with a wide 
range of programs abroad, and interested students should seek the advice of a 
member of the department early in their sophomore year. 

Independent Study 

This is an option primarily intended for students who are working on honors 
projects. It is also available to students who have taken advantage of the regular 
course offerings and wish to work more closely on a particular topic. Independent 
study is not an alternative to regular course work. An application should be made 
to a member of the department prior to the semester in which the project is to be 
undertaken and must involve a specific proposal in an area in which the student 
can already demonstrate knowledge. 

Honors in Romance Languages 

Majors may elect to write an honors project in the department. This involves two 
semesters of independent study in the senior year and the writing of an honors 
.essay and its defense before a committee of members of the department. 
Candidates for department honors should also have a strong record in other 
courses in the department. 

Requirements for Majors in Romance Languages 

Students may declare a major in French or in Spanish or in Romance languages 
(with courses in both French and Spanish). For students of the Class of 1998 and 
after, the major will consist of nine courses more advanced than French 204 or 
Spanish 204. (For others, the major consists of eight courses.) It is expected that 
majors who are not writing an honors project will enroll in a 300-level course in 
their senior year. All majors are required to take a 351 course. No more than two 
courses may be in independent study, and no fewer than five Bowdoin courses 
should be taken. Prospective majors are expected to have completed French or 
Spanish 205 and 209 before the end of their sophomore year. 



1 s2 Courses of Instruction 

Requirements for the Minor in Romance Languages 

The minor consists of three Bowdoin courses in one language above 204. 

Placement 

Students who plan to take French or Spanish must take the appropriate placement 
test at the beginning of the fall semester. 

FRENCH 

101c. Elementary French I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. VanderWolk. 

A study of the basic forms, structures, and vocabulary. Emphasis on listening 
comprehension and spoken French. Three hours per week, plus regular language 
laboratory assignments and conversation sessions. 

Prerequisite: French 101 primarily is open to first- and second-year students 
who have had two years or less of high school French. A limited number of spaces 
are available for juniors and seniors. 

102c. Elementary French II. Every spring. Spring 1997. The Department. 

A continuation of French 101. A study of the basic forms, structures, and 
vocabulary. Emphasis on listening comprehension and spoken French. During 
the second semester, more stress is placed on reading and writing. Three hours per 
week, plus regular language laboratory assignments and conversation sessions. 

Prerequisite: French 101 or equivalent. 

203c. Intermediate French I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Nunn. 

A review of basic grammar, which is integrated into more complex patterns of 
written and spoken French. Short compositions and class discussions require 
active use of students' acquired knowledge of French. 

Prerequisite: French 102 or placement. 

204c. Intermediate French II. Every spring. Spring 1997. The Department. 

Continued development of oral and written skills; course focus shifts from 
grammar to reading. Short readings from French literature, magazines, and 
newspapers form the basis for the expansion of vocabulary and analytical skills. 
Active use of French in class discussions and conversation sessions with French 
assistants. 

Prerequisite: French 203 or placement. 

205c. Advanced French I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Nelson. 

An introduction to a variety of writing styles and aspects of French culture 
through readings o\ literary texts, magazines, and newspapers. Emphasis on 

studenl participation, including short presentations and frequent short papers. 
Prerequisite: French 204 or placement. 

1 208c. French and Francophone Cultures.] 



Romance Languages 1 83 

209c. Introduction to the Study and Criticism of French Literature. 

Spring 1997. The Department. 

An introduction to the appreciation and analysis of the major genres of 
literature in French through readings and discussions of important works from the 
Renaissance to the twentieth century. Students are introduced to critical ap- 
proaches to literature in general and to French literature in particular. Writers 
likely to be considered include Ronsard, La Fontaine, Moliere, Voltaire, Flaubert, 
Sartre, and Yourcenar. Conducted in French. 

Prerequisite: French 205 or placement. 

210c. Introduction to French Literary History. Fall 1996. Ms. Nelson. 

A chronological overview of France's rich literary tradition, fxomLa Chanson 
de Roland to contemporary works. Students are introduced to major authors and 
literary movements, as well as their historical context. Conducted in French. 

Prerequisite: French 205 or permission of the instructor. 

[312c. French Thought: Penseurs, Moralistes, Philosophes.] 
[313c. Poetry and Society.] 

315c. French Drama I. Fall 1996. Mr. Nunn. 

French drama of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A survey of 
classicism and the major new currents of the eighteenth century. Plays by 
Cornielle, Moliere, Racine, Marivaux, Beaumarchais, and others are studied. 
Close interpretive reading of texts and viewing of taped performances. Conducted 
in French. 

Prerequisite: French 209 or permission of the instructor. 

317c. The French Novel in the Nineteenth Century (The French Novel I). 

Fall 1996. Mr. Nunn. 

Women writing about women and men writing about women. Authors include 
De Stael, Stendhal, Balzac, Sand, and Flaubert. 

Prerequisite: French 209 or permission of the instructor. 

319c. French Women Writers. Fall 1996. Ms. Ollier. 

An exploration of female identity and narrative through the fictional and 
- autobiographical writings of twentieth-century French women authors. Focuses 
on the representation of love, desire, the mother-daughter relationship, alienation, 
and transgression. Writers may include Colette, Simone de Beauvoir, Marguerite 
Duras, Nathalie Sarraute, Marguerite Yourcenar, Christiane Rochefort, Annie 
Ernaux, and Daniele Sallenave. 

Prerequisite: French 209 or permission of the instructor. 

320-329c. Topics in French and Francophone Literature. Every year. The 

Department. 

Designed to provide students who have a basic knowledge of literature in 
French the opportunity to study more closely an author, a genre, or a period. 
French 320-329 may be repeated for credit with the contents changed. Con- 
ducted in French. 



1 84 Courses of Instruction 

321c. Rebirth: The Old Made New in French Renaissance Literature. 

Spring 1997. Ms. Nelson. 

Readings from one of the periods of greatest literary and social change in 
French history, the sixteenth century. Main topics are a new world in literature; 
male and female writers who adopt and adapt poetic models; and the rebirth of a 
"modern literary self." Writers may include Marguerite de Navarre. Rabelais. 
Sceve, Pernette du Guillet, Labe. Ronsard, Du Bellay, Madeleine and Catherine 
des Roches. Montaigne, and D'Aubigne. 

Prerequisite: French 209 or permission of the instructor. 

322c. The Hexagon Inside Out: Francophone Literature and Contemporary 
Minority Writing in France. Spring 1997. Ms. Ollier. 

Begins with a study of Francophone writers from the African continent, the 
Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. Attention is placed on the notions of identity, race, 
language, culture, gender, colonialism, and post-colonialism. Proceeds to the 
analysis of texts written in France by minority authors, which serve as testimonies 
of issues facing minorities in contemporary France, such as integration, racism, 
and the search for one's own cultural identity. Writers may include Patrick 
Chamoiseau, Mariama Ba, Tahar Ben Jelloun, Assia Djebar, Soni Labou Tansi, 
Marie Ndiaye, Ousmane Sembene, Calixthe Beyala, Linda Le, and Rachid 
Boudjedra. 

Prerequisite: French 209 or permission of the instructor. 

351c. Senior Seminar for French Majors. 

The seminar offers students the opportunity to synthesize work done in 
courses at Bowdoin and abroad. The topic will change each year. 

This course is required for the major in French or Romance languages. 

French Cinema. Fall 1996. Mr. VanderWolk. 

Twentieth-century France seen through films by major French 
directors such as Renoir, Truffaut, Godard, Duras, and Malle. Close 
study of the adaptation of literary texts to the movie screen. 

401c-404c. Independent Study. The Department. 
ITALIAN 

101c. Elementary Italian I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Pellegrini. 

Three class hours per week, plus drill sessions and language laboratory 
assignments. Study of the basic forms, structures, and vocabulary. Emphasis is on 
listening comprehension and spoken Italian. 

102c. Elementary Italian II. Every spring. Spring 1997. Ms. PELLEGRINI. 

( 'oiitinuation ol Italian 101. Three class hours per week, plus drill sessions 
and language laboratory assignments. Study of the basic forms. Structures, and 
vocabulary. More attention is paid to reading and writing. 

Prerequisite: Kalian 10 1 or equivalent. 



Romance Languages 185 

203c. Intermediate Italian I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Pellegrini. 

Three class hours per week and one weekly conversation session with 
assistant. Aims to increase fluency in both spoken and written Italian. Grammar 
fundamentals are reviewed. Class conversation and written assignments are 
based on contemporary texts of literary and social interest. 

Prerequisite: Italian 102 or permission of the instructor. 

204c. Intermediate Italian II. Every spring. Spring 1997. Ms. Pellegrini. 

Three class hours per week and one weekly conversation session with 
assistant. Aims to increase fluency in both spoken and written Italian. Grammar 
fundamentals are reviewed. Class conversation and written assignments are 
based on contemporary texts of literary and social interest. 

Prerequisite: Italian 203 or permission of the instructor. 

SPANISH 

101c. Elementary Spanish I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Jaffe. 

Three class hours per week, plus drill sessions and laboratory assignments. An 
introduction to the grammar of Spanish, aiming at comprehension, reading, 
writing, and simple conversation. Emphasis is on grammar structure, with 
frequent oral drills. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 101 is open to first- and second-year students who have 
had less than two years of high school Spanish. Juniors and seniors who wish to 
take Spanish 101 must request the permission of the instructor in writing before 
the end of the registration period. 

102c. Elementary Spanish II. Every spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Turner. 

Continuation of Spanish 101. Three class hours per week, plus drill sessions 
and laboratory assignments. An introduction to the grammar of Spanish, aiming 
at comprehension, reading, writing, and simple conversation. More attention is 
paid to reading and writing. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 101 or equivalent. 

203c. Intermediate Spanish I. Every fall. Fall 1996. The Department. 

Three class hours per week and a conversation session with the teaching 
assistant. Grammar fundamentals are reviewed. Class conversation and written 
assignments are based on readings in modern literature. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 102 or placement. 

204c. Intermediate Spanish II. Every spring. Spring 1997. The Departmini. 

Three class hours per week and a conversation session with the teaching 
assistant. Grammar fundamentals are reviewed. Class conversation and written 
assignments are based on readings in modern literature. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 203 or placement. 



186 Courses of Instruction 

205c. Advanced Spoken and Written Spanish. Every fall. Mr. Turner. 

Intended to increase proficiency in the four skills. A variety of texts is assigned 
\\ ith the aim of improving speed and accuracy of reading, and they also serve as 
the basis for controlled discussion aimed at spoken fluency. Visual media are used 
to develop aural comprehension and as the basis for the study of culture. Frequent 
written assignments. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 204 or placement. 

207c. Hispanic American Cultures. Fall 1996. Mr. Yepes. 

A study of diverse cultural artifacts (literature, film, history, graffiti, and 
journalism) intended to explore the ethnic and cultural heterogeneity of Latin 
American societies from pre-Columbian times to the present, including the Latino 
presence in the United States. Conducted in Spanish. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 205 or permission of the instructor. 

208c. Spanish Culture. Spring 1997. The Department. 

Through the study of Spanish literature, film, history, and journalism, we 
examine different aspects of Spanish culture, such as myths and stereotypes about 
Spain and her people, similarities and differences between Spanish and American 
cultures, and the characterization of contemporary Spain. Emphasis on close 
analysis of primary materials. Conducted in Spanish. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 205 or permission of the instructor. Students who have 
taken a 300-level Spanish course may not take this course. 

209c. Introduction to the Study and Criticism of Hispanic Literature. 

Every spring. Ms. Jaffe. 

Intended to develop an appreciation of the major genres of literature in Spanish 
and to foster the ability to discuss them orally and in writing. Personal responses 
as well as the use of critical methods are encouraged in discussions. Conducted 
in Spanish. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 205 or permission of the instructor. 

311c. Medieval and Golden Age Spanish Literature. Every year. Spring 1 997. 
Mr. Turner 

Readings from the major writers of the Spanish Renaissance and the baroque 
period. Conducted in Spanish. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 209 or permission of the instructor. 

312c Modern Spanish Literature. Every year. Fall 1996. The Department. 

Readings from the major writers of Spanish literature from the eighteenth 
cental) to the modem period. Conducted in Spanish. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 209 or permission of the instructor. 
313c,d. Indigenous and Hispanic Literature of Colonial Latin America. 
Spring 1998. Ms. J ami. 

An introduction to the literature of the encounter between indigenous and 
Hispanic cultures in Latin America from the fifteenth through the eighteenth 
centuries. Emphasis on understanding the cultural and racial heterogeneity of 
Latin American society through its foundational lexis. Conducted in Spanish. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 209 or permission ^\ the instructor. 



Romance Languages 187 

[314c,d. Modern Hispanic American Literature.] 

320c-329c. Topics in Spanish and Hispanic American Literature I and II. 

Every year. 

Designed to provide students who have a basic knowledge of literature in 
Spanish the opportunity to study more closely an author, a genre, or a period. 
Spanish 320-329 may be repeated for credit with the contents changed. Con- 
ducted in Spanish. 

323c. Spanish American Short Story. Fall 1996. Mr. Yepes. 

Studies the short story as a literary genre and as a social instrument in post- 
colonial Spanish America. Emphasis on close reading to explore textual strategies 
as well as issues of gender, class, identity, and empowerment. Authors include 
Echeverria, Dario, Quiroga, Lugones, Bombal, Borges, Rulfo, Cortazar, Garcia 
Marquez, Ferre, and Latino writers in the United States. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 209 or permission of the instructor. 

326c. Translation. Spring 1997. Ms Jaffe. 

A practical introduction to translation as a communicative skill and literary art 
that measurably enhances linguistic and cultural understanding. Conducted in 
Spanish. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 209 or permission of the instructor. 

351c. Senior Seminar for Spanish Majors. 

The seminar offers students the opportunity to synthesize work done in 
courses at Bowdoin and abroad. The topic will change each year. 

This course is required for the major in Spanish or Romance languages. 
Hybrid Cultures: Mixture, Superimposition, Subordination? 
Spring 1997. Mr. Yepes. 

Contemporary Hispanic societies have been defined as "hybrid 
cultures," since diverse ethnic and social components intermingle in 
their aesthetic, religious, and socio-political practices. This amal- 
gam is studied in form, art, and literature from Spain and the 
Americas. What is the history of each specific interaction? How are 
the issues of difference and identity negotiated in each context? 
Oppositions such as "high" vs. traditional and native vs. foreign are 
examined throughout the seminar. 
401c^404c. Independent Study and Honors. The Department. 



188 Courses of Instruction 

Russian 

Professor Associate Professor reaching Fellow- 

Sane E. Knox-Voina. Chair Raymond H. Miller Leah G. Shulsky 

Requirements for the Major in Russian Language and Literature 

The Russian major consists of ten courses (eleven for honors). These include 
Russian 101, 102 and 203, 204: five courses in Russian above Russian 204; and 
one approved course in either Russian literature in translation or Slavic civiliza- 
tion, or an approved related course in government, history, or economics (e.g., 
Government 230 and 271; History 217 and 218). 

Study Abroad 

Students are encouraged to spend at least one semester in Russia. There are 
several approved summer and one-semester Russian language programs in 
Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kiev that are open to all students who have taken the 
equivalent of two or three years of Russian. Other programs should be discussed 
with the Russian Department. Students returning from study abroad will be 
expected to take two courses in the Department unless exceptions are granted by 
the Chair. 

Advanced Independent Study 

This is an option intended for students who wish to work on honors projects or 
who have taken advantage of the regular course offerings and will work more 
closely on a particular topic. Independent study is not an alternative to regular 
course work. Application should be made to a member of the department prior to 
the semester in which the project is to be undertaken and must involve a specific 
proposal in an area in which the student can already demonstrate basic knowl- 
edge. Two semesters of advanced independent studies are required for honors in 
Russian. 

Requirements for the Minor in Russian 

The minor consists of seven courses (including the first two years of Russian). 

Courses Taught in English Translation. 

The department teaches several courses in English that focus on Russian history, 

literature, and culture. These courses can be taken by non-majors and include a 

first-year seminar and a series of 200-level courses: Russian 20, 215, and 220- 

223. 

Courses in Russian for Majors and Minors 

101c. Elementary Russian I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

Emphasis on the acquisition of language skills through imitation and repeti- 
tion of basic language patterns; the development of facility in speaking and 
understanding simple Russian. Conversation hour with native speaker. 



Russian 189 

102c. Elementary Russian II. Every spring. Spring 1997. Mr. Miller. 

Continuation of Russian 101. Emphasis on the acquisition of language skills 
through imitation and repetition of basic language patterns; the development of 
facility in speaking and understanding simple Russian. Conversation hour with 
native speaker. 

Prerequisite: Russian 101 or permission of the instructor. 

203c. Intermediate Russian I. Every fall. Fall 1996. Mr. Miller. 

A continuation of Russian 101, 102. Emphasis on maintaining and improving 
the student's facility in speaking and understanding normal conversational 
Russian. Writing and reading skills are also stressed. Conversation hour with 
native speaker. 

Prerequisite: Russian 101, 102 or permission of the instructor. 

204c. Intermediate Russian II. Every spring. Spring 1997. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

A continuation of Russian 203. Emphasis on maintaining and improving the 
student's facility in speaking and understanding normal conversational Russian. 
Writing and reading skills are also stressed. Conversation hour with native 
speaker. 

Prerequisite: Russian 101, 102 or permission of the instructor. 

305c. Advanced Reading and Composition in Russian. Every fall. 

Ms. Knox-Voina. 

Intended to develop the ability to read Russian at a sophisticated level by 
combining selected language and literature readings, grammar review, and study 
of Russian word-formation. Discussion and reports in Russian. Conversation 
hour with native speaker. 

Prerequisite: Russian 203, 204 or equivalent. 

306c. Topics Course: Advanced Reading and Composition II. Every other 
spring. The Department. 

A transition between Russian 305 and the advanced survey courses in Russian 
literature (Russian 309 and Russian 310). Topics change depending upon the 
specialty of the instructor and demand by students. To serve students who enter 
the College with advanced standing in Russian, or Bowdoin students who have 
spent their junior year in Russia. To build reading, comprehension, and written 
skills. Alternates with Russian 310 (Modern Russian Literature) every other 
spring. Short compositions and oral reports on themes of the course. 

Prerequisite: Russian 305 or equivalent. 

Siberian and Non-Russian Literature of the Former Soviet 
Union. 

Spring 1998. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

Myths and short tales from small-numbered ethnic peoples of 
northern Siberia written down in Russian during the Soviet period. 
Short stories by writers V. Shukshin (Siberia), Chingiz Aitmatov 
(Kyrgystan), Fazil Iskander (Abkhazia), and Svetlana Vasilenko 
(Ukraine). Special emphasis on the Siberian spirit and character. 



190 Courses of Instruction 

Siberian cultures, traditions, and values, Shamanism, gender roles 
and environment, pollution by Soviet industry, national movements, 
Stalin's nationalities policy, changing social roles of women in 
Central Asia, and Sovietization of ethnic peoples. Films such as 
Dersu Uzola, Sibehada, Songs of Lenin, and Close to Eden supple- 
ment reading materials. 

309c. Nineteenth-Century Russian Literature. Every fall. Mr. Miller. 

A survey of Russian prose of the nineteenth century. Special attention paid to 
the development of Russian realism. Writers include Pushkin, Lermontov, 
Gogol. Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. 

Prerequisite: Russian 305 or equivalent study abroad. 

310c. Modern Russian Literature. Every other spring. Spring 1997. 
Ms. Knox-Voina. 

An examination of various works of modern Russian literature (Soviet and 
emigre), with emphasis on the development of the short story. The differences and 
similarities between prerevolutionary and contemporary Soviet literature are 
discussed. Authors include Blok, Mayakovsky, Zoschenko, Platonov, Bulgakov, 
Pasternak, Brodsky, Shukshin, Aksenov, and others. Short term papers. 

Prerequisite: Russian 305 or study abroad. 

315c. Translation of Russian Prose. Every other spring. Spring 1998. 
Mr. Miller. 

Focuses on the translation of Russian prose into English. Texts are selected 
from nineteenth- and twentieth-century memoirs, political tracts, scholarly texts, 
and at least one piece of belles lettres. Attention is given to development of 
Russian reading skills; different theories of translation and typical translation 
strategies; Russian grammatical structures and word groups that are especially 
difficult to render into English; and the cultural significance of assigned texts. 

Prerequisite: Russian 305 or equivalent. 

316c. Russian Poetry. Spring 1997. Mr. Miller. 

Examines various nineteenth- and twentieth-century Russian poets, including 
Pushkin. Lermontov, Blok, and Mayakovsky; selections from eighteenth-century 
poetry (Lomonosov and Derzhavin) are studied for comparison. Includes discus- 
sion of Russian poetics and the cultural-historical context of each poet's work. 
Reading and discussion are in Russian. 

Prerequisite: Russian 305 or equivalent. 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study. Tin l)i iakimi \i 

I pon demand, this course may be conducted as a small seminar for several 
students in areas not covered in the above courses (e.g., the Russian media). This 
course may be repeated for credit with the contents changed. 

Prerequisite: Russian 305 or equivalent. 

401c-404c Advanced Independent Study. The Dbpartmi nt. 

Individual research m Russian studies. Major sources should be read in 

Russian This course may be repeated lorcredit with the contents changed. A two- 
semester projed is necessary for honors in Russian. 

Prerequisite: Russian 309 or 310. 



IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION 

First- Year Seminar 

For a full description of the following first-year seminar, see page 1 16. 

20c. The Great Soviet Experiment through Film. Every other fall. Fall 1996. 
Ms. Knox-Voina. 

215c. Russia, the Slavs, and Europe. Every other spring. Spring 1997. 

Mr. Miller. 

An introduction to the cultural history of Russia and Eastern Europe, with 
special emphasis on the unique position Russia has occupied within European 
civilization. Specific topics include Russia's ethnic and linguistic background, 
early Russian culture, the development of Russian religious and political thought, 
and the problematic relationships that have existed between Russia, the other 
Slavic nations, and the West. No prior study of European civilization is assumed. 

220c. Nineteenth-Century Russian Literature. Every other fall. Fall 1997. 

Mr. Miller. 

Traces the development of Russian realism and the Russian novel. Specific 
topics include the pre-nineteenth-century literary background, the origins of 
realism as a movement, and the intellectual and political milieu of the time. 
Writers to be read include Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Goncharov, Dostoevsky, 
and Tolstoy. Russian majors are required to do some of the reading in Russian. 

221c. Russian Culture Through Visual Media: The Great Soviet Experi- 
ment. Every other spring. Spring 1998. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

Explores twentieth-century Russian culture through film, art, architecture, and 
literature. Examines the avant garde of the 1920s and the Bolsheviks' attempts to 
build a radical new society; the Stalin era and Socialist Realism; the "thaw"; and 
glasnost'. Topics include scientific Utopias; eternal revolution; individual free- 
dom, collectivism; conflict between the intelligentsia and the common man; the 
"new Soviet woman"; nationalism; and the demise of the Soviet Union. Works of 
Eisenstein, Vertov, Tarkovsky ; Kandinsky, Chagall, Petrov-Vodkin; Mayakovsky, 
Pasternak, Brodsky, Akhmatova, Solzhenitsyn, and Tolstaya. Weekly film 
viewings. Russian majors required to do some reading in Russian. 

222c. Topics Course: Women in Russian Society and Culture. Every other 
fall. Fall 1997. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

Examines the roles women have played in Russian literature and Russian 
society. Special attention is given to women revolutionaries and the "new status" 
of women guaranteed by the Revolution. Readings include short stories, novels, 
autobiographies, and nonfiction works. Authors include Pushkin, Tolstoy, 
Dostoevsky, Chekhov, Kollontai, Tsvetaeva, Akhmatova, Ginzburg, and others. 
Russian majors are required to do some of the reading in Russian. Films and ait 
about and by women to be shown. 



192 Courses of Instruction 

223c. Dostoevsky and the Novel. Spring 1997. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

Examines Dostoevsky* s use of the novel to portray the "fantastic" reality of the 
citj and its effects on the human psyche. Special attention is given to the author's 
quest for guiding principles of freedom and love in a world of violence and 
C) nicism. Emphasis on Dostoevsky' s anti-Western and antimaterialist bias in his 
portrayal of the struggle between extreme individualism and self-renunciation in 
a Utopian brotherhood. Russian majors are required to do some of the reading in 
Russian. 



Sociology and Anthropology 

Professors Joint Appointments with Africana Studies 

Susan E. Bell Assistant Professor Lelia De Andrade 

Craig A. McEwen** Adjunct Assistant Professor H.Roy Partridge, Jr. 

Daniel W. Rossides Joint Appointment with Women 's Studies 

Associate Professors Assistant Professor Carol E. Cohn 

Sara A. Dickey, Chair Visiting Assistant Professors 

Susan A. Kaplan Anne Henshaw 

Assistant Professors Kevin D. Henson 

Lydia Nakashima Degarrod Adjunct Assistant Professor 

Scott MacEachern Genevieve LeMoine 

Nancy E. Riley Joint Appointment with Asian Studies 
Instructor David T. Johnsont 

Requirements for the Major 

In consultation with an advisor, each student plans a major program that will 
nurture an understanding of society and the human condition, demonstrate how 
social knowledge is acquired through research, and enrich his or her general 
education. On the practical level, a major program prepares the student for 
graduate study in sociology or anthropology and contributes to preprofessional 
programs such as law and medicine. It also provides background preparation for 
careers in urban planning, public policy, the civil service, social work, business 
or personnel administration, social research, law enforcement and criminal 
justice, the health professions, journalism, secondary school teaching, and 
programs in developing countries. 

A student may choose either of two major programs or two minor programs: 
The major in sociology consists often courses, including Sociology 101,201, 
209 or 21 1, and 310. A minimum of eight courses in sociology may be supple- 
mented by two advanced courses from anthropology or. as approved by the 
department chair. h\ two advanced courses from related fields to meet the 
student's special needs. Sociology 201 should be taken in the sophomore year. 

Themajor in anthropology consists of eight courses, including Anthropology 
101, 102, 201 , and 301 , and one course with an areal focus ( numbered in the I 30s, 



Sociology and Anthropology 1 93 

230s, and 240s). Students are urged to complete Anthropology 101, 102, and 201 

as early as possible. One or two of the eight courses may be taken from the 
advanced offerings in sociology and, with departmental approval, on study-away 
programs. In all cases, however, at least six of the courses counted toward the 
major must be Bowdoin anthropology courses. 
Requirements for the Minor 

The minor in sociology consists of five sociology courses, including Sociology 
201, 209 or 211, and 310. 

The minor in anthropology consists of five anthropology courses, including 
Anthropology 101 and 301, either 102 or 201, and an area study course (130s, 
230s, and 240s). 

For the anthropology major or minor program, one semester of independent study 
may be counted. For the sociology major program, two semesters of independent 
study may be counted, while for the minor program one semester may be counted. 

Departmental Honors 

Students distinguishing themselves in either major program may apply for 
departmental honors. Awarding of the degree with honors will ordinarily be based 
on grades attained in major courses and a written project (emanating from 
independent study), and will recognize the ability to work creatively and indepen- 
dently and to synthesize diverse theoretical, methodological, and substantive 
materials. 

SOCIOLOGY 

First- Year Seminars 

For a full description of the following first-year seminars, see pages 1 16-1 17. 
10b,d. Racism. Spring 1997. Mr. Partridge. 
(Same as Africana Studies 10.) 

lib. The Sociology of Everyday Life. Fall 1996. Mr. Henson. 

12b. Constructing Social Problems. Spring 1998. Ms. De Andrade. 

15b. Juggling Gender. Fall 1996. Ms. Cohn. 
(Same as Women's Studies 15.) 

16b. Sociology of Gender and the Military. Fall 1997. Ms. Cohn. 
(Same as Women's Studies 16.) 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

100b,d. Introduction to Africana Studies. Spring 1997. Ms. De Andrade. 

An introduction to the study of African peoples and societies. Provides a brief 
historical grounding in the structures of societies and cultures in Africa. Focuses 
on the relationships of Africans and peoples of African descent with other 
societies and cultures. Considers in particular the images of Africa and Africans 
constructed as a product of these socio-historic relations. Examines the experi- 
ences of African immigrant groups and peoples of African descent in the United 
States, South America, and the Caribbean. (Same as Africana Studies 101.) 



194 Courses of Instruction 

101b. Introduction to Sociology. Every semester. The Department. 

The major perspectives of sociology. Application of the scientific method to 
sociological theory and to current social issues. Theories ranging from social 
determinism to free will are considered, including the work of Marx, Weber, 
Durkheim. Merton, and others. Attention is given to such concepts as role, status, 
society, culture, institution, personality, social organization, the dynamics of 
change, the social roots of behavior and attitudes, social control, deviance, 
socialization, and the dialectical relationship between individual and society. 

201b. Introduction to Social Research. Every spring. Ms. Riley. 

Provides firsthand experience with the specific procedures through which 
social science knowledge is developed. Emphasizes the interaction between 
theory and research, and examines the ethics of social research and the uses and 
abuses of research in policy making. Reading and methodological analysis of a 
variety of case studies from the sociological literature. Field and laboratory 
exercises that include observation, interviewing, use of available data (e.g., 
historical documents, statistical archives, computerized data banks, cultural 
artifacts), sampling, coding, use of computer, elementary data analysis and 
interpretation. Lectures, laboratory sessions, and small-group conferences. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

204b. Families: A Comparative Perspective. Spring 1997. Ms. Riley. 

Examines families in different societies. Issues addressed include definition 
and concept of the "family"; different types of family systems; the interaction of 
family change and other social, economic, and political change; the relationships 
between families and other social institutions; the role of gender and age in family 
relationships; and sources and outcomes of stability, conflict, and dissolution 
within families. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101. 

208b,d. Race and Ethnicity. Fall 1996. Ms. De Andrade. 

The social and cultural meaning of race and ethnicity, with emphasis on the 
politics of events and processes in contemporary America. Analysis of the causes 
and consequences of prejudice and discrimination. Examination of the relation- 
ships between race and class. Comparisons among racial and ethnic minorities in 
the United States and between their situations and those of minorities in other 
selected societies. (Same as At'ricana Studies 208.) 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

209b. Social Theory, livery fall. Mk. Rossides. 

A critical examination of some representative theories of the nature of human 

behavior and society. Social theory is related to developments in philosophy and 
natural science, and symbolic developments as a whole are related to social 

developments. The thought of some major figures in the ancient world (especially 

PlatO, Aristotle, and the Stoics) and the medieval world (especially Si. Thomas 
and Marsiliool Padua) is analyzed, bill the main locus is on the figures who have 



Sociology and Anthropology 195 

struggled to explain the nature of modern society: Hobbes, Locke, the philosoph.es, 
Comte, Marx, Spencer, Durkheim, and Weber, with special attention to contem- 
porary liberal, socialist, world-system, feminist, and environmental theorists. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

210b. Men, Women, and Work. Spring 1997. Mr. Henson. 

Explores the organization, experience, and meaning of work in modern 
industrial societies, especially the United States. Examines the impact of techno- 
logical innovations, deindustrialization, the growth of service industries, and 
changing employer/employee contracts on the experience of work. The experi- 
ences of work in different occupations and professions are examined through 
classic and contemporary ethnographies of work. Special emphasis on the 
relationship between gender and work. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

211b. Classics of Sociological Theory. Fall 1996. Ms. De Andrade. 

An analysis of selected works by the founders of modern sociology. Particular 
emphasis is given to understanding differing approaches to sociological analysis 
through detailed textual interpretation. Works by Marx, Weber, Durkheim, and 
selected others are read. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

213b. Social Stratification. Spring 1997. Mr. Rossides. 

A critical examination of representative theories of inequality. Opens with a 
review of the basic questions and concepts in social stratification, and then 
develops case studies of the various types of social inequality: for example, El 
Salvador, Korea, and the USSR. The heart of the course is an extended analysis 
of the American class system to determine sources of stability and conflict, and 
to identify legitimate and illegitimate forms of inequality. Considerable attention 
is given to theories of imperialism and to determining the United States' role in 
the international system of stratification. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

214b. Science, Technology, and Society. Spring 1997. Ms. Bell. 

A consideration of the organization of science and its place in modern society. 
First, identifies the social structure and dynamics of science as an institution and 
examines the relationship between the institution of science and the content of 
scientific knowledge. Explores the role of science and scientific knowledge in 
technological innovation. Next, examines the progress and problems associated 
with scientific and technological changes such as nuclear power and the produc- 
tion and distribution of pesticides and other chemicals. Considers the social and 
intellectual origins of these technological innovations and their impact on society 
from different theoretical perspectives. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 



196 Courses of Instruction 

215b. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Fall 1996. Mr. McEwen. 

Focuses on crime and corrections in the United States, with some cross- 
national comparisons. Examines the problematic character of the definition of 
'crime." Explores empirical research on the character, distribution, and correlates 
of criminal behavior and interprets this research in the light of social structural, 
cultural, and social psychological theories of crime causation. Discusses the 
implications of the nature and causes of crime for law enforcement and the 
administration of justice. Surveys the varied ways in which prisons and correc- 
tional programs are organized and assesses research about their effectiveness. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

218b. Sociology of Law. Every fall. Mr. McEwen. 

An analysis of the development and function of law and legal systems in 
industrial societies. Examines the relationships between law and social change, 
law and social inequality, and law and social control. Special attention is paid to 
social influences on the operation of legal systems and the resultant gaps between 
legal ideals and the "law in action." 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

219b. Sociology of Gender. Fall 1996. Mr. Henson. 

Focuses on gender as an organizing principle of societies, and examines how 
gender is involved in and related to differences and inequalities in social roles, 
gender identity, sexual orientation, and social constructions of knowledge. 
Explores the role of gender in institutional structures including the economy and 
the family. Particular attention is paid to the sexual differentiation of language, 
sex inequality and sex segregation in the workplace, the global feminization of 
poverty, and compulsory heterosexuality and the experiences of lesbians and gay 
men. 

Note: This course is offered as part of the curriculum in gay and lesbian studies. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101. or permission of the 
instructor. 

222b. Introduction to Human Population. Spring 1998. Ms. Riley. 

An introduction to the major issues in the study of population. Focuses on the 
social aspects of the demographic processes of fertility, mortality, and migration. 
Also examines population change in Western Europe historically, recent demo- 
graphic changes in Third World countries, population policy, and the social and 
environmental causes and implications of changes in births, deaths, or migration. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101. 



Sociology and Anthropology 1 97 

[235b. Comparative Societies.] 

236b. Sociology of Communication. Spring 1997. Mr. Rossides. 

An analysis of the role of communication in human evolution and history, with 
special emphasis on communication in contemporary society. Topics include 
language, writing, printing, and other communication devices, particularly com- 
puter-driven integrated and interactive media. Issues include questions such as 
the impact of communication technology on society and vice versa, the role it 
plays in the professions, economy, and politics, and the impact of Western 
communication networks and products on other societies. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

240b. Social Structures and Reproduction of Knowledge. Spring 1997. 
Ms. DeAndrade. 

Sociological analysis of the institution of education and the evaluation of 
knowledge and learning in American society. Begins with discussion of theoreti- 
cal approaches to production of knowledge, with readings from theorists such as 
Durkheim, Mannheim, and Foucault. Analysis of a variety of topics related to 
education, including multiculturalism, social stratification, learning disabilities, 
and alternative organizational forms. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

250b. Collective Behavior. Fall 1997. Mr. McEwen. 

Description, analysis, and explanation of the nature of recurrent but relatively 
ephemeral social phenomena such as rumors, crowds, riots, audiences, panics, 
disasters, publics, fads, revolutions, and reform movements. Analysis of the 
responses of social control agencies to instances of collective behavior and of the 
role of collective behavior in social change. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

251b. Sociology of Health and Illness. Fall 1997. Ms. Bell. 

Examines the social contexts of physical and mental health, illness, and 
medical care. Deals with such topics as the social, environmental, and occupa- 
tional factors in health and illness; the structure and processes of health care 
organizations; the development of health professions and the health work force; 
doctor-patient relationships; ethical issues in medical research; and health care 
and social change. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

252b. Sociology of Chronic Illness and Disability. Fall 1996. Ms. Bell. 

Focuses on the subjective experience of illness, especially chronic illness and 
disability. What strategies do people use in their daily lives to manage and direct 



198 Courses of Instruction 

the course of their illness? In what respects do these experiences vary according 
to such factors as gender, race, ethnicity, and social class? Issues to be addressed 
include uncertainty: illness career; stigma; identity; relationships with family, 
community, and caregivers; work; self-help and the independent living move- 
ment; feminism and disability rights. 

Note: This course is offered as part of the curriculum in gay and lesbian studies. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

253b. Constructions of the Body. Spring 1998. Ms. Bell. 

Explores the body as reflection and construction of language, a source of 
metaphor, and a political and social "space." Considers historical and cross- 
cultural studies about men's and women's bodies, sexuality, gender, and power. 
Throughout the course, we draw from and compare theories of the body in 
sociology, women's studies, and gay and lesbian studies. 

Note: This course is offered as part of the curriculum in gay and lesbian studies. 

Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or Anthropology 101, or permission of the 
instructor. 

[260b. Gender and the Military.] 

310b. Advanced Seminar: Current Controversies in Sociology. Spring 1997. 
Ms. Bell. 

Draws together different theoretical and substantive issues in sociology in the 
United States, primarily since 1950. Discusses current controversies in the 
discipline, e.g., quantitative versus qualitative methodologies, micro versus 
macro perspectives, and pure versus applied work. 

Prerequisites: Junior standing and Sociology 209 or 21 1, or permission of the 
instructor. 

291b-294b. Intermediate Independent Study in Sociology. Ms. Bell, Ms. 
Cohn, Ms. De Andrade, Mr. Henson, Mr. McEwen (fall), Ms. Riley (spring), and 
Mr. Rosmdhs. 

401b-404b. Advanced Independent Study and Honors in Sociology. Ms. 

Bell, Ms. Cohn, Ms. De Andrade, Mr. Henson, Mr. McEwen (fall), Ms. Riley 
(spring), and Mr. Rossides. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

101 h,d. Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. Every spring. Ms. Dlgarrod. 
An introduction to the concepts, methods, theories, findings, and applications 

n\ cultural anthropology. Study of the differences and similarities among the 

cultures of the world and attempts by anthropologists to explain them. Among the 

topies to be covered are anthropological field work, the nature of culture, the 
relation of language to culture, the relation of the em ironmenl to culture, family 
and kinship, political and economic systems, religion, sex. gender, and ethnocide. 



Sociology and Anthropology 1 99 

102b,d. Introduction to World Prehistory. Fall 1996. Mr. MacEachern, 
Ms. LeMoine. 

An introduction to the disciplines of anthropology and archaeology and the 
studies of human biological and cultural evolution. Among the subjects covered 
are conflicting theories of human biological evolution, the debates over the 
genetic and cultural bases of human behavior, the expansion of human popula- 
tions into various ecosystems throughout the world, the domestication of plants 
and animals, the shift from nomadic to settled village life, and the rise of complex 
societies, the state, and civilization. 

201b. Anthropological Research. Every fall. Ms. Degarrod. 

Anthropological research methods and perspectives are examined through 
classic and recent ethnography, statistics and computer literacy, and the student' s 
own field work experience. Topics covered are ethics, analytical and method- 
ological techniques, the interpretation of data, and the use and misuse of 
anthropology. 

Prerequisite: Anthropology 101 and sophomore standing or higher. 

202b. Essentials of Archaeology. Spring 1997. Mr. MacEachern. 

Introduces students to the methods and concepts that archaeologists use to 
explore the human past. Shows how concepts from natural science, history, and 
anthropology help archaeologists investigate past societies, reveal the form and 
function of ancient cultural remains, and draw inferences about the nature and 
causes of change in human societies over time. 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology, or Archaeology 101 or 102, or 
permission of the instructor. 

204b. Anthropology of Dreams. Spring 1997. Ms. Degarrod. 

Explores the theoretical bases for the study of non-Western dreams in 
anthropology, and the biases that anthropology as a Western discipline has 
maintained in the study of dreams. The study of dreams is covered from the early 
days of searching for a universal unconscious to the most recent study of dream 
narration. In addition, drawing from different ethnographic studies of Native 
American, African, Asian, and Oceanian societies, dreams and dreaming are 
discussed in relationship to art, religion, politics, healing, and myth. 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology and sophomore standing. 

205b. From Stone to Iron: Analysis of Artifacts and Culture. Spring 1997. 
The Department. 

An overview of the way anthropologists use material culture to understand 
societies. Topics include distinguishing culturally and naturally modified mate- 
rials; the manufacture and use of stone tools; development of ceramic technology; 
bone technology; and early metal working. Examines how anthropologists 
discern cultural information from material culture through discussion of current 
literature, films, demonstrations, and analysis of modern and archaeological 
materials. 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology and sophomore 
standing. 



200 Courses of Instruction 

[207b. Anthropology of Religion.] 

220b,d. Hunters and Gatherers. Spring 1998. Ms. Kaplan. 

Traces the origins and challenges the stereotype of hunter-gatherers as small 
groups of people who are constantly on the move and exhibit the simplest levels 
of social, political, and economic organization. Topics include hunter-gatherer 
adaptations to the world's changing environment; strategies of resource procure- 
ment; settlement patterns; technological complexity; levels of social, economic, 
and political integration; and religious life. Compares such groups as the Austra- 
lian Aborigines. Bushmen, Native Americans, and New Guinea Highlanders. 

Prerequisites: At least one previous course in anthropology or sociology, and 
sophomore standing. 

221b. The Rise of the State. Fall 1997. Mr. MacEachern. 

Scholars have proposed conflicting theories to explain the evolution of state 
societies and civilizations in the Old and New Worlds. This course reviews the 
major debates and examines the mechanisms and patterns of state formation, 
using archaeological and ethnographic examples from Africa, the Americas, and 
the Middle East. 

Prerequisite: At least one previous course in anthropology or sociology. 

222b. Culture Through Performance. Fall 1996. Ms. Dickey. 

"Cultural performance" covers not only drama, dance, and music, but also 
such cultural media as ritual, literature, celebration, and spectacle. The anthropo- 
logical study of these media examines their performers, producers, and audiences 
in addition to their form and content. Questions fundamental to this study are: 
What does cultural performance uniquely reveal about a culture to both natives 
and outsiders'? and What social, psychological, and political effects can it have on 
participants and their societies? 

Note: This course is offered as part of the curriculum in gay and lesbian studies. 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology, or permission of 
instructor. 

225b. Class Systems and Cultures. Fall 1997. Ms. Dickey. 

Examines theories of class and hierarchy, ranging from Marx and Weber to 
Foucault, and ethnographies of class cultures. Investigates the mutual impact of 
class and culture, the places of socioeconomic classes in wider systems of 
stratification, and the interaction of class and other forms of hegemony. 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology. 

226b. Kthnoarchaeology: Visiting the Present to Understand the Past. 
I all 1996. Mr. MacEaCHERN. 

Examines the ways in which information collected from ethnographic and 

historical sources, and from present-day observations, can be used to generate 
theories about the functioning of past societies, First examines how 

ethnoarchaeologist8 use studies of present-day material culture to inform and 



Sociology and Anth ropology 20 1 

enrich archaeological reconstructions. Next examines the ways in which oral and 
written histories can be used to develop theories of how and why cultures change. 
Also discusses the relationship between historical and anthropological accounts. 
Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology. 

231b,d. Native Peoples and Cultures of Arctic America. Fall 1996. 

The Department. 

For thousands of years, Eskimos (Inuit), Indian, and Aleut peoples lived in the 
Arctic regions of North America as hunters, gatherers, and fishermen. Their 
clothing, shelter, food, and implements were derived from resources recovered 
from the sea, rivers, and the land. The characteristics of Arctic ecosystems are 
examined. The social, economic, political, and religious lives of various Arctic- 
dwelling peoples are explored in an effort to understand how people have adapted 
to harsh northern environments. 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology. 

233b,d. Peoples and Cultures of Africa. Spring 1998. Mr. MacEachern. 

An introduction to the traditional patterns of livelihood and social institutions 
of African peoples. Following a brief overview of African geography, habitat, and 
culture history, lectures and readings cover a representative range of types of 
economy, polity, and social organization, from the smallest hunting and gathering 
societies to the most complex states and empires. The emphasis is upon under- 
standing the nature of traditional social forms; changes in African societies in the 
colonial and post-colonial periods are examined but are not the principal focus of 
the course. (Same as Africana Studies 233.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology. 

234b,d. Women, Power and Identity in India. Spring 1997. Ms. Dickey. 

Focuses on India to address contemporary debates in anthropology and 
women's studies, and questions the representation of Third World women as an 
oppressed group. Topics include religion, family, communalism, class, and 
activism in relation to women' s identities; sources and images of women' s power; 
and questions of representation. (Same as Asian Studies 234.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology, sociology, or Asian studies. 

235b,d. South Asian Cultures and Societies. Fall 1996. Ms. Dickey. 

An introduction to the cultures and societies of South Asia, including India, 
Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Issues of religion, family and 
gender, caste, and class are examined through ethnographies, novels, and films, 
and through in-class simulations of marriage arrangements, and caste ranking. 
(Same as Asian Studies 235.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology, sociology, or Asian studies. 

236b,d. Political Identity and Leadership in South Asia. Spring 1998. 

Ms. Dickey. 

In South Asia, political identity is often based on "primordial" ties such as 
caste, religion, ethnicity, language, and region. Political leadership involves 
various strategies for addressing and transcending these communal interests. This 



202 Courses of Instruction 

course examines the development of different political identities and the impor- 
tance of issues such as personality politics and patronage in electoral leadership 
in several South Asian countries. (Same as Asian Studies 236.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology, sociology, or Asian studies. 

237b,d. Anthropological Issues in Latin America. Fall 1997. Ms. Degarrod. 

Examines anthropological research on Latin America. Topics covered are 
urbanization, popular culture, national and ethnic identities, gender, religion, 
violence, and the relationship between indigenous peoples and nation-states. 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology, sociology, or Latin American 
studies. 

238b,d. Native Peoples of South America. Fall 1996. Ms. Degarrod. 

Examines the social, economic, political, and religious aspects of cultures 
representative of three distinct geographical regions of South America — the 
Amazon area, the Andes, and the Southern Cone. Presents an overview of 
different migration theories of the peopling of the Americas and their geographi- 
cal distribution. The different linguistic, geographical, and cultural classifica- 
tions of the native peoples of South America are discussed in a historical context. 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology, or permission of 
the instructor. 

239b,d- Indigenous Peoples of North America. Spring 1997. The Department. 

An overview and analysis of native North American societies from pre- 
Columbian times to the present. Topics include the political, economic, family, 
and religious organization of Native American societies; the impact of European 
expansion; and the current situation — both on and off reservation — of Native 
Americans. 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology, or permission of 
the instructor. 

242b,d. "Centers" and "Peripheries": States in West and Central Africa. 

Spring 1997. Mr. MacEachern. 

Examines the processes through which states and empires developed in West 
and Central Africa, using data from archaeological, historical, and ethnographic 
research. Particular attention given to the role of trans-Saharan cultural contacts 
in state formation; economic and cultural contacts across environmental bound- 
aries; roles that different slave trades have played in state formation; relationships 
between state and non-state societies; and varying roles of Islam and traditional 
religions in state formation. (Same as Africana Studies 242.) 

Prerequisite: Previous course in anthropology or sociology, or permission of 
the instructor. 



Theater and Dance 203 

301b. Anthropological Theory. Every spring. Ms. Dickey. 

An examination of the development of various theoretical approaches to the 
study of culture and society. Anthropology in the United States, Britain, and 
France is covered from the nineteenth century to the present. Contemporary 
controversies in anthropological theory are discussed. Among those considered 
are Morgan, Tylor, Durkheim, Boas, Malinowski, Mead, Geertz, and Levi- 
Strauss. 

Prerequisites: Anthropology 101, 102, and 201 and junior standing, or 
permission of the instructor. 

291b-294b. Intermediate Independent Study in Anthropology. Ms. Degarrod, 
Ms. Dickey, Ms. LeMoine, and Mr. MacEachern. 

401b-404b. Advanced Independent Study and Honors in Anthropology. Ms. 

Degarrod, Ms. Dickey, Ms. LeMoine, and Mr. MacEachern. 



Theater and Dance 

Associate Professor Lecturers Adjunct Lecturers 

June A. Vail, Chair Simone Federman Gretchen Berg 

Assistant Professor Gwyneth Jones Elizabeth Townsend 

Daniel E. Kramer Paul Sarvis 

Joint Appointment with English 

Visiting Assistant Professor Elizabeth Wong 

Students may minor in dance or theater. Although no major is offered in the 
Department of Theater and Dance, students with special interest may, with faculty 
advice, self-design a major. 

DANCE 

The Dance curriculum provides a coherent course of study in dance history, 
theory, and criticism; choreography; and performance studies, including dance 
technique and repertory. The department's humanistic orientation emphasizes 
dance's relation to theater and the fine arts, as well as its fundamental connection 
to the broad liberal arts curriculum. The program's goal is dance literacy and the 
development of skills important to original work in all fields: keen perception, 
imaginative problem solving, discipline, and respect for craft. 

Requirements for the Minor in Dance 

The minor consists of five course credits: Dance 101, 120, and 130, and four 
semesters of dance technique and/or repertory from the following: Dance 111, 
112, 211, 212, 311, and 312. With approval, an independent study. Dance 291 or 
401, may be substituted for a required course. 



204 Courses of Instruction 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

101c. Making Dances: Improvisation and Composition. Every year. 

Fall 1996. Ms. V \n . 

Explores ways of choreographing dances and multimedia performance works 
for all students, regardless of previous experience, with emphasis on improvisa- 
tion and structuring time, space, and dynamics. Examines various choreographic 
methods that correspond to compositional practices in writing, drawing, compos- 
ing, and other art forms, revealing broader applications of creative process. In 
addition to making three individual or group pieces and a final project, student 
choreographers work with visiting professionals and attend live performances. 
Includes reading, writing, discussion, and videos. Enrollment limited to 15 
students. 

120c. Introduction to Dance: Topics in Dance History. Every other year. 
Five American Originals. Spring 1998. Ms. Vail. 

Focuses on five acclaimed and controversial twentieth century 
choreographers. Students analyze their widely differing aesthetic 
goals, political stances, and popular and critical reception. Also 
explores the artists' signature styles, combining movement with 
reading, viewing, writing, and discussion. Students will devise a 
project including research and performance components on an 
innovative American choreographer of their choice. Choreogra- 
phers from past courses have included — among others — Isadora 
Duncan, Doris Humphrey, Fred Astaire, Merce Cunningham, and 
Bill T. Jones. 

130c. Cultural Choreographies: Dance and Society. Every other year. 
Spring 1997. Ms. Vail. 

Dancing is a fundamental human activity, a mode of communication, and a 
basic force in social life. This course is primarily concerned with dance and 
movement as aesthetic and cultural phenomena. We explore how dance and 
movement, in our own and other societies, reveal information about cultural 
norms and values, including gender roles, religious beliefs, personal identity, ami 
conceptions of the body; and how anthropological methods can illuminate one's 
own experience of the body, movement, and dance. 

Examines dance and movement forms from different cultures and epochs (for 
example, the hula, the jitterbug, classical Indian dance. Balkan kolos, postmodern 
dance) through readings, video assignments, workshops, and live performances. 
291c-294c Intermediate Independent Study in Dance. Ms. Van . 
401c-404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors in Dance. Ms. Vail. 



Theater and Dance 205 

Performance Studies in Dance 

The foundation for performance studies classes in dance technique and repertory 
is modern dance, a term designating a wide spectrum of styles. The program 
focuses principally on an inventive, unrestricted approach to movement. This 
offers an appropriate format for exploring the general nature of dance and the 
creative potential of undergraduates. Courses in ballet and jazz technique are also 
offered when possible. 

Performance studies courses (111, 211, 311; and 112, 212, 312) earn one-half 
credit each semester. Each course may be repeated a maximum of four times for 
credit. Students may enroll in a technique course (111, 211, 311) and a repertory 
course (112, 212, 312) in the same semester for one full academic course credit. 
Attendance at all classes is required. Grading is Credit/Fail. 

Instructors for 1996-97: Gwyneth Jones and Paul Sarvis. 

111c. Introductory Dance Technique. Every semester. The Department. 

Classes in modern dance and ballet technique include basic exercises to 
develop dance skills such as balance and musicality ; more challenging movement 
combinations and longer dance sequences build on these exercises. In the process 
of focusing on the craft of dancing, students are also encouraged to develop their 
own style. During the semester, a historical overview of twentieth-century 
American dance on video is presented. Attendance at all classes is required. One- 
half credit. 

112c. Introductory Repertory and Performance. Every semester. The 
Department. 

Repertory students are required to take Dance 111 concurrently, unless 
exempted by the instructor. 

Repertory classes provide the chance to learn faculty-choreographed works or 
reconstructions of important historical dances. Class meetings are conducted as 
rehearsals for performances at the end of the semester: the December Studio Show 
and the annual Spring Performance in Pickard Theater, and Museum Pieces at the 
Walker Art Building in May. Additional rehearsals are scheduled before perfor- 
mances. Attendance at all classes and rehearsals is required. Enrollment limited 
to 12 students. One-half credit. 

211c. Intermediate Dance Technique. Every semester. The Department. 
A continuation of the processes introduced in Dance 111. One-half credit. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

212c. Intermediate Repertory and Performance. Every semester. The 
Department. 

Intermediate repertory students are required to take Dance 21 1 concurrently, 
unless exempted by the instructor. A continuation of the principles and require- 
ment introduced in Dance 112. Enrollment is limited to 12 students. One-half 
credit. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 



206 Courses of Instruction 

311c. Intermediate/Advanced Dance Technique. Spring 1997. The 
Department. 

A continuation of the processes introduced in Dance 211. One-half credit. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

312c. Intermediate/Advanced Repertory and Performance. Spring 1997. The 
Department. 

Intermediate/advanced repertory students are required to take Dance 311 
concurrently, unless exempted by the instructor. A continuation of the principles 
and requirement introduced in Dance 212. Enrollment is limited to 12 students. 
One-half credit. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

THEATER 

The Theater curriculum emphasizes the creation and presentation of theatrical 
performance, studied through theory, cultural and historical perspective, and 
most centrally, through experiential study of different areas of theater practice and 
direct participation in creative endeavor. Within the Department of Theater and 
Dance, theater courses encourage the study of theater' s relation to dance and other 
arts, as well as its fundamental connection to the broad liberal arts curriculum. The 
program's goals include theater literacy, specific training in theater and related 
forms, an appreciation of the act of live performance, and a first-hand understand- 
ing of theater as a rigorous means of exploring the relationship between the 
individual and the community. 

Requirements for the Minor in Theater 

The minor consists of five courses: Theater 101 or 102; 120; 130 or 270 or 360; 

an additional course in Theater; and an additional course in Theater or Dance. At 
least one of the Theater courses must be above the 100 level. Students minoring 
in theater are also expected to do run-of-show work on at least one departmental 
theater production. 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

101c. Making Theater. Spring 1998. Mr. Kramer. 

An introduction to the activity of Western theater. The course begins with 
consideration of theater as an art form. Students examine and question selected 
theories of performance, learn to analyze the visual elements of theater, and 
explore the process ol transforming written text into performance. 

102c,d. Theater and Cultures. Spring 1997. Mr. Kramer. 

A study of the relationship between theater and society. This course is 
Organized around the theater practices of different times and places and the 
Cultural significance of those practices. The course gives significant attention to 

both Western and non Eurocentric theater. Students explore questions regarding 

who participates in theater and in what settings, with special attention to issues of 
gendei and social position. Plays studied are chosen as points of entry into the 

theatei oi different cultures and periods. 



Theater and Dance 207 

120c. Acting I. Every semester. Fall 1996. Mr. Kramer. Spring 1997. 
Ms. Federman. 

An introductory course in acting. Students will learn to analyze dramatic texts 
from an actor's point of view, to identify and play objectives and actions in a 
scene, and to construct a journey through a play. Students will also explore the 
physical expression of dramatic event. The course offers a means for actors to 
create real interaction, to do instead of pretending to do, and at the same time to 
give primacy to the experience of the audience. Enrollment limited to 1 6 students. 

130c. Introduction to Design for the Performing Arts. Fall 1996. Ms. Townsend. 
An introductory course in the fundamental issues and materials of design. 
Students study how to analyze a script, dance, or other performance piece from 
a designer' s point of view, and how to develop visual metaphor to create the world 
of the performance. Students may also approach sound as an aspect of design. 
Students explore how to communicate their ideas to collaborators and how to 
employ materials in realizing their designs. Enrollment limited to 20 students. 

140c. Performance Art. Spring 1997. Ms. Berg. 

Performance art is live art performed by artists. It includes, but is not limited 
by, elements of both theater and dance. Students study the history and theory of 
performance art through readings and the creation of original work. Students 
consider the social context of different movements in performance art, and the 
creation of performance art in contemporary culture. The class creates and 
performs pieces in both traditional and "found" spaces. Enrollment limited to 20 
students. 

220c. Acting II. Fall 1996. Ms. Federman. 

An intermediate course extending the work of Acting I. The course focuses on 
the actor's use of both verbal and physical means to create theatrical life. Special 
attention is given to ways the actor's body can be used as a vehicle for the 
exploration of text and of dramatic event. Through exercises and work on scenes 
and plays, students will seek means by which the physical and the verbal can be 
linked. Enrollment limited to 16 students. 

Prerequisite: Theater 120. 

- 250c. Classical Theater in Performance. Spring 1998. Mr. Kramer. 

An acting course with emphasis on the theatrical use of verse and heightened 
language, the understanding of the cultures from which classical texts spring, and 
the creation of contemporary theatrical production from those texts. The course 
manifests in a workshop production of a classical play. Plays may be chosen from 
classical Greek, Elizabethan, French neo-classical, Spanish golden age, Restora- 
tion, or other classical theater traditions. Students must submit a final portfolio 
including dramaturgical research and a rehearsal journal. Enrollment limited to 
16 students. 

Prerequisite: Theater 120. 



208 Courses of Instruction 

270c. Directing. Spring 1997. Mr. Kramer. 

This course investigates, from the director's point of view, the creation of 
theater from dramatic texts. Issues studied include conceiving a production, script 
analysis, staging, and casting and rehearsing with actors. Some attention is also 
paid to collaboration with designers and directing original work. Students direct 
scenes, research directing history projects, and study directing theories and 
techniques. Students complete the course by conceiving, casting, rehearsing, and 
presenting short plays of their choosing. Enrollment limited to 12 students. 

Prerequisite: A 1 00-level course in Theater or Dance 130, or permission of the 
instructor. 

360c. Play writing. Fall 1996. Ms. Wong. 

A workshop in writing for the stage. The course includes exercises in 
monologue, dialogue, and the scene unit, then moves to the writing and revising 
of a short play. Students study selected plays by writers past and present, 
considering how playwrights use speech, silence, and gesture; how they structure 
plays; and how they approach character and plot. The course also considers the 
various means by which new plays are developed. This course can be considered 
as a creative writing course for the English major. Enrollment limited to 16 
students. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

291c-294c. Intermediate Independent Study in Theater. The Department. 

401c-404c. Advanced Independent Study and Honors in Theater. The 

Department. 



Women's Studies 

Administered by the Women's Studies Program Committee; 

Jane E. Knox-Voina, Program Director 

(See committee list, page 277.) 



Joint Appointment with Sociology Lecturer 

Assistant Professor Carol E. Cohn Lisa (i. Collins 

Women's studies is an interdisciplinary program that incorporates into the 
curriculum recent research on women and gender. Courses in women's studies 
investigate the experiences of women in light of the social construction of gender 
and its meaning, or symbolic embeddedness, in human cultures, along \\ iili iis 
institutionalized function ;is a division of inequality and dominance. In this way, 
women's studies explores the realities and meanings of women's lives in many 

cultures and historical periods. 



Women 's Studies 209 

Requirements for the Major in Women's Studies 

The major consists often courses, including three required core courses and seven 
cross-listed women's studies courses, four of which must constitute a focused 
methodological and thematic concentration. 

The core courses, which are designed to illuminate the diverse realities of 
women's experience while making available some of the main currents of 
feminist thought, are Women's Studies 101, 201, and 300, the upper-level 
capstone course. 

A student who declares a women's studies major also will design, in consul- 
tation with the director, a four-course concentration in which the student uses the 
methodologies and perspectives of related disciplines to develop a focused 
expertise in gender analysis. For example, a student might choose a concentration 
in literature and gender analysis, or in the historical development of gender 
relations and the cultural representation of gender. The student will take three 
additional cross-listed women's studies courses outside of the concentration that 
explore other methodologies, themes, or questions of gender, thus allowing the 
student to gain multidisciplinary breadth. 

Requirements for the Minor 

The minor consists of Women's Studies 101, normally taken in the first or second 
year, and four additional courses. To ensure the interdisciplinary nature of the 
minor, three of these courses must be outside the student's major department, and 
one must be outside the division of the major. 

First-Year Seminars 

For a full description of the following first-year seminars, see page 1 17. 

15b. Juggling Gender. Fall 1996. Ms. Cohn. 
(Same as Sociology 15.) 

16b. Sociology of Gender and the Military. Fall 1997. Ms. Cohn. 
(Same as Sociology 16.) 

Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses 

101. Introduction to Women's Studies. Spring 1997. Ms. Cohn. 

An interdisciplinary introduction to the issues, perspectives, and findings of 
the new scholarship that examines the role of gender in the construction of 
knowledge. The course explores what happens when women become the subjects 
of study; what is learned about women; what is learned about gender; and how 
disciplinary knowledge itself is changed. 

201. Feminist Theory and Methodology. Fall 1996. Ms. Cohn. 

The history of women's studies and its transformation into gender studies and 
feminist theory has always included a tension between creating "woman," and 
political and theoretical challenges to that unity. This course examines that 



2 1 Courses of Instruction 

tension in two dimensions: the development of critical perspectives on gender and 
power relations both within existing fields of knowledge, and within the continu- 
ous evolution o\' feminist discourse itself. 

Prerequisite: Women's Studies 101 or permission of the instructor. 

300. Advanced Seminar. Spring 1997. Ms. Cohn. 

Examines current social and political issues using the perspectives and 
methods of women's studies and the analytic frameworks of feminist theory. 
Emphasis is on both applying and extending theory in analyzing complex societal 
problems. Enrollment limited to 15 students. Preference is given to senior 
women's studies majors or minors. 

Prerequisites: Three courses in women's studies, including 101 and 201. or 
permission of the instructor. 

390. Reform, Revolution, or Transformation: Perspectives Drawn from 
Sexual, Racial, and Environmental Politics. Fall 1997. Mr. Rensenbrink. 

This interdisciplinary seminar investigates the philosophic and political 
claims made by contemporary social movements for women, people of color, 
gays and lesbians, and the environment. Such problems as identity politics, 
political correctness, the public/private split, the gap between nature and human- 
ity, and the meaning of difference are explored. Special emphasis is given to the 
relation of these movements to the common good. The common good is treated 
both as a possible standard of political unity and as a challenge to reformist, 
revolutionary, or transformational action. 

Course work includes lectures, class discussion, reports, essays, and papers. 
Enrollment limited to 15 students. Preference given to junior and senior majors. 
(Same as Africana Studies 390 and Environmental Studies 390.) 

291-294. Intermediate Independent Study. 

401-404. Advanced Independent Study and Honors. 

CROSS LISTINGS 

Cross listings are courses offered by various departments that can be used to satisfy 
requirements lor the major in women's studies. For full course descriptions and prerequi- 
sites, see the appropriate department listings. 

ifricana Studies 

264c,d. Islamic Societies in Africa. Fall 1996. Mr. Stakeman. 
Anthropology 
234b,d. Women, Power, and Identity in India. Spring 1997. Ms. Dk key. 

An 

334c Women Visionaries and the Visual Arts. I all 1996. Ms. Wegner. 

Biology 

[54& Concept! in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.) 



Women 's Studies 



221c. Women in the Life and Literature of Classical Antiquity. Spring 1998. 

Ms. Boyd. 

223c. Family and Society in Ancient Rome. Fall 1997. Ms. Boyd. 

Economics 

217b. The Economics of Population. Spring 1997. Ms. DeGraff. 

301b. The Economics of the Family. Fall 1996 or Spring 1997. Ms. Connelly. 

Education 

202c. Education and Biography. Spring 1997. Ms. Martin. 

English 

12c. Gender and Class in Hollywood Romantic Comedy, 1934-1986. Fall 

1996. Mr. Litvak. 

21c. Strange Cravings. Spring 1997. Mr. Collings. 

240c. English Romanticism I: After Revolution. Fall 1996. Mr. Collings. 

242c. Victorian Poetry and Prose. Spring 1997. Mr. Litvak. 

252c. The Victorian Novel. Spring 1998. Mr. Litvak. 

261c. Twentieth-Century British Fiction. Spring 1998. Ms. Reizbaum. 

[271c. American Literature, 1860-1917.] 

[275c,d. African-American Fiction.] 

282c. An Introduction to Literary Theory Through Popular Culture. Every 

other year. Fall 1996. Mr. Litvak. 

300c. Literary Theory. Fall 1997. Mr. Litvak. 

327c. Jane Austen. Fall 1996. Ms. Kibbie. 

History 

Tie. Women in Britain and America: 1750-1920. Fall 1997. Ms. McMahon. 

228c. Medicine, Public Health, and History. Spring 1997. Ms. Tananbaum. 

246c. Women in American History, 1600-1900. Spring 1997. Ms. McMahon. 

248c. Family and Community in American History. Fall 1 997. Ms. McMahon. 

264c,d. Islamic Societies in Africa. Fall 1996. Mr. Stakeman. 

322c. Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in British Society. Spring 1998. 

Ms. Tananbaum. 

331c. A History of Women's Voices in America. Spring 1998. Ms. McMahon. 

Music 

210c. Topics in Jazz History: The Great Women Singers. Fall 1997. 

Mr. McCalla. 



2 1 2 Courses oj Instruction 

Philosophy 

224c. Feminism and Philosophy. Spring 1997. Ms. Conly. 

[238c. Feminism and Liberalism.] 

Religion 

10c. Adam and Eve and the Moral of the Story. Spring 1 997. Ms. Makarushka. 

205c. The Bible and Liberationist Thought. Fall 1996. Mr. Long. 

249c. Western Religious Thought. Fall 1996. Ms. Makarushka. 

250c. Western Religion and Its Critics. Spring 1997. Ms. Makarushka. 

390c. Word and Image. Fall 1996. Ms. MakarushkA. 

Romance Languages 

French 319c. French Women Writers. Fall 1996. Ms. Ollier. 

Russian 

20c. The Great Soviet Experiment through Film. Fall 1996. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

221c. Russian Culture through Visual Media: The Great Soviet Experiment. 

Every other spring. Spring 1998. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

222c. Topics Course: Women in Russian Society and Culture. Every other 

fall. Fall 1997. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

306c. Topics Course: Siberian and Non-Russian Literature of the Former 

Soviet Union. Spring 1998. Ms. Knox-Voina. 

Sociology 

lib. Sociology of Everyday Life. Fall 1996. Mr. Henson. 

15b. Juggling Gender. Fall 1996. Ms. Cohn. 

16b. Sociology of Gender and the Military. Fall 1997. Ms. Cohn. 

204b. Families: A Comparative Perspective. Spring 1997. Ms. Riley. 

210b. Men, Women, and Work. Spring 1997. Mr. Hi.nson. 

219b. Sociology of Gender. Fall 1996. Mr. Henson. 

222b. Introduction to Human Population. Spring 1998. Ms. Rimy. 

251b. Sociology of Health and Illness. Fall 1997. Ms. Bii i . 

252b. Sociology of Chronic Illness and Disability. Fall 1996. Ms. Bell. 

253h. Constructions of the Body. Spring 1998. Ms. Bell. 

1 260b. Gender and the Military.] 

Theater and Dam e 

Dance 1 30c. Cultural ( horeographies: Dance and Society. livery other year. 
Spring 1997. Ms. Vail. 



Educational Resources and Facilities 



HAWTHORNE-LONGFELLOW LIBRARY 

Historically, the Hawthorne-Longfellow Library has been one of the most 
distinguished liberal arts college libraries in the country, known for its outstand- 
ing book, journal, and manuscript collections. More recently, with the advent of 
the information age, the library's continuously growing treasury of traditional 
print material has been enriched by a multitude of computerized services 
providing access to a wealth of information resources located on campus, in 
libraries around the world, or on electronic information networks. The library's 
book collections, which exceed 855,000 volumes, bound periodicals, and news- 
papers, have been built up over a period of 200 years and include an unusually 
large proportion of notable items. The library's collection also includes 2,240 
current periodical and newspaper subscriptions, over 107,000 bound periodical 
volumes, 40,000 maps, over 10,000 photographs, more than 2,300 linear feet of 
manuscript items, and over 2,400 linear feet of archival materials. Over 13,000 
volumes are added annually. 

The library serves as the intellectual heart of the campus, offering vast print 
collections and a rapidly evolving array of electronic information databases, as 
well as an instructional program in their use. The on-line catalog, accessible from 
all campus buildings, and the Library's World Wide Web home page serve as 
central access points to Bowdoin library holdings and to electronic resources. The 
catalog provides connections to the catalog holdings of the Colby and Bates 
college libraries and those of the campuses of the University of Maine, to a 
selection of periodical indexes in a broad range of disciplines, and to other library 
catalogs, campus-wide information systems, and databases available on the 
Internet. The library Web page links users to nearly 20 full text electronic journals, 
Britannica Online, and a wide assortment of text and graphic-based Web 
resources. Librarians and faculty members work closely together to incorporate 
information literacy skills and use of library and electronic resources throughout 
the curriculum. Librarians also provide Internet skill classes. In 1 994, a 1 5-station 
student computer laboratory and an electronic classroom for instruction in on-line 
and CD-ROM resources and various general purpose and instructional software 
were created on the lower level of the library. 

The majority of the collection is housed in Hawthorne-Longfellow Library. 
The Library also boasts four branch libraries: the Hatch Science Library, the 
William Pierce Art Library, the Robert Beckwith Music Library, and the Lan- 
guage Media Center in Sills Hall. The Hawthorne-Longfellow Library building 
was opened in the fall of 1965. In 1985 it was expanded to connect to Hubbard 
Hall, which contains five stack tiers topped by the Albert Abrahamson Reading 
Room, a bright, modern study space. Further remodeling and refurbishing to 



214 Educational Resources and Facilities 

reflect a renewed emphasis on service and to champion both the book and the 
computer as information resources occurred in 1993-94. Planning currently 
underway to renovate and expand the library will provide additional student study 
spaces and increased network access. 

At the main entrance, a bookcase-lined alcove offers new titles, works by 
Bowdoin authors, and other selections from the library's collections, as well as 
a small children's corner for very young visitors and an audio book collection. The 
entrance level of the building also contains those services of most immediate use 
to library users: the circulation/reserve desk, the reference desk, a bank of 
computer catalog stations, reference books and bibliographies, growing numbers 
of CD-ROM databases, video viewing stations, current newspapers and periodi- 
cals, periodical indexes, the microforms collection, and two reading areas. 
Bowdoin' s extensive collection of bound periodicals, its collections of United 
States and State of Maine government documents, the computer laboratory, and 
the electronic classroom are housed on the lower level. 

Special features of the second floor are an exhibit area and the President 
Franklin Pierce Reading Room, which is informally furnished and gives a broad 
view across campus through floor-to-ceiling windows. The third floor houses the 
Special Collections and Archives suite. This includes a climate-controlled 
storage area for rare books and manuscripts, archives related to the history of the 
College, the Senator George J. Mitchell collection, and a reading room. 

The first books that belonged to the library — a set of the Count Marsigli's 
Danubius Pannonica-Mysicus, given to the College in 1796 by General Henry 
Knox (who had been a bookseller in Boston before he achieved fame as George 
Washington's chief ordnance officer) — are still a part of its collections. In the 
early decades of the nineteenth century, Bowdoin' s library, largely because of 
extensive gifts of books from the Bowdoin family and the Benjamin Vaughan 
family of Hallowell, Maine, was one of the largest in the nation. Today, the library 
remains one of the outstanding college libraries of the country. 

The collections of the library are strong in all curricular areas. There is special 
strength in documentary publications relating to both British and American 
history, books relating to exploration and the Arctic regions, seventeenth- 
through nineteenth-century French literature, eighteenth- through early twenti- 
eth-century American literature, books by and about Carlyle, books and pam- 
phlets about Maine, Civil War material, and books and pamphlets on World War 
I and <>n the history of much of middle Europe in this century, and on the literal") 
history of pre-twentieth-century France. 

In addition to its strong and diverse collections, the library provides several 
services, many employing the use ol electronic technology, to extend access to 
resources not held locally. Reference librarians provide an active instruction 

program, training students to search remote on-line indexes, the World Wide 

Web, and full-text database services that supplement use of the library's own 
collections. Through an active intcrlihrary loan program, daily delivery of 
materials I ioin the library collections ol Colby and Bates Col leges, and from other 



Hawthorne-Longfellow Library 215 

libraries throughout the country and the world, is provided. Interlibrary loan 
services incorporate use of Ariel, a high-speed, high-resolution electronic docu- 
ment delivery service that utilizes facsimile and digital transmission over the 
Internet. 

The books, manuscripts, and historic records in Bowdoin's Special Collec- 
tions and Archives are available for use by scholars and serve an important 
function in introducing undergraduates — in their research projects and other 
independent work — to the variety of materials they can expect to work with if they 
go on to graduate work. 

Special collections in the Hawthorne-Longfellow Library include extensive 
book, manuscript, and other materials by and about both Nathaniel Hawthorne 
and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, both members of the Class of 1825; books 
and pamphlets collected by Governor James Bowdoin II; the private library of 
James Bowdoin III; an extensive collection of late-eighteenth- and early-nine- 
teenth-century books (particularly in the sciences) collected by Maine' s Vaughan 
family; books, periodicals, and pamphlets of the French Revolution period; the 
monumental eighteenth-century Encyclopedie of Diderot; the elephant-folio 
edition of John James Audubon's Ornithological Biography (his "Birds of 
America"), E. S. Curtis' s The North American Indian; Jacques-Paul Migne's 
Patrologiae; a broad representation of the items published in the District of Maine 
and in the state during the first decade of its statehood; and the books printed by 
three distinguished Maine presses: the Mosher Press, the Southworth Press, and 
the Anthoensen Press. Also to be found in Special Collections is the Maine Afro- 
American Archive, a depository for rare books, manuscripts, letters, and other 
memorabilia about slavery, abolitionism, and Afro- American life in Maine. 

Special Collections also contains records, papers, and memorabilia of Ralph 
Owen Brewster '09, Governor of Maine, member of the United States House of 
Representatives from 1934-41, and United States Senator from 1941-1952. 

The papers of Senator George J. Mitchell '54, retired Senate majority leader, 
were a recent gift to the library and are currently being processed. 

Other outstanding manuscripts in Special Collections are the collections of the 
papers of General Oliver Otis Howard, director of the Freedmen's Bureau, which 
helped blacks after the Civil War, and founder of Howard University and some 
70 educational institutions for blacks; of Senator William Pitt Fessenden; and of 
Professors Parker Cleaveland, Alpheus S. Packard, Henry Johnson, and Stanley 
Perkins Chase; collections of varying extent of most of Bowdoin's presidents, 
especially Jesse Appleton, Joshua L. Chamberlain, William DeWitt Hyde, and 
Kenneth Charles Morton Sills; manuscripts by Kenneth Roberts, Robert Peter 
Tristram Coffin, Kate Douglas Wiggin, Charles Stephens, Edwin Arlington 
Robinson, Elijah Kellogg, and such contemporary authors as Vance Bourjaily, 
John Pullen, and Francis Russell. 

Special collections also include the Bliss collection of books on travel, French 
and British architecture, and the history of art and architecture that are housed in 
the Susan Dwight Bliss Room in Hubbard Hall. Many of these books have 



2 1 6 Educational Resources and Facilities 

exquisite bindings. The books in this room and the room itself (with its Renais- 
sance ceiling that once graced a Neapolitan palazzo) were the gift of Miss Bliss 
in 1945. 

In 1 993, through grants from the National Historical Publications and Records 
Commission and the Albert and Elaine Borchard Foundation, the Bowdoin 
College Archives was established in space adjacent to Special Collections. 
Bowdoin 's proud 200-year history is among its many strengths. A repository for 
two centuries of College records and memorabilia, the Archives serves as a vital 
information center for the campus and the larger scholarly community. The 
Archives is in the forefront of efforts to employ electronic technology to provide 
access to collections through the library catalog and the World Wide Web. 
Students are encouraged to incorporate archival material into their research. 

The Hatch Science Library, opened in the spring of 1991, offers science- 
related materials, including periodicals, microforms, maps, government docu- 
ments, indexes in paper and electronic format, on-line database searching, and a 
full range of reference and instructional services to faculty and students. The 
building accommodates readers at individual carrels, study tables, informal 
seating areas, seminar rooms, and faculty studies. 

The William Pierce Art Library and the Robert Beckwith Music Library, small 
departmental collections in art and music, are housed adjacent to the offices of the 
departments. The glass-wrapped Art Library looks out over the campus green. 
The Music Library, which was renovated and expanded in 1994, offers a 
handsome study room with listening stations and computerized indexes, as well 
as scores, recordings, and books. 

Library operations and the development of its collections and services are 
supported by the general funds of the College and by gifts from alumni and other 
friends of the library and the College. The income of more than a hundred gifts 
to the College as endowment is directed to the use of the library. The library 
annually receives generous gifts of both books and funds for the immediate 
purchase of books, electronic resources, and other library materials. Gifts of 
books, manuscripts, and family records and correspondence relating to the history 
of the College and its alumni are especially welcome. 



INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA SERVICES 

Instructional Media Services, an administrative unit of the Library, coordinates 
the services of the Language Media Center and Audiovisual Services to support 
academic and administrative programs. 

I he Language Media Center, in the basement of Sills Hall, provides audio. 
video, and multimedia facilities to support the teaching of foreign languages. The 
center housesa major part of the Library collection of audiovisual materials, with 

special Strength in the areas of foreign culture and film. It is equipped with a 
twelve-station I 'andberg audio-active language laboratory; twenty video moni- 



Computing and Information Services 217 

tors and players for individual viewing of videodiscs and all international 
standards of videocassettes; and six networked Macintosh computers with a 
variety of language-instructional software. A connected room with a large-screen 
monitor accommodates up to 30 people for group viewing of video recordings and 
teleconferences. Foreign-language broadcasts received by seven satellite dishes 
are directed to the lobby of the Language Media Center and to classrooms and 
faculty offices in Sills Hall. A gift from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to the 
foreign language departments of Bowdoin, Bates, and Colby Colleges will 
support the joint development of new multimedia computing and faculty devel- 
opment centers to be housed in each institution's foreign language resource 
center. 

Audio Visual Services, housed in Coles Tower, primarily supports the 
academic program through audio and video taping and editing, and assistance 
with the development of instructional and presentation materials. Support also is 
provided for a wide range of co-curricular activities. 

COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SERVICES 

Computing and Information Services (CIS) provides effective and efficient, high- 
quality technology services to all members of the College community. To meet 
this challenge, CIS is divided into four interleaved groups. The telecommunica- 
tions group delivers a complete suite of telephone services. The systems and 
communications group is responsible for the data network and central hardware 
and software services. The administrative computing group develops and main- 
tains applications that populate and query a central database of College financial 
and student data. The academic computing/user services group provides direct 
end-user documentation, training, and support for the entire College community. 

CIS has several central systems dedicated to academic research and instruc- 
tion. These systems typically run a variant of a Unix operating system and provide 
e-mail services, statistical analysis tools, Internet access including access to the 
World Wide Web, and other global services. All students are given an account 
with full e-mail capabilities and Internet access. CIS maintains several public 
. computer labs for use by any member of the College community. Both Macintosh 
and PC environments are supported. Lab machines include a wide assortment of 
popular software and are connected to the College- wide network and the Internet. 

The College's voice and data network permits students to connect to the 
central network services from many dormitory rooms. Basic and discounted long- 
distance service is available to students living in College residence halls. In 
addition, voice mail accounts are available. 



2 1 S Educational Resources and Facilities 

BOWDOIN COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART 

An art collection has existed at Bowdoin almost since the founding of the College. 
It came into existence through the 1811 bequest of James Bowdoin III and was 
one of the earliest to be formed in the United States. Bowdoin' s gift consisted of 
two portfolios containing 141 old master drawings, among which was a superb 
landscape attributed to Pieter Bruegel the Elder, and 70 paintings. A group of 
Bowdoin family portraits was bequeathed in 1826 by James Bowdoin Ill's 
widow, Sarah Bowdoin Dearborn. Through the years, the collection has been 
expanded through the generosity of alumni. College friends, and members of the 
Bowdoin family, and now numbers 13.000 art objects. 

Although various parts of the College's art collection were on view during the 
first half of the nineteenth century, it was not until 1855 that a special gallery 
devoted to the collection came into being in the College Chapel. This gallery was 
made possible by a gift from Theophilus Wheeler Walker of Boston, a cousin of 
President Leonard Woods. It was as a memorial to Walker that his two nieces, 
Harriet Sarah and Mary Sophia Walker, donated funds in 1891 for the present 
museum building, designed by Charles Follen McKim of McKim, Mead & 
White. Four murals of Athens, Rome, Florence, and Venice by John La Farge, 
Elihu Vedder, Abbott Thayer, and Kenyon Cox, respectively, were commis- 
sioned to decorate the museum's rotunda. 

The museum holds an important collection of American colonial and federal 
portraits, including works by Smibert, Feke, Blackburn, Copley, Stuart, Trumbull, 
and Sully. Among the five examples by Robert Feke is the full-length likeness of 
Brigadier General Samuel Waldo, generally regarded as the finest American 
portrait of the first half of the eighteenth century. The nine paintings by Gilbert 
Stuart include pendant portraits of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. 
Colonial and Federal Portraits at Bowdoin College, published in 1 966, describes 
this collection in detail. 

The College's collection of ancient art contains sculpture, vases, terra cottas, 
bronzes, gems, coins, and glass of all phases of the ancient world. The most 
notable benefactor in this area was Edward Perry Warren, L.H.D. '26, the leading 
American collector of classical antiquities of the first quarter of the twentieth 
century. Five magnificent ninth-century b.c. Assyrian reliefs from the Palace of 
Ashuma/irpal II, an acquisition facilitated for the College by Henri Byron 
Haskell Ml 855, are installed in the museum's rotunda. Ancient Art in Bowdoin 
College, published in 1964, describes these holdings. 

The College has been the recipient of a Samuel H. Kress Study Collection of 
twelve Renaissance paintings; a large collection of medals and plaquettes 
presented by Amanda Marchesa Molinari; a fine group of European and Ameri- 
can pictures and decorative arts given by John II. Halford '07 and Mrs. Halford; 
a collection of Chinese and Korean ceramics given by Governor William Tudor 
Gardiner, LL.D. '45. and Mrs. Gardiner; and a collection of nineteen paintings 
and 168 prints by John Sloan bequeathed by George Otis Hamlin. 



Bowdoin College Museum of Art 219 

The College's Winslow Homer Collection comprises paintings, drawings, 
prints, and memorabilia pertaining to the artist's career. The first painting by 
Homer to enter the museum, a watercolor entitled The End of the Hunt, was 
contributed by the Walker sisters from their personal collection. In the fall of 
1964, a gift from the Homer family brought to Bowdoin the major portion of the 
memorabilia remaining in the artist's studio at Prout's Neck, letters written over 
a period of many years to members of his family, and photographs of friends, 
family, and Prout's Neck. A large collection of woodcuts was later purchased to 
augment these holdings and to create a center for the scholarly study of the life and 
career of this important American artist. 

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the museum acquired through gift and 
purchase a survey collection of paintings, drawings, and prints by the American 
artist and illustrator Rockwell Kent. 

The permanent collections also contain fine examples of the work of such 
nineteenth-century and twentieth-century American artists as Martin Johnson 
Heade, Eastman Johnson, George Inness, Thomas Eakins, John Singer Sargent, 
William Glackens, Marsden Hartley, Jack Tworkov, Arshile Gorky, Franz Kline, 
Andrew Wyeth, D.F.A. '70, Leonard Baskin, and Alex Katz. 

In 1982, the museum published the Handbook of the Collections, dedicated to 
the memory of John H. Halford '07. In 1985, a comprehensive catalogue of the 
College's permanent collection of old master drawings was published. The 
Architecture of Bowdoin College, an illustrated guide to the campus by Patricia 
McGraw Anderson, was published in 1988. 

During 1993-94, the Museum of Art commemorated the bicentennial of 
Bowdoin College and the centennial of the Walker Art Building with the 
publication of a book entitled The Legacy of James Bowdoin HI and a series of 
major exhibitions. The book includes scholarly essays on the career and collec- 
tions of the College's first patron, who was a merchant, agriculturalist, politician, 
and President Jefferson' s minister to Spain. Additional essays discuss the campus 
life of the art collections left by James Bowdoin to the College, the intellectual 
foundations of the American college museum, the commission for the art building 
given by the sisters Harriet Sarah and Mary Sophia Walker in memory of their 
uncle Theophilus Wheeler Walker, and Walker family history. The series of year- 
long exhibitions focused on the principal donors, James Bowdoin and the Walker 
sisters; the quality and variety of the museum's permanent collection; and the 
present strength of the College's art department. 

In addition to exhibitions of the permanent collections, the museum schedules 
an active program of temporary exhibitions of art lent by institutions and private 
collectors throughout the United States. Recent exhibitions include From Diirer 
to Picasso: Five Centuries of Master Prints from a Private Collection; Katherine 
Porter: Paintings/Drawings; The Here and the Hereafter: Images of Paradise in 
Islamic Art; From Studio to Studiolo: Florentine Draftsmanship under the First 
Medici Grand Dukes; Holocaust: The Presence of the Past; Vinalhaven at 
Bowdoin: One Press, Multiple Impressions; Art's Lament: Creativity in the Face 



220 Educational Resources and Facilities 

of Death; Collecting for a College: Gifts from David P. Becker; and Bowdoin 
Photographers: Liberal Arts Lens. 

The College lends art objects in the custody of the museum to other institutions 
throughout the United States and, occasionally, to institutions abroad. The 
museum also sponsors educational programs including gallery talks and lectures 
thai relate to the permanent collections and complement temporary exhibitions. 

Members of the Association of Bowdoin Friends, a campus support group, 
have access to a wide variety of activities and programs sponsored by the 
museum. Another vital support group of 54 volunteers conducts tours and assists 
the museum staff with clerical activities and educational programs. The museum 
was awarded two three-year Andrew W. Mellon Foundation grants that support 
year-long internships at the museum for recent art history graduates. The Mellon 
project also encourages use of the art collections in courses at the College. 

The amount of space in the Walker Art Building more than doubled in 1976 
following extensive renovation designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes. Two 
galleries for exhibiting the museum's permanent collection and two temporary 
exhibition galleries were added on the lower level. One of the new galleries was 
dedicated to the memory of John H. Halford "07; another, in memory of John A. 
and Helen P. Becker. In 1993, the Winslow Homer Seminar Room was estab- 
lished at the request of students for closer study and examination of works of art 
normally in storage. During the academic year, this space is used actively by 
faculty and students for course work and/or independent research projects. 

THE PEARY-MACMILLAN ARCTIC MUSEUM 
AND ARCTIC STUDIES CENTER 

The Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum was founded in honor of two famous 
Arctic explorers and Bowdoin alumni. Admirals Robert E. Peary (Class of 1 877) 
and Donald B. MacMillan (Class of 1898). On April 6, 1909, after a lifetime of 
Arctic exploration, Peary became the first person to reach the North Pole. 
MacMillan was a crew member on that North Pole expedition. Between 1 908 and 
1954, MacMillan explored Labrador, Baffin Island, Ellesmere Island, and 
Greenland. Most of his expeditions were made on board the Bowdoin. a schooner 
he designed for work in ice-laden northern waters. MacMillan took college 
students on the expeditions and introduced them to the natural history and 
anthropology of the North. He was not the first to involve Bowdoin students in 
Arctic exploration, however. In I860, Paul A. Chadboume, a professor of 
chemistry and natural history, had sailed along the Labrador and West Greenland 
coasts with students from Williams and Bowdoin. 

The museum's collections include equipment, paintings, and photographs 
relating to the history of Arctic exploration, natural history specimens, ami 
artifacts and drawings made by Inuit and Indians of Arctic North America. The 
museum has large collections of ethnographic photographs and films recording 



Research, Teaching, and Conference Facilities 22 1 

past lifeways of Native Americans taken on the expeditions of MacMillan and 
Robert Bartlett, an explorer and captain who sailed northern waters for nearly fifty 
years. Diaries, logs, and correspondence relating to the museum's collections are 
housed in the Special Collections section of the Hawthorne-Longfellow Library. 

The museum, established in 1967, is located on the first floor of Hubbard Hall. 
The building was named for General Thomas Hubbard of the Class of 1857, a 
generous benefactor of the College and financial supporter of Peary's Arctic 
ventures. The museum's exhibitions were designed by Ian M. White, former 
director of the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, who sailed with MacMillan 
in 1950. Generous donations from members of the Class of 1925, together with 
gifts from George B. Knox of the Class of 1929, a former trustee, and other 
interested alumni and friends, made the museum a reality. Continued support 
from friends of the College, the Kane Lodge Foundation, and the Russell and 
Janet Doubleday Foundation have allowed the museum to continue to grow. 

The Arctic Studies Center was established in 1985 as a result of a generous 
matching grant from the Russell and Janet Doubleday Foundation to endow the 
directorship of the center, in recognition of the Doubleday s' close relationship to 
MacMillan. The center links the resources of the museum and library with 
teaching and research efforts, and hosts traveling exhibitions, lectures, work- 
shops, and educational outreach projects. Through course offerings, field re- 
search programs, employment opportunities, and special events, the center 
promotes anthropological, archaeological, geological, and environmental inves- 
tigations of the North. 

RESEARCH, TEACHING, AND CONFERENCE FACILITIES 

The Bowdoin Pines 

Adjacent to the campus on either side of the Bath Road is a 33-acre site known 
as the Bowdoin Pines. Cathedral white pines, some of them 125 years old, tower 
over the site, which is a rare example of one of Maine' s few remaining old-growth 
forests. For biology students, the Pines provides an easily accessible outdoor 
laboratory. For other students, the site offers a place for a walk between classes, 
, an inspirational setting for creating art, or simply a bit of solitude. Plans are 
underway to improve the system of trails within the Pines, making the site more 
accessible to students and community members. 

Bowdoin Scientific Station 

The College maintains a scientific field station at Kent Island, off Grand Manan 
Island, in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, where qualified students 
can conduct research in ecology, animal behavior, marine biology, botany, 
geology, and meteorology. The 200-acre island was presented to the College in 
1935 by John Sterling Rockefeller. 

Kent Island is a major seabird breeding ground. Its location makes it a 



222 Educational Resources and Facilities 

concentration point for migrating birds in spring and fall. The famous Fundy tides 
create excellent opportunities for the study of marine biology. It also features a 
variety of terrestrial habitats. 

No formal courses are offered at the station, but students from Bowdoin and 
other institutions are encouraged to select problems for investigation at Kent 
Island during the summer and to conduct independent field work with the advice 
and assistance of the Director, Associate Professor Nathaniel Wheelwright. 
Students have the opportunity to collaborate with faculty members and graduate 
students from numerous universities and colleges. Field trips of short duration to 
Kent Island are a feature of Bowdoin' s courses in ecology and ornithology. 

Breckinridge Public Affairs Center 

The Breckinridge Public Affairs Center is a 23-acre estate on the tidal York River 
in southern Maine. The center includes a 25-room main house, a clay tennis court, 
and a 110-foot, circular, saltwater swimming pool. Owned and operated by 
Bowdoin College, the center is used for classes, seminars, and meetings of 
educational, cultural, and civic groups. Business and professional organizations 
also use the facility for planning sessions and staff development activities. River 
House, which accommodates 19 overnight guests, was designed by Guy Lowell 
in 1905 and is on the National Register of Historic Places. The estate was given 
to Bowdoin in 1974 by Marvin Breckinridge Patterson, whose husband was the 
Honorable Jefferson Patterson of St. Leonard, Maryland. Named in honor of Mrs. 
Patterson's family, the estate is available for use April 1 through July 25, and 
September 17 through Thanksgiving, each year. 

Coastal Studies Center 

The Coastal Studies Center occupies a 1 18-acre coastal site about eight miles 
from the campus on Orr's Island and known as Thalheimer Farm. The Center is 
devoted to interdisciplinary teaching and research in marine biology, terrestrial 
ecology, ornithology and geology, and will include laboratories for both marine 
and terrestrial studies. Its facilities will play an active role in Bowdoin's programs 
in biology, environmental studies, and geology. In addition, the centrally-located 
farmhouse will provide seminar and kitchen facilities where classes from all 
disciplines can gather in a retreat-like atmosphere that encourages sustained, 
informal interaction among students and faculty members. 

The Coastal Studies Center site is surrounded on three sides by the ocean and 
encompasses open fields, orchards, and new-growth forest. The Center was 
established through an endowment gift in 1995 and is expected to be completed 
by 1997. 



Lectureships 223 

Coleman Farm 

During the course of the academic year, students study ecology at a site three miles 
south of the campus, using an 83-acre tract of College-owned land that extends 
to the sea. Numerous habitats of resident birds are found on the property, which 
is also a stopover point for many migratory species. Because of its proximity to 
campus, many students visit Coleman Farm for natural history walks, cross- 
country skiing, and other forms of recreation. 

LECTURESHIPS 

The regular instruction of the College is supplemented each year by ten or twelve 
major lectures, in addition to lectures, panel discussions, and other presentations 
sponsored by the various departments of study and undergraduate organizations. 
These funds are administered by the Lectures and Concerts Committee and 
relevant departments. 

John Warren Achorn Lectureship (1928): The income of a fund established by 
Mrs. John Warren Achorn as a memorial to her husband, a member of the Class 
of 1879, is used for lectures on birds and bird life. 

Charles F. Adams Lectureship (1978): The income of a fund established by 
the bequest of Charles F. Adams ' 12 is used to support a lectureship in political 
science and education. 

Beecher-Stowe Family Memorial Fund (1994): The income of a fund estab- 
lished as a memorial to Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom 's Cabin; her 
husband, Calvin Ellis Stowe (Class of 1824), Elizabeth Collins Professor of 
Natural and Revealed Religion at the College from 1 850 to 1 852; and her brother, 
Charles Beecher (Class of 1834), by Harold Beecher Noyes, great-grandson of 
Charles Beecher, is used to support a lectureship addressed to "human rights and/ 
or the social and religious significance of parables." 

Tom Cassidy Lectureship (1991): The income of a fund established by the 
bequest of Thomas J. Cassidy '72 is used to support a lectureship in journalism. 

Dan E. Christie Mathematics Lecture Fund (1976): Established by family, 
friends, colleagues, and former students in memory of Dan E. Christie '37, a 
member of the faculty for thirty-three years and Wing Professor of Mathematics 
from 1965 until his death in 1975, this fund is used to sponsor lectures under the 
auspices of the Department of Mathematics. 

Annie Talbot Cole Lectureship (1907): This fund, established by Mrs. Calista 
S. Mayhew in memory of her niece, Mrs. Samuel Valentine Cole, is used to 
sponsor a lectureship that contributes "to the ennoblement and enrichment of life 
by standing for the idea that life is a glad opportunity. It shall, therefore, exhibit 
and endeavor to make attractive the highest ideals of character and conduct, and 
also, insofar as possible, foster an appreciation of the beautiful as revealed 
through nature, poetry, music, and the fine arts." 



224 Educational Resources and Facilities 

John C. Donovan Lecture Fund (1990): Established by colleagues, friends, 
and members of the Donovan family, through the leadership of Shepard Lee '47, 
this fund is used to support a lecture in the field of political science under the 
sponsorship of the Department of Government. 

Elliott Oceanographic Fund ( / 973): Established by the Edward Elliott Foun- 
dation and members of the Elliott family in memory of Edward L. Elliott, a 
practicing geologist and mining engineer who expressed a lifelong interest in 
science and the sea, this fund promotes oceanographic education, in its widest 
definition, for Bowdoin students. It is expected that at least part of the fund will 
be used to support the Elliott Lectures in Oceanography, which were inaugurated 
in 1971. 

Alfred E. Golz Lecture Fund (1986): Established by Ronald A. Golz '56 in 
memory of his father, this fund is used to support a lecture by an eminent historian 
or humanitarian to be scheduled close to the November 21 birthday of Alfred E. 
Golz. 

Cecil T. and Marion C. Holmes Mathematics Lecture Fund (1977): Estab- 
lished by friends, colleagues, and former students to honor Cecil T. Holmes, a 
member of the faculty for thirty-nine years and Wing Professor of Mathematics, 
this fund is used to provide lectures under the sponsorship of the Department of 
Mathematics. 

Kibbe Science Lecture Fund (1994): This fund, established by Frank W. Kibbe 
(Class of 1 937) and his wife Lucy K. Kibbe, is used to support lectures by visiting 
scholars on "topics deemed to be 'on the cutting edge of or associated with new 
developments or research findings in the fields of Astronomy or Geology." 

Lesbian and Gay Lectureship Fund (1992): Established by members of the 
Bowdoin Gay and Lesbian Alumni/ae Association, this fund is used to sponsor at 
least one lecture annually in the field of gay and lesbian studies. 

Mayhew Lecture Fund (1923): Established by Mrs. Calista S. Mayhew, this 
fund is used to provide lectures on bird life and its effect on forestry. 

Charles Weston Pickard Lecture Fund (1961): The income of a fund estab- 
lished by John Coleman '22 in memory of his grandfather, a member of the Class 
of 1 857, is used to provide a lecture in the field of journalism in its broadest sense. 
"By journalism is meant lines of communication with the public, whether through 
newspapers, radio, television, or other recognized media." 

Kenneth V. Santagata Memorial Fund (1982): Established by family and 
friends of Kenneth V. Santagata '73, this fund is used to provide at least one 
lecture each year, rotating in the arts, humanities, and social sciences, with 
lecturers to be recognized authorities in their respective fields, to present new, 
DOVel, or nonconventional approaches to the designated topic in the specified 
category. 



Performing Arts 225 

Edith Lansing Koon Sills Lecture Fund (1962): This fund was established by 
the Society of Bowdoin Women to honor Mrs. Kenneth C. M. Sills, the wife of 
a former president of Bowdoin College. 

The Harry Spindel Memorial Lectureship (1977): Established by the gift of 
Rosalyne Spindel Bernstein and Sumner Thurman Bernstein in memory of her 
father, Harry Spindel, as a lasting testimony to his lifelong devotion to Jewish 
learning, this fund is used to support annual lectures in Judaic studies or 
contemporary Jewish affairs. 

The Jasper Jacob Stahl Lectureship in the Humanities (1970): Established by 
the bequest of Jasper Jacob Stahl '09, Litt.D. '60, this fund is used "to support a 
series of lectures to be delivered annually at the College by some distinguished 
scholarly and gifted interpreter of the Art, Life, Letters, Philosophy, or Culture, 
in the broadest sense, of the Ancient Hebraic World, or of the Ancient Greek 
World or of the Roman World, or of the Renaissance in Italy and Europe, or of 
the Age of Elizabeth I in England, or that of Louis XIV and the Enlightenment in 
France, or of the era of Goethe in Germany." 

Tallman Lecture Fund (1928): Established by Frank G. Tallman, A.M. H'35, 
as a memorial to the Bowdoin members of his family, this fund is used to support 
a series of lectures to be delivered by men selected by the faculty. In addition to 
offering a course for undergraduates, the visiting professor on the Tallman 
Foundation gives public lectures on the subject of special interest. 

PERFORMING ARTS 

Music 

Music performance at Bowdoin ranges from informal student repertory sessions 
to professional performances by visiting artists, and from solo recitals to large- 
scale performances for chorus and orchestra. Many ensembles, such as the 
Chamber Choir, Bowdoin Orchestra, College Chorus, and Concert Band, are part 
of the curricular program. Credit is also given for participation in the chamber 
ensembles. Other groups, such as the Polar Jazz Ensemble and Bowdoin Conga 
Drums, are sponsored by students. 

The Chamber Choir is a select group of approximately twenty-five singers that 
performs a wide variety of choral and soloistic music. Its repertoire in the past few 
years includes Palestrina' s Missa Lauda Sion, music of the African Diaspora, Jimi 
Hendrix, Handel's Messiah (with the Portland Symphony), and the music of 
Ecuador. Recent tours have taken the choir to Europe, Canada, New Orleans, and 
South America. The Bowdoin Chorus, which also tours, is a choral ensemble 
composed of students, faculty, staff, and community members. Recent perfor- 
mances by the Chorus include Brahms's Liebeslieder Waltzes, Rachmaninoff s 
Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Faure's Requiem, and the music of Latin 
America. 



22u Educational Resources and Facilities 

The Bowdoin Orchestra is an auditioned ensemble also drawn from the 
community at large. Its performances include works from the standard repertoire, 
such as Mozart and Beethoven symphonies, as well as more unusual selections 
and premieres of new student compositions. The Concert Band often performs at 
campus ceremonies, such as James Bowdoin Day, and it also plays on-campus 
concerts of the standard repertoire and contemporary arrangements. 

Both early music and contemporary music receive considerable emphasis at 
Bowdoin, and the music department recently won a national award for its support 
of American music. Early music is furthered through a collection of early 
instruments, such as violas da gamba, shawms, cornetti, and members of the lute 
family, as well as two harpsichords and a tracker-action organ, gift of Chester 
William Cooke III '57. Entire concerts are often devoted to a particular early- 
music repertoire, such as that of the sixteenth-century Spanish court. Recent 
visiting early-music artists include the Tallis Scholars, Musica Antiqua Koln, and 
harpsichordist Igor Kipnis. 

There are also frequent visits by guest composers such as Karel Husa, Pauline 
Oliveros, George Crumb, and Thea Musgrave, and a biennial festival of contem- 
porary choral music. Student compositions are often heard on campus. The 
performance of American music has included visits by professional jazz en- 
sembles such as the Billy Taylor Trio and the production of Otto Luening's opera 
Evangeline. 

Other visiting artists in recent years have included Eugenia Zukerman, the Los 
Angeles Piano Quartet, Joan Morris and William Bolcom, the Chinese Music 
Ensemble of New York, the Lydian String Quartet, and Kurt Ollmann. In addition 
to performing, the artists often teach master classes and hold discussions with 
students. 

Bowdoin owns a collection of orchestral and band instruments and over 
twenty grand pianos available for use by students studying and performing music. 
Soloists and ensembles perform in a number of halls on campus, including Gibson 
Recital Hall, Kresge Auditorium, Pickard Theater, and the Chapel, which houses 
a forty-five-rank Austin organ. Private instruction in piano, organ, harpsichord, 
voice, guitar, and all the major orchestral instruments is available. 

Theater and Dance 

Dance 

The dance component of the Department of Theater and Dance evolved from the 
Bowdoin Dance Program, which was founded in 1971 and soon developed an 
;il;kIcd lie curriculum. Each year, the Bowdoin Dance Group, the student perform- 
ing ensemble, presents an informal studio show in December and a major 
performance of student- and faculty-choreographed works in Pickard Theater in 
April. Students also perforin at Parents' Weekend in the fall and in the Museum 
Of Art in May. Performances are strongly linked to participation in technique, 



Performing Arts 227 

repertory, and choreography classes, held in the dance studio at Sargent Gymna- 
sium, but independent work is also presented. 

A co-curricular, student-run performance group called VAGUE was founded 
in 1989. VAGUE (an acronym for "Very Ambitious Group Under Experiment") 
performs as part of Bowdoin Dance Group concerts and in other shows on and off 
campus. VAGUE' s faculty advisor is the chair of the Department of Theater and 
Dance, and the group shares the department's dance studio on the third floor of 
Sargent Gymnasium. 

The studio provides a light, airy space with a suspended wood floor for classes 
and rehearsals. Dance concerts are sometimes presented in the studio, in addition 
to Pickard Theater, Kresge Auditorium, and the Museum of Art, as well as in 
unconventional spaces such as the squash courts and outside on the Quad. 

Besides student and faculty performances, the department sponsors visits by 
nationally known dance companies, choreographers, and critics for teaching 
residencies and performances. Student dancers have presented prize- winning 
pieces in the American College Dance Festival Association's annual festival and 
occasionally work with students from Bates and Colby Colleges on perfor- 
mances. The department has sponsored professional dance companies that range 
from baroque dance and ballet to tap, modern, and performance art. 

A partial list includes, for baroque and ballet, the Berkshire Ballet, the Court 
Dance Company of New York, and the Ken Pierce Baroque Dance Company; for 
jazz and jazz-tap, Impulse Dance Company and the Copasetics; for modern 
forms, Alvin Ailey Repertory Ensemble, Johanna Boyce, Art Bridgman and 
Myrna Packer, Richard Bull Dance Company, Jim Coleman/Terese Freedman, 
Merce Cunningham, Douglas Dunn, Susan Foster, Irene Hultman, Pauline 
Koner, Meredith Monk, Mark Morris, Phoebe Neville, Wendy Perron, Pilobolus, 
Dana Reitz, Kei Takei, UMO Performance Ensemble, Doug Varone and Trisha 
Brown Company; and lectures by dance writers Susan Foster, Jill Johnston, Laura 
Shapiro, and Marcia B. Seigel. These professionals teach master classes and offer 
lecture-demonstrations as part of their visits to campus, and often are commis- 
sioned to create choreography especially for the Bowdoin dancers. 

Theater 

The theater component of the Department of Theater and Dance evolved from the 
student performance group Masque and Gown, which was founded in 1 903. In the 
mid- 1 990s an academic curriculum in theater was developed, combining courses 
and departmental productions, and Masque and Gown became an independent 
student organization with continued ties to the department. 

The department annually presents numerous plays and events, directed or 
created by faculty and by students, ranging from new plays to performance art to 
Shakespeare. Recent departmental productions have included Elizabeth Egloff s 
Phaedra, Bertolt Brecht's Good Person ofSetzuan, and a student-directed The 
Taming of the Shrew. In conjunction with the department's activities, visiting 



Educational Resources and Facilities 

artists present performance workshops and professional courses in a variety of 
areas. The department has sponsored several residencies and performances by 
artists such as Spalding Gray and Dan Hurlin (both Obie-award-winning perfor- 
mance and theater artists). 

Memorial Hall, a striking gothic-style granite and stained glass memorial to 
Bowdoin's Civil War veterans, was completed in 1882 and houses the College's 
main performance spaces. Pickard Theater, the generous gift of Frederick 
William Pickard. LL.D., in 1955, includes a 600-seat theater with proscenium 
stage equipped with a full fly system and computer lighting. The G.H.Q. 
Playwrights' Theater, a 100-seat. flexible, laboratory theater is used to present a 
wide range of work by students and faculty. Memorial Hall also contains a scene 
shop, a costume shop, and classrooms for theater and dance. 

Masque and Gown sponsors an annual, student-written, one-act play festival, 
a sixty-year-long tradition, partially underwritten by the generous gift of Hunter 
S. Frost '47. In addition to the one-act play festival. Masque and Gown presents 
one major production and numerous other plays throughout the year. An execu- 
tive committee of undergraduates elected by its members consults with the 
group's academic advisor to determine the program for each year. The board 
organizes production work and takes responsibility for the club's publicity. 
Masque and Gown members work as actors, playwrights, directors, designers, 
builders, painters, electricians, stage hands, publicists, and producers. 



Student Life 



Bowdoin College encourages students to combine their scholarship in the 
classroom with experiences in a wide variety of co-curricular activities that foster 
the development of leadership and citizenship. Music, dance, and drama groups, 
student government, special interest groups, the Bowdoin Outing Club, and the 
Bowdoin Volunteer Program are among the many groups that provide opportu- 
nities for participation. Art exhibits, lectures, concerts, films, and theatrical 
productions contribute to the life of the College beyond the classroom. Twenty- 
nine varsity sports and five club sports are the focus of the Athletics Department, 
which also sponsors intramural athletics and oversees training facilities that are 
open to all students and staff. 

RESIDENTIAL LIFE 

There is a wide variety of housing at Bowdoin, including traditional residence 
halls, Coles Tower, and theme houses and apartments. The College residences are 
designed to be an important part of the college experience. They are places for 
sleep, study, and conversation. But more important, the residences are commu- 
nities that encourage students to learn about themselves and others. 

First-year students are required to live in campus housing. All other students 
may choose to live in campus housing, in a fraternity, or in the neighboring 
communities. Students living in College housing (including the fraternities), with 
the exception of the apartments and a few designated houses, must choose either 
a full 1 9-meal board plan or a 1 4-meal plan that does not include breakfasts. Those 
living off campus and in the apartments may select from a variety of meal plans. 
Dining facilities include the newly renovated Moulton Union, Wentworth Hall, 
or fraternity dining rooms for members. 

Campus housing is overseen by the director of residential life, who reports to 
the dean of student affairs. The director trains and supervises a 40-member 
student staff composed of proctors, resident assistants, and interns whose aim is 
to provide a climate conducive to intellectual and social life. 

There are eight coeducational fraternities at Bowdoin. About 30 percent of 
Bowdoin students are fraternity members. Nearly 120 members reside in the 
houses, which are located adjacent to campus and are owned by alumni house 
corporations. 

Religious activities at Bowdoin are organized by the students with the support 
of the Bowdoin and Brunswick communities. The Bowdoin Christian Fellow- 
ship, the Bowdoin Jewish Organization, the Canterbury Club, and the Catholic 
Students Union are active on the campus. 



Student Life 



CODES OF CONDUCT 

Bowdoin College holds each student responsible for his or her behavior both in 
and out of the classroom. Students are also required to assure the same high 
standards from their guests. As students register for their first semester, they are 
asked to sign the Honor and Social Code pledge book. By signing, each student 
promises to abide by the Academic Honor Code and the Social Code that together 
form the basis for conduct at Bowdoin College. 

The Academic Honor Code is based on the conviction that uncompromised 
intellectual inquiry lies at the heart of a liberal education. Academic dishonesty 
is antithetical to our institutional values. Students pledge neither to give nor to 
receive unacknowledged aid in any academic undertaking. It is each student's 
responsibility to become familiar with the code and with the guidelines in 
Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgment. 

The Social Code describes the rights and responsibilities of Bowdoin students. 
While it imposes no specific morality on students, the College requires certain 
standards of behavior to secure the safety of the College community and ensure 
that the campus remains a center of learning. The Social Code requires that 
students conduct themselves in accordance with local, state, and federal laws. It 
also protects the rights of all students to privacy and to full participation in the life 
of the College. Specific policies on illegal drugs, alcohol, sexual harassment, 
sexual assault, and computer use are found in the Student Handbook. 

The success of the Academic Honor and Social Codes depends on the active 
commitment of all members of the community; please refer to the Student 
Handbook for the text of the Codes and for more specific information on the 
College's responses to violations. 

Individuals who suspect violations of the Academic Honor Code and/or Social 
Code should not attempt to resolve the issues independently, but are urged to refer 
their concerns to the appropriate dean. The College reserves the right to impose 
sanctions on students who violate these codes. 

The Office of the Dean of Student Affairs is responsible for the administration 
of the disciplinary process. The Judicial Board shall review cases referred by the 
Dean's Office. In cases of Academic Honor Code violation, the Judicial Board 
decisions arc final. In Social Code cases, the decision is a recommendation to the 
dean of student affairs. The appeals process is detailed in the Student Handbook. 

STUDENT GOVERNMENT 

All students enrolled ai the College are members of the Student Assembly. 

The Executive Hoard of the Student Assembly consists of fifteen members, 
who appoint their officers for the academic year. To he eligible for election to the 
Executive Hoard, a candidate for office must present a petition signed by at least 
iiit> students. Elections are held each spring and fall. 



Student Life 231 

The Executive Board meets weekly and is charged with presenting student 
opinion to the administration; overseeing all chartered student organizations; 
maintaining standing committees, including the Student Judicial Board, which 
administers the Honor Code and the Social Code; filling student positions on 
faculty and Governing Board committees; and supervising class officer elections. 

STUDENT SERVICES 

The College provides a variety of services designed to promote the well-being of 
its students, in support of the broad educational goals of the College. 

Career Planning Center 

The Career Planning Center (CPC) complements the academic mission of the 
College. A major goal of the Center is to introduce undergraduates to the process 
of career planning, which includes self-assessment, career exploration, goal- 
setting, and the development of an effective job search strategy. Students are 
encouraged to visit the CPC early during their college years for counseling and 
information on internships and summer jobs. The CPC assists seniors and alumni/ 
ae in their transition to work or graduate study and prepares them to make future 
career decisions. 

A dedicated, professionally trained staff is available for individual career 
counseling. Workshops and presentations provide assistance in identifying 
marketable skills, writing resumes, preparing for interviews, and refining job- 
hunting techniques. Panel discussions and informational meetings throughout the 
year are designed to broaden students' awareness of their career options and to 
enhance their understanding of the job market. Programming and advising 
regarding graduate and professional school study is offered as well. In counseling 
style and program content, the CPC addresses the needs of those with diverse 
interests, values, and expectations. 

Each year, nearly 40 companies, 70 graduate and professional schools, and a 
growing number of secondary schools and nonprofit employers participate in the 
on-campus recruiting program. Bowdoin is also a member of interviewing 
consortia in Boston and New York City. The office subscribes to over thirty 
periodicals listing current job opportunities, has access to on-line employer 
information, a computerized career assessment and decision-making program, 
and houses application materials on more than 1,100 summer and semester 
internships. 

The Career Planning Center continually updates an alumni/ae advisory 
network and a resource library located on the first floor of the Moulton Union. A 
weekly newsletter publicizes all CPC events and programs in addition to intern- 
ship and job openings. 



232 Student Life 

Health Services 

The Dudley Coe Health Center provides medical and nursing services to students 
on a walk-in basis, Monday through Friday, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., and 
Saturday and Sunday, from 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Physicians, registered nurses, 
a nurse practitioner, and a radiologic technologist work together to staff the 
student health services. Complete gynecologic services are available by appoint- 
ment. The health center holds a weekly orthopedic clinic and provides diagnostic 
X-ray services. 

The Dudley Coe Health Center works closely with the local medical commu- 
nity and area hospitals to provide comprehensive health care to all Bowdoin 
students. The Health Center does not provide clinical services during school 
vacations. 

Counseling Service 

The Counseling Service is staffed by experienced mental health professionals 
(trained in psychology, social work, or counseling) who are dedicated to helping 
students resolve personal and academic difficulties and maximize their psycho- 
logical and intellectual potential. The counseling staff assists students who have 
concerns about anxiety, depression, academic pressure, family conflicts, room- 
mate problems, alcohol and drug use, date rape, eating disorders and body image, 
sexuality, intimate relationships, and many other matters. In addition to providing 
individual and group counseling, the staff conducts programs and workshops and 
provides training and consultation for the Bowdoin community. When appropri- 
ate, counselors may refer students to a consulting psychiatrist for evaluation 
regarding psychoactive medication. The Counseling Service maintains a particu- 
larly strong commitment to meeting the needs of underrepresented groups and 
enhancing cross-cultural understanding. Information disclosed by a student to his 
or her counselor is subject to strict confidentiality. 

Students may schedule a counseling appointment by calling ext. 3145 or 
stopping by the office in person. Regular hours are from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., 
Monday through Friday. A walk-in "emergency" hour is set aside each weekday 
from 4:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. for any student who may be experiencing a personal 
crisis that warrants immediate attention. After hours and on weekends, students 
may reach an on-call counselor for emergency consultation by calling Bowdoin 
Security (ext. 3500). The Counseling Service does not provide clinical services 
during school vacations. 

The Counseling Service staff also provides brief counseling and referral 
Services to all Bowdoin employees through the College's Employee Assistance 
Program (EAP). Imployccs may call the Counseling Service to schedule an 
appointment during regular hours, or may arrange to sec an oil-campus EAP 
counselor (Anne luiulci burk. L.C.S.W.) by calling 729-7710. 

I be Counseling Service offices are located on the third floor of the Dudley Coe 

Health (enter. 



Student Life 233 

Security 

Bowdoin maintains a staff of trained, uniformed security officers who are on duty 
24 hours a day to respond to emergencies and maintain a regular patrol of the 
campus. Assistance can be summoned by using the College telephone system. 
The Security Communications Center is open 24 hours a day at extension 3314 
for information. For emergencies, call extension 3500 or 725-3500. 

The Security Office is open Monday through Friday from 8:30 to 1 1:30 a.m. 
and from 12:30 to 5:00 p.m. The administrative office is closed on holidays and 
weather emergency days. Student identification cards and vehicle registrations 
may be obtained from the Security Office between the hours of 2:30 and 4:30 p.m., 
Monday through Friday. 

Students, whether or not they reside on campus, are required to register 
their vehicles with Campus Security. Students are assigned a specific parking 
location and are issued a decal for their assigned parking lot. Proof of insurance 
and state vehicle registration must be presented when registering with Campus 
Security. A $ 10 fee, which is subject to change, is charged for the parking decal. 

A free shuttle service operates from 7:30 p.m. to 11:00 p.m., Sunday through 
Thursday, and from 7:30 p.m. to 2:00 a.m., Friday and Saturday, during the 
academic year. The service is "on demand," and students must call extension 3337 
or 725-3337 for a ride. Students are encouraged to use the service, which provides 
transportation within campus and to the outskirts of campus. Student Safe 
Walkers are also available to walk with individuals who request their assistance 
on campus only. Safe Walk service may be obtained by calling extension 3337 or 
725-3337 between 8:00 p.m. and midnight seven days a week. 



ATHLETICS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION 

Bowdoin believes that physical education is an important part of the total 
educational program. The Department of Athletics provides students with oppor- 
tunities for satisfying experiences in physical activities for the achievement of 
health and physical fitness. The physical education program includes classes that 
provide instruction in sports activities, intramural athletics, and intercollegiate 
competition. Students are encouraged to use the athletic facilities to participate in 
free recreational play. 

Physical Education 

The instructional program includes a wide variety of activities utilizing campus 
and off-campus facilities, both natural and man-made. The activities have been 
selected to provide the Bowdoin community (students, faculty, and staff mem- 
bers) with the opportunity to receive basic instruction in exercises and leisure- 
time activities. It is hoped that participants will develop these activities into 
lifelong commitments. The program varies from year to year to meet current 
interests and generally includes such activities as canoeing, swimming, and 
fishing. 



234 Student Life 

Intramurals 

Coeducational leagues at the novice, intermediate, and advanced levels are 
uttered in basketball, touch football, ultimate frisbee, ice hockey, outdoor soccer, 
softball. indoor and outdoor volleyball, and water basketball. All students and 
members of the faculty and staff are eligible to participate in the intramural 
program unless they are playing for a corresponding varsity, junior varsity, or club 
team. A coed tennis tournament and triathlon are held each fall and spring. 

Intercollegiate Athletics 

During the past year. Bowdoin offered intercollegiate competition in the follow- 
ing varsity sports: men's baseball, basketball, cross country, football, ice hockey, 
lacrosse, skiing, soccer, squash, swimming, tennis, and track (winter and spring); 
women's basketball, cross country, field hockey, ice hockey, lacrosse, skiing, 
soccer, softball, squash, swimming, tennis, track (winter and spring), and volley- 
ball; and coed golf and sailing. 

Club Sports 

The following club sports are active at Bowdoin: crew, karate, rugby, ultimate 
frisbee, and water polo. 

Outdoor Facilities 

Whittier Field, a tract of 5 acres, is used for football games and also includes a 400- 
meter, all-weather track. It has a grandstand with team rooms beneath it. Pickard 
Field is a tract of 35 acres that includes baseball and softball diamonds; spacious 
playing fields for football, lacrosse, rugby, soccer, softball, and touch football; 
eight tennis courts; and a cross-country ski track. 

Indoor Facilities 

Morrell Gymnasium contains a modern basketball court with seats for about 
2,000 persons; two visiting team rooms; 1 1 squash courts; men's and women's 
locker rooms; shower facilities; a modern, fully equipped, coed training room; 
olt ices tor the director of athletics and department staff; and a divided multipur- 
pose room. 

Sargent Gymnasium contains the Dance Studio, a regulation basketball court, 
and the College's new Sidney Watson Fitness Center. The fitness center is 
equipped with a combination of free weights, selectorized machines, and cardio- 
vascular machines in a well-designed 4,800-square-foot area that accommodates 
all members Of the Bowdoin community, from the casual user to the varsity 
athlete. 

The William Farley Field House contains a 200-meter, 6-lane track, a weight 
room, and lour tennis courts adjacent to the A. LeRoy Greason Swimming Pool, 

a I l4-by-75-foot, 1 6-lane pool with one 3-meter and two 1 -meter diving boards; 

a training room; locker ami equipment rooms; and an aerobics room. 



Student Life 235 

Completing the athletic facilities is the Dayton Arena, which has a 200-by-85- 
foot refrigerated ice surface and seating accommodations for 2,600 spectators, 
with men's and women's locker rooms, two visiting team rooms, and a training 
room. 

STUDENT ACTIVITIES 

There are currently more than 75 active student organizations at Bowdoin; 
additional groups are frequently formed by students with similar interests. 
Among the oldest groups are the Outing Club, the Orient, and Masque and Gown, 
a student-run dramatic organization. The Bowdoin Ballroom Dance Club, founded 
in 1995, is one of the newest. For a complete list and descriptions of student 
organizations, please consult the Student Organizations Handbook published by 
the Student Activities Office. 

The David Saul Smith Union houses the Student Activities Office, the offices 
of the director and assistant director of student activities, the information center, 
the bookstore, the headquarters of the Executive Board of the Student Assembly, 
the mailroom, the Cafe, the Gameroom, Jack Magee's Pub, and a workspace that 
can be used by any student organization. 



Alumni Organizations 



Alumni Association 

The Bowdoin College Alumni Association has as its purpose "to further the well- 
being of the College and its alumni by stimulating the interest of its members in 
the College and each other through the conduct of programs by and for alumni and 
by encouraging the efforts of its members in programs that promote the Common 
Good." Membership is open to former students who during a minimum of one 
semester's residence earned at least one academic credit toward a degree, to those 
holding Bowdoin degrees, and to anyone elected to membership by the Executive 
Committee of the Alumni Council. 

Alumni Council Executive Committee 

Officers: Jane McKay Morrell '81, president; Sara B. Eddy '82, secretary and 
treasurer. 

Members-at-Large: Terms expire in 1997: Douglas C. Bates '66, Tyree P. 
Jones '82, Jane McKay Morrell '81, and Thomas E. Walsh, Jr. '83. Terms expire 
in 1998: Richard M. Burston '49, Donald C. Ferro '68, Jane E. Titcomb '74, and 
Edward F. Woods '49. Terms expire in 1999: William A. Dougherty '46, Walter 
G. Gans '57, Wanda E. Fleming '82, and Tricia T. Lin '87. Terms expire in 2000: 
Judith E. Laster '81, Deborah Jensen Barker ' 80, Gregory E. Kerr ' 79, and Michel 
J. LePage '78. 

Other members of the council executive committee are a representative of the 
faculty, the director of Annual Giving, the chair of the Alumni Fund, a national 
chair of clubs, one member of the Afro-American Alumni Council, the national 
chair of BASIC, three undergraduates, and the vice president for development and 
College relations. The President of the College is an ex officio member. 

Alumni Council Awards 

Alumni Service Award: First established in 1932 as the Alumni Achievement 
Award and renamed the Alumni Service Award in 1953, this award is made 
annually to the person who, in the opinion of alumni, as expressed by the Alumni 
Council, best represents the alumnus or alumna whose services to Bowdoin most 
deserve recognition. 

The recipient in 1996 was Norman C. Nicholson, Jr. '56. 

Alumni Award for /'acuity and Staff: Established by the Alumni Council in 
I'JM, this award is presented each year "for service and devotion to Bowdoin, 

recognizing that the College in a larger sense includes both students and alumni." 
I be recipient in 1 996 was Richard A. Mersereau '69, executive assistant to the 
President and the Governing Boards. 



Alumni Organizations 237 

Distinguished Educator Award: Established in 1964, this award recognizes 
outstanding achievement in the field of education by a Bowdoin alumnus or 
alumna, except alumni who are members of the Bowdoin faculty and staff. 

The recipient in 1996 was Merrill C. Cousens '69, head of the English and 
Foreign Language Department at Marshwood High School in Eliot, Maine. 

Bowdoin Magazine 

Established in 1927, Bowdoin magazine is published three times a year and 
contains articles of general interest about the College and its alumni. It is sent 
without charge to all alumni, seniors, parents of current students and recent 
graduates, faculty and staff members, and various friends of the College. 

Bowdoin Alumni School and Interviewing Committees (BASIC) 

BASIC is a volunteer association of approximately 400 alumni in the United 
States and several foreign countries which assists the Admissions Office in the 
identification and evaluation of candidates. BASIC responsibilities include 
providing alumni interviews for applicants when distance or time precludes a visit 
to Brunswick, representing the College at local "college fair" programs, and, in 
general, serving as liaison between the College and prospective students. 

Those interested in learning more about the BASIC organization should 
contact the Admissions Office. 

Alumni Fund 

The principal task of the Bowdoin Alumni Fund is to raise unrestricted financial 
support for the College' s educational programs and other student-related services 
on an annual basis. All gifts to the Alumni Fund are for current operational 
expenses and play a significant role in maintaining a balanced budget. Since the 
Fund' s inception in 1 869, Bowdoin alumni have consistently demonstrated a high 
level of annual support, enabling the College to preserve and enhance the 
Bowdoin experience. In 1994-95, the Fund total was $3,328,255, with 53.7% 
alumni participation. 

Chair: Kenneth M. Cole III '69. 

Directors: Bradford A. Hunter '78 (term expires in 1998), Sandra Stone 
Hotchkiss '77 (term expires in 1 999), John A. Whipple '68 (term expires in 2000), 
David G. Brown '79 (term expires in 2001). 



238 Alumni Organizations 



Alumni Fund Awards 



Alumni Fund Cup: Awarded annually since 1932, the Alumni Fund Cup 
recognizes the Reunion Class making the largest contribution to the Alumni 
Fund, unless that Reunion Class wins the Babcock Plate; in that event, the cup is 
awarded to the non-Reunion Class making the largest contribution. 

The recipient in 1995 was the Class of 1957, Edward E. Langbein, Jr. and 
David Z. Webster, class agents, and Erik Lund, special gifts chair. 

Leon W. Babcock Plate: Presented to the College in 1980 by William L. 
Babcock, Jr. '69, and his wife, Suzanne, in honor of his grandfather, Leon W. 
Babcock '17, it is awarded annually to the class making the largest dollar 
contribution to the Alumni Fund. 

The recipient in 1995 was the Class of 1955, Robert C. Delaney, class agent. 

Class of 1916 Bowl: Presented to the College by the Class of 1916, it is 
awarded annually to the class whose record in the Alumni Fund shows the greatest 
improvement over its performance of the preceding year. 

The recipient in 1995 was the Class of 1970, John D. Delahanty and Wayne 
C. Sanford, class agents, and Lee D. Rowe, special gifts chair. 

Class of 1929 Trophy: Presented by the Class of 1929 in 1963, it is awarded 
annually to that one of the ten youngest classes attaining the highest percentage 
of participation. 

The recipient in 1995 was the Class of 1985, Dana J. Bullwinkel-Campbell, 
David E. Criscione, Robert R. Forsberg, Jr., class agents, and Todd R. Herrmann 
and William M. Marr, special gifts chairs. 

Robert Seaver Edwards Trophy: Awarded annually to that one of the ten 
youngest classes raising the most money for the Fund, this trophy honors the 
memory of Robert Seaver Edwards, Class of 1900. 

The recipient in 1995 was the Class of 1985, Dana J. Bullwinkel-Campbell, 
David E. Criscione, Robert R. Forsberg, Jr., class agents, and Todd R. Herrmann 
and William M. Marr, special gifts chairs. 

Fund Directors' Trophy: Established in 1972 by the directors of the Alumni 
Fund, the trophy is awarded annually to the class which, in the opinion of the 
directors, achieved an outstanding performance not acknowledged by any other 
trophy. 

The recipients in 1995 were the Class of 1945, Robert I. de Sherbinin. class 
agent, and Timothy M. Warren, special gifts chair; and the Class of I960, Glenn 
K. Richards, class agent, and Bruce R. Bockmann and Edward M. Fuller II, 
Special gift8 chairs. 



Alumni Organizations 239 

$100,000 Club: Established by the directors in 1989 and retroactive to the 
Fund year 1984-85, the $100,000 Club recognizes each class agent and special 
gifts chair who has led his or her class over the $100,000 figure during an Alumni 
Fund year. 

The recipients in 1995 were Merton C. Henry and Sanford R. Sistare, class of 
1950; Robert C. Delaney, class of 1955; Edward E. Langbein, Jr., Erik Lund, and 
David Z. Webster, class of 1957; Bruce R. Bockmann, Edward M. Fuller II, and 
Glenn K. Richards, class of 1960; John D. Delahanty, Lee D. Rowe, and Wayne 
C. Sanford, class of 1970; Leo J. Dunn III, Barbara Tarmy Fradin, and Peter B. 
White, class of 1975; Leo T. Guen and Stephen P. Maidman, class of 1976. 

Robert M. Cross Awards: Established by the directors in 1990, the Robert M. 
Cross Awards are awarded annually to those class agents whose outstanding 
performance, hard work, and loyalty to Bowdoin, as personified by Robert M. 
Cross '45 during his many years of association with the Fund, are deserving of 
special recognition. 

The recipients in 1995 were Nathan W. Watson ' 35, Harry H. Baldwin III '40, 
and Charles E. Hartshorn, Jr. '41. 

The President's Cup for Alumni Giving 

Established by the Development Committee of the Governing Boards in 1985, 
two cups are awarded annually — one for classes out of college forty-nine years 
or less, and one for classes out of college fifty years or more. The awards are 
presented on the basis of the total giving effort of a class, with all gifts actually 
received by or for the benefit of the College during the academic year eligible. 

The recipients in 1995 were the Class of 1957 and the Class of 1926. 

Society of Bowdoin Women 

The Society of Bowdoin Women was formed in 1922 to provide "an organi- 
zation in which those with a common bond of Bowdoin loyalty may, by becoming 
better acquainted with the College and with each other, work together to serve the 
College." 

The Society of Bowdoin Women continues to adapt its focus to support the 
changing needs of the College. The Edith Lansing Koon Sills Lecture Fund, 
established in 1961 , is used to sponsor cultural, career, and literary speakers. The 
Society of Bowdoin Women Foundation, created in 1924, provided resources for 
the College's general use. With the inception of coeducation at Bowdoin in 197 1 , 
the Society decided to restrict the funds to provide annual scholarships to 
qualified women students and renamed it the Society of Bowdoin Women 
Scholarship Foundation. The Society of Bowdoin Women Athletic Award, 
established in 1 978, recognizes effort, cooperation, and sportsmanship by a senior 
member of a women's varsity team. The Dorothy Haythorn Collins Award, 
created in 1985, honors a junior student exemplifying overall excellence and 
outstanding performance in his or her chosen field of study. 



240 Alumni Organizations 

The Society's programs and activities are made possible by dues, contribu- 
tions, and bequests. Membership is open to any interested person by payment of 
annual dues of $3.00. 

Officers: Kimberly Labbe Mills '82, president; Blythe Bickel Edwards, 
honorary president; O. Jeanne d'Arc Mayo, vice president; Victoria L. Kallin, 
secretary; Joan R. Shepherd, treasurer; Carta L. Shaw, activities coordinator; 
Martha B. Heussler, assistant activities coordinator; Mary Scott Brownell, 
nominating. 

Association of Bowdoin Friends 

Founded in 1 984, the Association of Bowdoin Friends is a volunteer group of 
Brunswick-area residents who share an interest in the well-being of the College. 
The Bowdoin Friends actively support the College, library, museums, and music 
and athletics programs. Friends regularly attend lectures, concerts, and special 
programs on campus, and many audit classes. Activities sponsored by the 
association include bus trips to New England museums, and receptions and 
dinners held in conjunction with presentations by Bowdoin faculty and students. 

Bowdoin Friends contribute to the life of the College through the Host Family 
Program. The Host Family Program pairs local families with international 
students, teaching fellows, and visiting faculty, as well as interested first-year 
students, easing the transition to College life and fostering lasting friendships. 
Through this program, international students and faculty are offered a taste of 
American life and culture. 

A $25 annual fee is required of all Bowdoin Friends who wish to receive copies 
of the College calendar and magazine. 

Steering Committee: Nancy K. Higgins, chair; James P. Bowditch, Warren R. 
Dwyer, Marjorie B. Follansbee, Anne H. Howell, Elizabeth Knowles, Elaine B. 
Miller, Gordon W. O'Donnell, Joan C. Phillips, Nancy J. W. Porter, Joan V. 
Smith, Lloyd M. Van Lunen. 



Summer Programs 



Bowdoin College summer programs provide an opportunity for a variety of 
people to enjoy the College's facilities and to benefit from the expertise of 
Bowdoin faculty and staff during the nonacademic portion of the year. Summer 
programs consist of educational seminars, professional conferences, sports 
clinics, specialized workshops, and occasional social events that are appropriate 
to the College's overall mission as an educational institution and as a member of 
the Maine community. 

The longest-running summer program involving members of the Bowdoin 
faculty and the longest-running summer program in its area of study in the United 
States is the Infrared Spectroscopy Course. Initiated at Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology in 1950, the program moved to Bowdoin in 1972. Over three 
thousand scientists have come to campus to work with many of the original staff. 

Upward Bound, in its thirty-first year at Bowdoin, is one of over 500 similar 
programs hosted by educational institutions across the country. Funded by the 
U.S. Department of Education, these programs are intended to provide low- 
income high school students with the skills and motivation necessary for success 
in higher education. 

Founded in 1 964, the Bowdoin Summer Music Festival incorporates a music 
school, a concert series featuring internationally acclaimed guest artists and the 
Festival's renowned faculty, and the nationally recognized Gamper Festival of 
Contemporary Music. Approximately 200 gifted performers of high school, 
college, and graduate school levels participate in a concentrated six-week 
program of instrumental and chamber music and composition studies with the 
Festival's faculty, which is composed of teacher-performers from the world's 
leading conservatories. 

The Hockey Clinic, under the direction of the Athletic Department, began at 
Bowdoin College in 1 97 1 . Boy s and girls, ranging from nine to eighteen years old, 
come from throughout the United States to train with Bowdoin coaches as well 
as coaches from other prep schools and academies with outstanding hockey 
programs. 

Each year additional camps are offered by members of the athletic staff in 
tennis, basketball, and soccer. A day camp for children from seven to fourteen 
years old is based in Farley Field House. 

In addition to the four long-term programs described above, other programs 
brought to campus by Bowdoin faculty, staff, and outside associations attract 
several thousand people to the College each summer. 

Persons interested in holding a conference at Bowdoin should contact the 
Office of Events and Summer Programs, which schedules all summer activities 
and coordinates dining, overnight accommodations, meeting space, audiovisual 
services, and other amenities. 



Officers of Government 



PRESIDENT OF THE COLLEGE 

Robert Hazard Edwards, A.B. (Princeton), A.B.. A.M. (Cambridge), 
LL.B. (Harvard), L.H.D. (Carleton), President of the College. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Frederick Gordon Potter Thorne, A.B. (Bowdoin), Chair. Elected Overseer, 

1972; elected Trustee, 1982. Term expires 1998. 
David Earl Warren, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Columbia), Vice Chair. Elected 

Overseer, 1988.* Term expires 2000. 
I. Joel Abromson, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1994.* First term 

expires 2000. 
Thomas Hodge Allen, A.B. (Bowdoin), B.Phil. (Oxford), J.D. (Harvard). 

Elected Overseer, 1985.* Term expires 1997. 
Walter Edward Bartlett, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1990.* Term 

expires 2001. 
David Pillsbury Becker, A.B. (Bowdoin), A.M. (New York University). 

Elected Overseer, 1986.* Term expires 1998. 
Rosalyne Spindel Bernstein, A.B. (Radcliffe), J.D. (Maine). Elected 

Overseer, 1973; elected Trustee, 1981. Term expires 1997. 
Marijane Leila Benner Browne, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Harvard). Elected 

Overseer, 1994.* First term expires 2000. 
Tracy Jean Burlock, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1990.* Term 

expires 2001. 
Geoffrey Canada, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1995.* First term 

expires 2001. 



*Prior to 1996, Bowdoin had a bicameral governance structure. Overseers were elected 
for a tu yeat term, reviewable once; Trustees were elected for an eight-year term, also 
renewable on, e. In Jane of 1 996, the governance strut hot became unicameral. All Hoards 

members bet ame Trustees, eligible to serve the remainder of their current term. 

trustees elated or re elected in 1996 and thereafter serve five -Year terms without a 

predetermined limit to the number of terms individuals may serve, it should be note, I thai 
theexpei tatlonis that most Trustees will serve two terms and some will serve three or more 



242 



Officers of Government 243 

Thomas Clark Casey, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (Stanford). Elected Overseer, 

1989.* Term expires 2001. 
The Honorable David Michael Cohen, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Boston 

College School of Law). Elected Overseer, 1994.* First term expires 2000. 
Philip R. Cowen, B.S. (New York University). Elected Overseer, 1993.* First 

term expires 1999. 
J. Taylor Crandall, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1991.* First term 

expires 1997. 
Peter Frank Drake, A.B. (Bowdoin), Ph.D. (Bryn Mawr). Elected Overseer, 

1992.* First term expires 1998. 
Stanley Freeman Druckenmiller, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1991.* 

First term expires 1997. 
Marc Bennett Garnick, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.D. (University of Pennsylvania). 

Elected Trustee, 1996. First term expires 2001. 
Leon Arthur Gorman, A.B., LL.D. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1983; 

elected Trustee, 1994. First term expires 2002. 
Gordon Francis Grimes, A.B. (Bowdoin), B.A. (Cambridge), J.D. (Boston). 

Elected Overseer, 1986.* Term expires 1998. 
Laurie Anne Hawkes, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (Cornell). Elected Overseer, 

1986; elected Trustee, 1995. First term expires 2003. 
William Harris Hazen, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Harvard). Elected Overseer, 

1981; elected Trustee, 1994. First term expires 2002. 
Dennis James Hutchinson, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A. (Oxford), LL.M. (Texas- 
Austin). Elected Overseer, 1975; elected Trustee, 1987. Term expires 2003. 
Samuel Appleton Ladd III, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1991.* First 

term expires 1997. 
James Walter MacAllen, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1995.* First 

term expires 2001. 
George Calvin Mackenzie, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A. (Tufts), Ph.D. (Harvard). 

Elected Overseer, 1986.* Term expires 1998. 
Nancy Bellhouse May, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Columbia). Elected Trustee, 

1996. First term expires 2001. 
Barry Mills, A.B. (Bowdoin), Ph.D. (Syracuse), J.D. (Columbia). Elected 

Overseer, 1994.* First term expires 2000. 
Richard Allen Morrell, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1979; elected 

Trustee, 1989. First term expires 1997. 
Campbell Barrett Niven, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1986.* Term 

expires 1998. 



244 Officers of Government 

David Alexander Olsen, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1986.* Term 

expires 1998. 
Michael Henderson Owens, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.D., M.P.H. (Yale). Elected 

Overseer, 1988.* Term expires 2000. 
Mollis Susan Rafkin-Sax, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1988.* Term 

expires 2000. 
Edgar Moore Reed, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1995.* First term 

expires 2001. 
Peter Donald Relic, A.B. (Bowdoin), A.M. (Case Western Reserve), Ed.D. 

(Harvard). Elected Overseer, 1987.* Term expires 1999. 
Linda Horvitz Roth, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A. (North Carolina). Elected 

Overseer, 1992.* First term expires 1998. 
Lee Dickinson Rowe, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.D. (University of Pennsylvania). 

Elected Trustee, 1996. First term expires 2001. 
Joan Benoit Samuelson, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1995.* First 

term expires 2001. 
Jill Ann Shaw-Ruddock, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1994.* First 

term expires 2000. 
D. Ellen Shuman, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.S. (Yale). Elected Overseer, 1992.* 

First term expires 1998. 
Carolyn Walch Slayman, A.B. (Swarthmore), Ph.D. (Rockefeller), Sc.D. 

(Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1976; elected Trustee, 1988. Term expires 

2001. 
Peter Metcalf Small, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1988.* Term 

expires 2000. 
Donald B. Snyder, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1992.* First term 

expires 1998. 
Mary Ann Villari, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Boston University). Elected 

Overseer, 1987.* Term expires 1999. 
William Grosvenor \\ "adman. Elected Overseer, 1988.* Term expires 2000. 
Leslie Walker, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1995.* First term expires 

2001. 
Robert Francis White, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (Harvard). Elected Over- 
seer. 1993.* First term expires 1999. 
Barry Neal Wish, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1989; elected Trustee, 

1994. First term expires 2002. 
Elizabeth Christian Woodcock, A.B. (Bowdoin). A.M. (Stanford), J.D. 

(Maine). Elected Overseer, 1985.* Term expires 1997. 



Officers of Government 24, 

John Alden Woodcock, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A. (University of London), 
J.D. (University of London). Elected Trustee, 1996. First term expires 
2001. 

Donald Mack Zuckert, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (New York University). 
Elected Overseer, 1987; elected Trustee, 1995. First term expires 2003. 



Robert H. Millar, A.B. (Bowdoin), B.Div. (Yale), Secretary. Elected 1991, 

re-elected 1996. Term expires 2001. 
Anne W. Springer, A.B. (Bowdoin), Assistant Secretary. Elected Secretary 

of the Board of Overseers, 1995; elected Assistant Secretary, 1996. Term 

expires 1999. 

EMERITI 

Charles William Allen, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Michigan), LL.D. (Bowdoin). 

Elected Overseer, 1967; elected emeritus, 1976. 
Willard Bailey Arnold III, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.S. (New York University). 

Elected Overseer, 1970; elected emeritus, 1984. 
Peter Charles Barnard, A.B. (Bowdoin), A.M. (Middlebury). Elected 

Secretary, 1977; elected secretary of the president and trustees emeritus 

and overseer emeritus, 1991. 
Robert Ness Bass, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (Harvard). Elected Overseer, 

1964; elected emeritus, 1980. 
Gerald Walter Blakeley, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1960; 

elected emeritus, 1976. 
Matthew Davidson Branche, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.D. (Boston University). 

Elected Overseer, 1970; elected emeritus, 1985. 
Theodore Hamilton Brodie, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1983; 

elected emeritus, 1995. 
Paul Peter Brountas, A.B. (Bowdoin), B.A., M.A. (Oxford), J.D., LL.B. 

(Harvard). Elected Overseer, 1974; elected Trustee, 1984; elected emeritus, 

1996. 
George Hench Butcher III, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Harvard). Elected 

Overseer, 1985; elected emeritus, 1995. 
John Everett Cartland, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin), M.D. (Columbia). Elected 

Overseer, 1976; elected emeritus, 1988. 
Kenneth Irvine Chenault, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Harvard). Elected Over- 
seer, 1986; elected emeritus, 1993. 



246 Officers of Government 

Norman Paul Cohen, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Harvard). Elected Overseer, 

1977; elected emeritus. 1989. 
The Honorable William Sebastian Cohen, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Boston 

University). LL.D. (St. Joseph, Maine, Western New England, Bowdoin, 

Nasson). Elected Overseer, 1973; elected emeritus, 1985. 
David Watson Daly Dickson, A.B. (Bowdoin). A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), 

L.H.D. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1966; elected Trustee, 1975; elected 

emeritus, 1982. 
The Reverend Richard Hill Downes, A.B. (Bowdoin), STB. (General 

Theological Seminary). Elected Overseer, 1970; elected emeritus, 1983. 
Oliver Farrar Emerson II, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1974; elected 

emeritus, 1986. 
William Francis Farley, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Boston College), LL.D. 

(Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1980; elected emeritus, 1992. 
Frank John Farrington, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.S. (The American College). 

Elected Overseer, 1984; elected emeritus, 1996. 
Herbert Spencer French, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (Pennsylvania). 

Elected Overseer, 1976; elected emeritus, 1988. 
Albert Edward Gibbons, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1973; 

elected emeritus, 1985. 
Arthur LeRoy Greason, A.B. (Wesleyan), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), D. Litt. 

(Wesleyan), L.H.D. (Colby, Bowdoin, Bates). President of the College, 

1981-1990; elected emeritus, 1990. 
Jonathan Standish Green, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (California). Elected 

Overseer, 1975; elected emeritus, 1987. 
Marvin Howe Green, Jr. Elected Overseer, 1985; emeritus election pending, 

October 1996. 
Kenneth David Hancock, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1988; elected 

emeritus, 1994. 
Peter Francis Hayes, A.B. (Bowdoin), B.A., M.A. (Oxford), A.M., M.Phil., 

Ph.D. (Yale). Elected Overseer, 1969; elected emeritus. 1983. 
Merton Goodell Henry, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (George Washington), LL.D. 

(Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1962; elected Trustee, 1974; elected 

emeritus, I9N7. 
Caroline Lee Herter. Elected Overseer, 1976; elected Trustee, 1988; elected 

emerita, 1996. 
Regina Elbinger lkr/.linf»er, B.S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). 

D.B.A. (Harvard). Elected Overseer, 1983; elected emerita, 1989. 



Officers of Government 247 

The Reverend Judith Linnea Anderson Hoehler, A.B. (Douglass), M.Div. 

(Harvard), S.T.D. (Starr King School for the Ministry). Elected Overseer, 

1980; elected emerita, 1992. 
John Roscoe Hupper, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Harvard). Elected Overseer, 

1970; elected Trustee, 1982; elected emeritus, 1995. 
Roscoe Cunningham Ingalls, Jr., B.S. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1968; 

elected Trustee, 1973; elected emeritus, 1989. 
William Dunning Ireland, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1971; 

elected emeritus, 1986. 
Judith Magyar Isaacson, A.B. (Bates), A.M. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 

1984; elected emerita, 1996. 
Lewis Wertheimer Kresch, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (Harvard). Elected 

Overseer, 1970; elected emeritus, 1983. 
Donald Richardson Kurtz, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (Columbia). Elected 

Overseer, 1984; elected emeritus, 1996. 
Albert Frederick Lilley, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Virginia). Elected Over- 
seer, 1976; elected emeritus, 1988. 
Herbert Mayhew Lord, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Harvard). Elected Overseer, 

1980; elected emeritus, 1992. 
John Francis Magee, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (Harvard), A.M. (Maine). 

Elected Overseer, 1972; elected Trustee, 1979; elected emeritus, 1995. 
Cynthia Graham McFadden, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Columbia). Elected 

Overseer, 1986; elected emerita, 1995. 
Malcolm Elmer Morrell, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Boston University). 

Elected Overseer, 1974; elected emeritus, 1986. 
Robert Warren Morse, B.S. (Bowdoin), Sc.M., Ph.D. (Brown), Sc.D. 

(Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1971; elected emeritus, 1986. 
Norman Colman Nicholson, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1979; 

elected emeritus, 1991. 
John Thorne Perkin, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1973; elected 

emeritus, 1985. 
Payson Stephen Perkins, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1980; elected 

emeritus, 1986. 
William Curtis Pierce, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Harvard), LL.D. (Bowdoin). 

Elected Overseer, 1962; elected Trustee, 1967; elected emeritus, 1981. 
Everett Parker Pope, B.S., A.M., LL.D. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1961; 

elected Trustee, 1977; elected emeritus, 1988. 
Louis Robert Porteous, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.D. (Portland School of Art). 

Elected Overseer, 1982; elected emeritus, 1994. 



248 Officers of Government 

Robert Chamberlain Porter, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Pennsylvania), LL.D. 

(Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1975; elected emeritus, 1987. 
Thomas Prince Riley, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Secretary, 1955; elected 

emeritus, 1983. 
Jean Sampson, A.B. (Smith). LL.D. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1976; 

elected Trustee, 1986; elected emerita, 1994. 
Alden Hart Sawyer, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin). M.B.A. (Michigan). Elected 

Overseer. 1976; elected emeritus, 1985. 
Robert Nelson Smith, Lieutenant General (Ret.), B.S. (Bowdoin), LL.D. 

(Kyung Hee University). Elected Overseer, 1965; elected emeritus, 1978. 
John Ingalls Snow, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.B.A. (Wharton). Elected Overseer, 

1986; elected emeritus, 1992. 
Phineas Sprague, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1985; elected emeritus, 

1992. 
Terry Douglas Stenberg, A.B. (Bowdoin), Ed.M. (Boston University), Ph.D. 

(Minnesota). Elected Overseer, 1983; elected emeritus, 1993. 
Deborah Jean Swiss, A.B. (Bowdoin), Ed.M., Ed.D. (Harvard). Elected 

Overseer, 1983; elected emerita, 1995. 
Raymond Stanley Troubh, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Yale). Elected Overseer, 

1978; elected emeritus, 1990. 
Lewis Vassor Vafiades, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Boston University). Elected 

Overseer, 1973; elected emeritus, 1979. 
William David Verrill, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1980; elected 

emeritus, 1986. 
Winthrop Brooks Walker, A.B. (Bowdoin), LL.B. (Harvard). Elected 

Overseer, 1966; elected Trustee, 1970; elected emeritus, 1986. 
Harry K. Warren, A.B. (Pennsylvania). Elected Secretary, 1986; elected 

emeritus, 1995. 
Timothy Matlack Warren, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1985; elected 

emeritus, 1991. 
George Curtis Webber II, A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Secretary, 1983; elected 

emeritus. 19X6. 

Russell Bacon Wight, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin). Elected Overseer, 1987; elected 

emeritus. 1996. 
Richard Arthur Wiley, AH. (Bowdoin), B.C.L. (Oxford). 1.1. M. (Harvard). 

LL.D. (Bowdoin): Elected Overseer, 1966; elected Trustee, 1981; elected 

emeritus. [993. 



Officers of Instruction 



Robert Hazard Edwards, A.B. (Princeton), A.B., A.M. (Cambridge), LL.B. 
(Harvard), L.H.D. (Carleton), President of the College. (1990)* 



John William Ambrose, Jr., A.B., A.M., Ph.D. (Brown), Joseph Edward 

Merrill Professor of Greek Language and Literature. (1966) 
Michele K. Amidon, B.A. (St. Lawrence), Coach in the Department of 

Athletics. (1996) 
Anthony Frederick Antolini, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A., M.A., Ph.D. (Stanford), 

Director of the Bowdoin Chorus. (Adjunct.) 
Veronica M. Azcue, Lie. (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), M.A. 

(SUNY-Stony Brook), Visiting Instructor in Romance Languages. (1996) 
Marie E. Barbieri, B.A., M.S., M.A., Ph.D. (Pennsylvania), Assistant 

Professor of Romance Languages on the Longfellow Professorship of 

Modern Languages Fund. (On leave of absence for the academic year.) 

(1993) 
William Henry Barker, A.B. (Harpur College), Ph.D. (Massachusetts 

Institute of Technology), Professor of Mathematics. (On leave of absence 

for the academic year.) (1975) 
Ellen K Baum, B.A. (Antioch), M.F.S., M.P.H. (Yale), Adjunct Lecturer in 

Environmental Studies. (Spring semester.) 
Charles R. Beitz, A.B. (Colgate), M.A. (Michigan), M.A., Ph.D. (Princeton), 

Dean for Academic Affairs and Professor of Government. (1991) 
Susan Elizabeth Bell, A.B. (Haverford), A.M., Ph.D. (Brandeis), Professor of 

Sociology. (1983) 
Gretchen Berg, B.A. (Antioch), Adjunct Lecturer in Theater. 
John B. Bisbee, B.F.A. (Alfred), Lecturer in Art. (1996) 
Barbara Weiden Boyd, A.B. (Manhattanville), A.M., Ph.D. (Michigan), 

Professor of Classics. (1980) 
Richard Dale Broene, B.S. (Hope), Ph.D. (California-Los Angeles), 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry. (1993) 
Franklin Gorham Burroughs, Jr., A.B. (University of the South), A.M., 

Ph.D. (Harvard), Harrison King McCann Professor of the English Lan- 
guage. (1968) 
Samuel Shipp Butcher, A.B. (Albion), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Professor of 

Chemistry. (1964) 
Charles Joseph Butt, B.S., M.S. (Springfield), Coach in the Department of 

Athletics. (1961) 

*Date of first appointment to the faculty. 

249 



250 Officers of Instruction 

Helen Louise Cafferty, A.B. (Bowling Green), A.M. (Syracuse), Ph.D. 

(Michigan), William R. Kenan. Jr., Professor of German and the Humani- 
ties. (1972) 
Zoe G. Cardon, B.S. (Utah State), Ph.D. (Stanford), Assistant Professor of 

Biology. (1995) 
Steven Roy Cerf, A.B. (Queens College), M.Ph., Ph.D. (Yale), George 

Lincoln Skolfield, Jr., Professor of German. (1971) 
Kent John Chabotar, B.A. (St. Francis College), M.P.A., Ph.D. (Syracuse), 

Vice President for Finance and Administration and Treasurer and Senior 

Lecturer in Government. (1991) 
Ronald L. Christensen, A.B. (Oberlin), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Professor of 

Chemistry. (1976) 
Louis Chude-Sokei, B.A., Ph.D. (California-Los Angeles), Assistant 

Professor of English. (1995) 
Carol E. Cohn, B.A. (Michigan), Ph.D. (The Union Graduate School), 

Assistant Professor of Sociology and Women's Studies. (1993) 
David Collings, A.B. (Pacific Union), A.M., Ph.D. (California-Riverside), 

Associate Professor of English. (1987) 
Lisa Gail Collins, B.A. (Dartmouth College), Consortium for a Strong 

Minority Presence at Liberal Arts Colleges Scholar-in-Residence and 

Lecturer in Women's Studies. 
Clare Bates Congdon, B.A. (Wesleyan), M.S., Ph.D. (Michigan-Ann Arbor), 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Computer Science. (1996) 
Sarah Conly, B.A. (Princeton), M.A., Ph.D. (Cornell), Visiting Assistant 

Professor of Philosophy. (1996) 
Rachel Ex Connelly, A.B. (Brandeis), A.M., Ph.D. (Michigan), Associate 

Professor of Economics. ( 1 985) 
Denis Joseph Corish, B.Ph., B.A., L.Ph. (Maynooth College, Ireland), A.M. 

(University College, Dublin), Ph.D. (Boston University), Professor of 

Philosophy. (1973) 
Thomas Browne Cornell, A.B. (Amherst), Professor of Art. (1962) 
Donald Crane, B.S., M.S. (Montana State), Head Athletic Trainer. (1996) 
John I), Cullen, A.B. (Brown), Assistant Director of Athletics and Coach in 

tin- Department of Athletics. (1985) 
Leila L. De Andrade, B.A. (Rhode Island College), M.A., Ph.D. (Syracuse). 

Assistant Professor of Sociology and Afrieana Studies. (1994) 
Gregory Paul DeCoster, B.S. ( Tulsa). Ph.D. (Texas). Associate Professor of 

I conomics. 1 1985) 
Lydia Nakashima Degarrod, M.A., M.A. (Hawaii-Manoa), M.A., Ph.D. 
(California Los Angeles). Assistant Professor of Anthropology . (1994) 






Officers of Instruction 25 1 

Deborah S. DeGraff, B.A. (Knox College), M.A., Ph.D. (Michigan), 

Assistant Professor of Economics. (1991) 
Sara A. Dickey, B.A. (Washington), M.A., Ph.D. (California-San Diego), 

Associate Professor of Anthropology. (1988) 
Patsy S. Dickinson, A.B. (Pomona), M.S., Ph.D. (Washington), Professor of 

Biology. (1983) 
Linda J. Docherty, A.B. (Cornell), A.M. (Chicago), Ph.D. (North Carolina), 

Associate Professor of Art History. (On leave of absence for the academic 

year.) (1986) 
Guy T. Emery, A.B. (Bowdoin), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Professor of 

Physics. (1988) 
Ari W. Epstein, A.B. (Harvard), Ph.D. (Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program), Visiting 

Assistant Professor of Physics. (1996) 
Simone Federman, B.A. (Oberlin College), M.F.A. Equivalent Directing, 

A.R.T. (Harvard), Lecturer in Theater. (1996) 
Stephen Thomas Fisk, A.B. (California-Berkeley), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), 

Professor of Mathematics. (1977) 
John M. Fitzgerald, A.B. (Montana), M.S., Ph.D. (Wisconsin), Associate 

Professor of Economics. (On leave of absence for the academic year.) 

(1983) 
Paul N. Franco, B.A. (Colorado College), M.Sc. (London School of Econom- 
ics), Ph.D. (Chicago), Associate Professor of Government. (1990) 
Albert Myrick Freeman III, A.B. (Cornell), A.M., Ph.D. (Washington), 

William D. Shipman Professor of Economics. (1965) 
Alfred Herman Fuchs, A.B. (Rutgers), A.M. (Ohio), Ph.D. (Ohio State), 

Professor of Psychology. (1962) 
David K. Garnick, B.A., M.S. (Vermont), Ph.D. (Delaware), Associate 

Professor of Computer Science. (1988) 
Timothy J. Gilbride, A.B. (Providence), M.P. (American International), 

Coach in the Department of Athletics. (1985) 
Edward Smith Gilfillan III, A.B. (Yale), M.Sc, Ph.D. (British Columbia), 

Adjunct Professor of Chemistry and Lecturer in the Environmental Studies 

Program. 
Eddie S. Glaude, Jr., B.A. (Morehouse), M.A. (Temple), M.A. (Princeton), 

Instructor in Religion and Africana Studies. (1996) 
Christopher C. Glass, A.B. (Haverford), M.Arch. (Yale), Adjunct Lecturer in 

Art. (Spring semester.) 
Jonathan Paul Goldstein, A.B. (New York-Buffalo), A.M., Ph.D. (Massa- 
chusetts), Associate Professor of Economics. (1979) 



252 Officers of Instruction 

Celeste Goodridge, A.B. (George Washington), A.M. (William and Mary), 

Ph.D. (Rutgers), Associate Professor of English. (On leave of absence for 

the academic year. ) (1986) 
David A. Graff, B.A. (Haverford), M.A. (Michigan-Ann Arbor), Ph.D. 

(Princeton), Visiting Assistant Professor of History. (1995) 
Robert Kim Greenlee, B.M., M.M. (Oklahoma), D.M. (Indiana), Associate 

Professor of Music. (1982) 
Charles Alfred Grobe, Jr., B.S., M.S., Ph.D. (Michigan), Professor of 

Mathematics. (1964) 
Deborah L. Guber, A.B. (Smith College), M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. (Yale), 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Government. (1996) 
Daniel R. Hammond, B.S. (U.S. Military Academy at West Point), M.P.A. 

(Golden Gate), Coach in the Department of Athletics. (1993) 
Anne Harris, B.F.A. (Washington University), M.F.A. (Yale), Visiting 

Assistant Professor of Art. (1994) 
Donna B. Hayashi, B.S. (Duke), M.A., Ph.D. (Denver), Adjunct Assistant 

Professor of Psychology. (Fall semester.) 
Takahiko Hayashi, B.A. (Rikkyo University), M.E.S. (University of 

Tsukuba), Lecturer in Japanese. (1991) 
Barbara S. Held, A.B. (Douglass), Ph.D. (Nebraska), Professor of Psychol- 
ogy. (1979) 
Anne Henshaw, B.A. (New Hampshire), M.A., Ph.D. (Harvard), Visiting 

Assistant Professor of Anthropology. (1996) 
Kevin D. Henson, B.A. (Michigan State), M.A., Ph.D. (Northwestern), 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology. (1994) 
James A. Higginbotham, B.S., A.M., Ph.D. (Michigan-Ann Arbor), Assistant 

Professor of Classics on the Henry Johnson Professorship Fund. (1994) 
Cecilia Hirsch, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.F.A. (Massachusetts College of Art), 

Adjunct Lecturer in Art. (Fall semester.) 
James Lee Hodge, A.B. (Tufts), A.M., Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State), George 

I ;i> lor Files Professor of Modern Languages and Professor of German. 

(1961) 
John Clifford Holt, A.B. (Gustavus Adolphus), A.M. (Graduate Theological 

Union), Ph.D. (Chicago), Professor of Religion. (1978) 
John LaFollette I low land, A.B. (Bowdoin). Ph.D. (Harvard). Josiah Little 

Professor of Natural Science and Professor of Biology and Biochemistry. 

(1963) 
MingUang Hu, B.A. (Shanxj Teachers College), M.A. (Shanxi University), 

I'h .1). (Florida), Visiting Assistant Professor of Chinese. (1994) 
Arthur Mekeel llussey II, B.S. (Pennsylvania State), Ph.D. (Illinois), 

Professor of Geology. ( 1961 1 



Officers of Instruction 253 

George A. Isaacson, A.B. (Bowdoin), J.D. (Pennsylvania), Adjunct Lecturer 

in Education. (Fall semester.) 
Janice Ann Jaffe, A.B. (University of the South), A.M., Ph.D. (Wisconsin), 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages. (1988) 
Nancy E. Jennings, B.A. (Macalester), M.S. (Illinois-Urbana-Champaign), 

Ph.D. (Michigan State), Assistant Professor of Education. (1994) 
Amy S. Johnson, B.A. (California-Los Angeles), Ph.D. (California-Berke- 
ley), James R. and Helen Lee Billingsley Associate Professor of Marine 

Biology. (1989) 
David T. Johnson, B.A. (Bethel College), M.A. (Chicago), Instructor in 

Sociology and Asian Studies. (On leave of absence for the academic year.) 

(1996) 
Robert Wells Johnson, A.B. (Amherst), M.S., Ph.D. (Massachusetts Institute 

of Technology), Isaac Henry Wing Professor of Mathematics. (1964) 
Gwyneth Jones, Lecturer in Dance Performance (Adjunct). 
C. Michael Jones, A.B. (Williams), Ph.D. (Yale), Associate Professor of 

Economics. (1987) 
Samuel Kaplan, B.S. (North Carolina-Chapel Hill), M.A., Ph.D. (Boston), 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Mathematics. (1996) 
Susan Ann Kaplan, A.B. (Lake Forest), A.M., Ph.D. (Bryn Mawr), Associate 

Dean for Academic Affairs, Associate Professor of Anthropology, and 

Director of the Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum and Arctic Studies 

Center. (1985) 
John Michael Karl, A.B., A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Associate Professor of 

History. (1968) 
B. Zorina Khan, B.Sc. (University of Surrey), M.A. (McMaster University), 

Ph.D. (California-Los Angeles), Assistant Professor of Economics. (1996) 
Ann Louise Kibbie, B.A. (Boston), Ph.D. (California-Berkeley), Assistant 

Professor of English. (1989) 
Jane Elizabeth Knox-Voina, A.B. (Wheaton), A.M. (Michigan State), Ph.D. 

(Texas-Austin), Professor of Russian. (1976) 
Daniel Elihu Kramer, B.A. (Haverford), M.F.A. (Yale School of Drama), 

Assistant Professor of Theater. (1995) 
Daniel D. Kurylo, B.A. (Colorado), M.A., Ph.D. (Northeastern), Visiting 

Assistant Professor of Psychology. (1993) 
Edward Paul Laine, A.B. (Wesleyan), Ph.D. (Woods Hole and Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology), Associate Professor of Geology and Director 

of the Environmental Studies Program. (1985) 
Peter Laipson, B.A. (Brown), M.A. (Michigan-Ann Arbor), Visiting 

Instructor in History. (1996) 



2.M Officers of Instruction 

Peter D. Lea, A.B. (Dartmouth), M.S. (Washington), Ph.D. (Colorado- 
Boulder), Associate Professor of Geology. (1988) 
R. Brooke Lea, B.A. (Haverford), M.A., Ph.D. (New York), Visiting 

Assistant Professor of Psychology. (1995) 
Genevieve LeMoine, B.A. (Toronto), M.A., Ph.D. (Calgary), Adjunct 

Assistant Professor of Anthropology and Curator/Registrar, Peary- 

MacMillan Arctic Museum and Arctic Studies Center. (1995) 
William E. Leuchtenburg, B.A. (Cornell), M.A., Ph.D. (Columbia), Visiting 

Professor of Government and History on the Tallman Foundation. (Fall 

semester.) (1996) 
Daniel Levine, A.B. (Antioch), A.M., Ph.D. (Northwestern), Thomas Brackett 

Reed Professor of History and Political Science. (On leave of absence for 

the academic year.) (1963) 
Adam B. Levy, B.A. (Williams), Ph.D. (Washington), Assistant Professor of 

Mathematics. (1994) 
Joseph David Litvak, A.B. (Wesleyan), M.Phil., Ph.D. (Yale), Associate 

Professor of English. (1982) 
Burke O'Connor Long, A.B. (Randolph-Macon), B.D., A.M., Ph.D. (Yale), 

Professor of Religion. (1968) 
Suzanne B. Lovett, A.B. (Bowdoin), Ph.D. (Stanford), Associate Professor of 

Psychology. (1990) 
Larry D. Lutchmansingh, A.B. (McGill), A.M. (Chicago), Ph.D. (Cornell), 

Associate Professor of Art History. (1974) 
Scott MacEachern, B.A. (Prince Edward Island), M.A., Ph.D. (Calgary), 

Assistant Professor of Anthropology. (1995) 
Irena S. M. Makarushka, B.A. (St. John's), M.A., Ph.D. (Boston), Associate 

Professor of Religion. ( 1 990) 
Carol A. N. Martin, M.A., Ph.D. (Notre Dame), Visiting Assistant Professor 

of English. (1994) 
Janet Marie Martin, A.B. (Marquette), M.A., Ph.D. (Ohio State), Associate 

Professor of Government. (On leave of absence for the academic year.) 

(1986) 
T. Penny Martin, A.B., A.M. (Middlebury), M.A.T., Ed.D. (Harvard), 

Associate ProfeS9QI of Education. ( \ i )HH) 
Dana Walker Mayo, B.S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Ph.D. 

(Indiana), Charles Weston Pickard Research Professor of Chemistry. 

(1962) 
(). Jeanne d'Arc Mayo, B.S., M.Ed. (Boston), Physical Therapist and 

Associate Trainer in the Department of Athletics. ( 1978) 



Officers of Instruction 255 

Thomas E. McCabe, Jr., B.S., M.S. (Springfield College), Coach in the 

Department of Athletics. (1990) 
James Wesley McCalla, B.A., B.M. (Kansas), M.M. (New England Conser- 
vatory), Ph.D. (California-Berkeley), Associate Professor of Music. (1985) 
Moira McDermott, A.B. (Bryn Mawr), M.S., Ph.D. (Michigan), Visiting 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics. (1996) 
Craig Arnold McEwen, A.B. (Oberlin), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Daniel B. 

Fayerweather Professor of Political Economy and Sociology. (On leave of 

absence for the spring semester.) (1975) 
Julie L. McGee, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A., Ph.D. (Bryn Mawr), Visiting 

Assistant Professor of Art. (1996) 
Robert J. Mclntyre, B.A. (Grinnell), M.P.A. (Cornell), Ph.D. (North 

Carolina-Chapel Hill), Visiting Associate Professor of Economics. (1993) 
John McKee, A.B. (Dartmouth), A.M. (Princeton), Associate Professor of 

Art. (1962) 
Sarah Francis McMahon, A.B. (Wellesley), Ph.D. (Brandeis), Associate 

Professor of History. (1982) 
Terry Meagher, A.B. (Boston), M.S. (Illinois State), Coach in the Depart- 
ment of Athletics. (1983) 
Ellen Greenstein Millender, B.A., M.A. (Brown), B.A. (Oxford), Assistant 

Professor of Classics. (1995) 
Raymond H. Miller, A.B. (Indiana), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Associate 

Professor of Russian. (1983) 
Helen E. Moore, B.S. (North Carolina-Chapel Hill), Ph.D. (SUNY-Stony 

Brook), Assistant Professor of Mathematics. (1995) 
Richard Ernest Morgan, A.B. (Bowdoin), A.M., Ph.D. (Columbia), William 

Nelson Cromwell Professor of Constitutional and International Law and 

Government. (1969) 
John Morneau, B.M. (New Hampshire), Director of Concert Band (Adjunct). 
Madeleine E. Msall, B.A. (Oberlin), M.A., Ph.D. (Illinois-Urbana- 

Champaign), Assistant Professor of Physics. (1994) 
Elizabeth Muther, B.A. (Wellesley), Ph.D. (California-Berkeley), Assistant 

Professor of English. (On leave of absence for the spring semester.) (1993) 
Stephen G. Naculich, B.S. (Case Western Reserve), M.A., Ph.D. (Princeton), 

Assistant Professor of Physics. (On leave of absence for the academic 

year.) (1993) 
Jeffrey Karl Nagle, A.B. (Earlham), Ph.D. (North Carolina), Professor of 

Chemistry. (1980) 
Sarah M. Nelson, B.A. (St. Olaf), M.A. (Wisconsin-Madison), Visiting 

Instructor in Romance Languages. (1995) 



256 Officers of Instruction 

Robert Raymond Nunn, A.B. (Rutgers). A.M. (Middlebury). Ph.D. (Colum- 
bia). Associate Professor of Romance Languages. (On leave of absence for 
the spring semester.) (1959) 

Paul Luther Nyhus, A.B. (Augsburg). S.T.B.. Ph.D. (Harvard). Frank 
Andrew Munsey Professor of History. (1966) 

Kathleen Ann O'Connor, A.B. (Dartmouth). A.M.. Ph.D. (Virginia). 
Director of the Writing Project and Lecturer in Education. (1987) 

Clifton Cooper Olds, A.B. (Dartmouth). A.M., Ph.D. (Pennsylvania), Edith 
Cleaves Barry Professor of the History and Criticism of Art. (1982) 

Leakthina Chau-Pech Oilier, B.A. (California-Los Angeles), M.A., C.Phil.. 
Ph.D. (California-Los Angeles), Assistant Professor of Romance Lan- 
guages. (1995) 

Andreas Ortmann, B.A. (University of Bielefeld. Germany), M.A. (Geor- 
gia), Ph.D. (Texas A&M), Assistant Professor of Economics. (On leave of 
absence for the academic year. ) ( 1991) 

John M. Owen, A.B. (Duke), M.P.A. (Princeton), Ph.D. (Harvard), Assistant 
Professor of Government. (1995) 

Sree Padma, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. (Andhra University), Visiting Assistant 
Professor of History. (1995) 

David Sanborn Page, B.S. (Brown), Ph.D. (Purdue), Professor of Chemistry 
and Biochemistry. (1974) 

H. Roy Partridge, Jr., B.A. (Oberlin), M.S.W., M.A., Ph.D. (Michigan). 
M.Div. (Harvard Divinity School). Adjunct Assistant Professor of Sociol- 
ogy and Africana Studies. 

Jill Pearlman, B.A. (Beloit), M.A. (California), Ph.D. (Chicago), Adjunct 
Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies. (Spring semester.) 

Nicola C. Pearson, B.S. (St. Mary's College, London), Coach in the Depart- 
ment of Athletics. (1996) 

Rosa Pellegrini, Diploma Magistrale (Istituto Magistrate "Imbriani" 
Avellino), Lecturer in Italian. (Adjunct.) 

Carey Richard Phillips, B.S. (Oregon State), M.S. (California-Santa 
Barbara), Ph.D. (Wisconsin-Madison), Associate Professor of Biology. 
(1985) 

( 'hristian Peter Potholm II, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A., M.L.D., Ph.D. (Tufts), 
DeAlva Stanwood Alexander Professor of Government. (On leave of 
absence for the spring semester.) ( 1970) 

Patrick J. Rael, B.A. (Maryland College Park), M.A., Ph.D. (California 

Berkeley), Assistant Professor of History. 1 1995) 

Karen E. Rasmussen, B.S. (SUNY Syracuse). Ph.D. (New Hampshire), 

Visiting Assistant Professor i)\ Biology. ( 1995) 



Officers of Instruction 257 

Marilyn Reizbaum, A.B. (Queens College), M.Litt. (Edinburgh), Ph.D. 

(Wisconsin-Madison), Associate Professor of English. (1984) 
Nancy Elizabeth Riley, B.A. (Pennsylvania), M.P.H., M.A. (Hawaii), Ph.D. 

(Johns Hopkins), Assistant Professor of Sociology. (On leave of absence 

for the fall semester.) (1992) 
Rosemary Anne Roberts, B.A. (University of Reading), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

(University of Waterloo), Associate Professor of Mathematics. (1984) 
Paul Ross, D.Mus. (Colby), Director of the Bowdoin Orchestra. (Adjunct.) 
Daniel Walter Rossides, B.A., Ph.D. (Columbia), Professor of Sociology. 

(1968) 
Lynn Margaret Ruddy, B.S. (Wisconsin-Oshkosh), Assistant Director of 

Athletics and Coach in the Department of Athletics. (1976) 
Paul Sarvis, Lecturer in Dance Performance. (Adjunct.) 
Paul Eugene Schaffner, A.B. (Oberlin), Ph.D. (Cornell), Associate Professor 

of Psychology. (On leave of absence for the academic year.) (1977) 
Elliott Shelling Schwartz, A.B., A.M., Ed.D. (Columbia), Robert K. 

Beckwith Professor of Music. (1964) 
Scott R. Sehon, B.A. (Harvard), M.A., Ph.D. (Princeton), Assistant Professor 

of Philosophy. (On leave of absence for the fall semester.) (1993) 
Carl Thomas Settlemire, B.S., M.S. (Ohio State), Ph.D. (North Carolina 

State), Associate Professor of Biology and Chemistry. (1969) 
Harvey Paul Shapiro, B.S. (Connecticut), M.Ed. (Springfield), Coach in the 

Department of Athletics. (1983) 
Lawrence Hugh Simon, A.B. (Pennsylvania), A.B. (Oxford), M.A./B.A. 

(Cambridge), Ph.D. (Boston University), Associate Professor of Philoso- 
phy. (1987) 
Peter Slovenski, A.B. (Dartmouth), A.M. (Stanford), Coach in the Depart- 
ment of Athletics. (1987) 
Melinda Yowell Small, B.S., A.M. (St. Lawrence), Ph.D. (Iowa), Professor of 

Psychology. (1972) 
G. E. Kidder Smith, Jr., A.B. (Princeton), Ph.D. (California-Berkeley), 

Associate Professor of History. (1981) 
Philip Hilton Soule, A.B. (Maine), Coach in the Department of Athletics. 

(1967) 
Allen Lawrence Springer, A.B. (Amherst), M.A., M.A.L.D., Ph.D. (Tufts), 

Professor of Government. (1976) 
Randolph Stakeman, A.B. (Wesleyan), A.M., Ph.D. (Stanford), Associate 

Professor of History. ( 1 978) 



258 Officers of Instruction 

William Lee Steinhart, A.B. (Pennsylvania), Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins), 

Professor of Biology. (On leave of absence for the fall semester.) (1975) 
Elizabeth A. Stemmler, B.S. (Bates), Ph.D. (Indiana), Associate Professor of 

Chemistry. (1988) 
Matthew Stuart, B.A. (Vermont), M.A., Ph.D. (Cornell), Assistant Professor 

of Philosophy. (On leave of absence for the spring semester.) (1993) 
Dale Syphers, B.S., M.Sc. (Massachusetts), Ph.D. (Brown), Associate 

Professor of Physics. (On leave of absence for the academic year.) (1986) 
Susan L. Tananbaum, B.A. (Trinity), M.A., M.A., Ph.D. (Brandeis), 

Assistant Professor of History. (1990) 
Elizabeth Townsend, B.A. (McGill), M.F.A. (Carnegie-Mellon), Adjunct 

Lecturer in Theater. (Fall semester.) 
Allen B. Tucker, Jr., A.B. (Wesleyan), M.S., Ph.D. (Northwestern), Profes- 
sor of Computer Science. (1988) 
James Henry Turner, A.B. (Bowdoin), B.S., M.S., Ph.D. (Massachusetts 

Institute of Technology), Associate Professor of Physics. (1964) 
John Harold Turner, A.M. (St. Andrews, Scotland), A.M. (Indiana), Ph.D. 

(Harvard), Professor of Romance Languages. (1971) 
David Jeremiah Vail, A.B. (Princeton), M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. (Yale), Adams- 

Catlin Professor of Economics. (1970) 
June Adler Vail, A.B. (Connecticut), M.A.L.S. (Wesleyan), Associate 

Professor of Dance. (1987) 
Howard S. Vandersea, A.B. (Bates), M.Ed. (Boston), Coach in the Depart- 
ment of Athletics. (1984) 
William Chace VanderWolk, A.B. (North Carolina), A.M. (Middlebury), 

Ph.D. (North Carolina), Associate Professor of Romance Languages. 

(1984) 
James Edward Ward, A.B. (Vanderbilt), A.M., Ph.D. (Virginia), Professor 

of Mathematics. (On leave of absence for the academic year.) (1968) 
Sidney John Watson, B.S. (Northeastern), Ashmead White Director of 

Athletics. (1958) 
William Collins Watterson, A.B. (Kenyon), Ph.D. (Brown), Professor of 

English. (1976) 
Susan Elizabeth Wegner, A.B. (Wisconsin-Madison), A.M., Ph.D. (Bryn 

Mawr), Associate Professor of Art History. I 1980) 
Marcia Anne Weigle, A.B., A.M., Ph.D. (Notre Dame). Associate Professor 

of Government (1988) 
Allen Wells, A.M. (SUNY-Binghamton), A.M., Ph.D. (SUNY-Stony Brook), 

Professor of History. (I9K8) 



Officers of Instruction 259 

Patricia A. Welsch, B.A. (Fordham), M.A., Ph.D. (Virginia), Assistant 

Professor of Film Studies on the Marvin H. Green, Jr., Fund. (On leave of 

absence for the academic year.) (1993) 
Mark Christian Wethli, B.F.A., M.F.A. (Miami), Professor of Art. (1985) 
Nathaniel Thoreau Wheelwright, B.S. (Yale), Ph.D. (Washington), Associ- 
ate Professor of Biology. (1986) 
Richard A. Wiley, A.B. (Bowdoin), B.C.L. (Oxford), LL.M. (Harvard Law 

School), LL.D. (Bowdoin), Adjunct Lecturer in Government. (Fall 

semester.) (1996) 
Anna M. Wilson, B.A. (Oxford), M.A., Ph.D. (Boston University), Visiting 

Assistant Professor of English. (1994) 
Elizabeth Wong, B.A. (Southern California), M.F.A. (New York), Visiting 

Assistant Professor of English and Theater. (Fall semester.) 
D. Michael Woodruff, A.B. (Bowdoin), Director of Outing Club. (1993) 
Steve J. Wurtzler, B.S. (Wisconsin-Madison), M.F.A. (Columbia), Visiting 

Instructor in Film. (1996) 
Jean Yarbrough, A.B. (Cedar Crest College), A.M., Ph.D. (New School for 

Social Research), Professor of Government. (1988) 
Enrique Yepes, B.A. (Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana), Instructor in 

Romance Languages. (1996) 



OFFICERS OF INSTRUCTION EMERITI 



Philip Conway Beam, A.B., A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Henry Johnson Professor 
of Art and Archaeology Emeritus. (1936) 

Ray Stuart Bicknell, B.S., M.S. (Springfield), Coach in the Department of 
Athletics Emeritus. (1962) 

Edward Joseph Geary, A.B. (Maine), A.M., Ph.D (Columbia), hon. A.M. 
(Harvard), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Professor of Romance Lan- 
guages Emeritus. (1965) 

William Davidson Geoghegan, A.B. (Yale), M.Div. (Drew), Ph.D. (Colum- 
bia), Professor of Religion Emeritus. (1954) 

Arthur LeRoy Greason, A.B. (Wesleyan), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), D.Litt. 
(Wesleyan), L.H.D. (Colby), L.H.D. (Bowdoin), L.H.D. (Bates), President 
of the College and Professor of English Emeritus. (1952) 

Ernst Christian Helmreich, A.B. (Illinois), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Thomas 
Brackett Reed Professor of History and Political Science Emeritus. ( 1 93 1 ) 

Charles Ellsworth Huntington, B.A., Ph.D. (Yale), Professor of Biology 
Emeritus and Director of the Bowdoin Scientific Station at Kent Island 
Emeritus. (1953) 



260 Officers of Instruction 

Myron Alton Jeppesen, B.S. (Idaho), M.S., Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State), 

Professor of Physics and Josiah Little Professor of Natural Science 

Emeritus. (1936) 
Barbara Jeanne Raster, A.B. (Texas Western), M.Ed. (Texas-El Paso), 

Ph.D. (Texas-Austin), Harrison King McCann Professor of Communica- 
tion in the Department of English Emerita. (1973) 
Elroy Osborne LaCasce, Jr., A.B. (Bowdoin), A.M. (Harvard), Ph.D. 

(Brown), Professor of Physics Emeritus. (1947) 
Mortimer Ferris LaPointe, B.S. (Trinity), M.A.L.S. (Wesleyan), Coach in 

the Department of Athletics Emeritus. (1969) 
Sally Smith LaPointe, B.S.Ed. (Southern Maine), Coach in the Department 

of Athletics Emerita. (1973) 
James Spencer Lentz, A.B. (Gettysburg), A.M. (Columbia), Coordinator of 

Physical Education and the Outing Club Emeritus. (1968) 
Mike Linkovich, A.B. (Davis and Elkins), Trainer in the Department of 

Athletics Emeritus. (1954) 
Edward Pols, A.B., A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor 

of Philosophy and Humanities Emeritus. (1949) 
James Daniel Redwine, Jr., A.B. (Duke), A.M. (Columbia), Ph.D. 

(Princeton), Edward Little Professor of the English Language and Litera- 
ture Emeritus. (1963) 
Edward Thomas Reid, Coach in the Department of Athletics Emeritus. 

(1969) 
John Cornelius Rensenbrink, A.B. (Calvin), A.M. (Michigan), Ph.D. 

(Chicago), Professor of Government Emeritus. (1961) 
Matilda White Riley, A.B., A.M. (Radcliffe), Sc.D. (Bowdoin), Daniel B. 

Fayerweather Professor of Political Economy and Sociology Emerita. 

(1973) 
Guenter Herbert Rose, B.S. (Tufts), M.S. (Brown), Ph.D. (California-Los 

Angeles), Associate Professor of Psychology and Psychobiology Emeritus. 

(1976) 
Abram Raymond Rutan, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.F.A. (Yale), Director of 

Theater Emcriius. ( L955) 
William Davis Shipman, A.B. (Washington), A.M. (California-Berkeley), 

Ph.D. (Columbia), Adams-Catlin Professor of Economics Emeritus. (1957) 
Clifford Ray Thompson, Jr., A.B.. A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), ProfessOTOf 

Romance Languages Emeritus. (1961) 
William Boiling Whiteside, A.B. (Amherst). A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Frank 

Munsey Professor of History Emeritus. (1953) 



Instructional Support Staff 



Rene L. Bernier, B.S. (Maine), Laboratory Instructor in Chemistry and 

Laboratory Support Manager. 
Agnes Boury, Teaching Fellow in French. 
Pamela Jean Bryer, B.S., M.S. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Laboratory 

Instructor in Biology. 
Beverly Ganter DeCoster, B.S. (Dayton), Laboratory Instructor in Chemis- 
try. 
Judith Cooley Foster, A.B. (Brown), M.Sc. (Rhode Island), Laboratory 

Instructor in Chemistry and Director of Laboratories. 
Karin Frazer, B.S. (Allegheny), M.A. (Vermont), Laboratory Instructor in 

Biology. 
Stephen Hauptman, B.A. (Connecticut College), M.A. (Illinois), M.Sc. 

(Cornell), Laboratory Instructor in Biology. 
Cara J. Hayes, B.S. (Salem College, Winston-Salem), M.S. (Medical College 

of Virginia), Laboratory Instructor in Biology. 
Virginie Le Gall, Teaching Fellow in French. 
Ana Martin Pascual, Teaching Fellow in Spanish. 
Colleen Trafton McKenna, B.A. (Southern Maine), Laboratory Instructor in 

Chemistry. 
Paulette M. Messier, A.B. (Maine-Presque Isle), Laboratory Instructor in 

Chemistry. 
David L. Roberts, A.B. (Bowdoin), Ph.D. (Case Western Reserve), Teaching 

Associate in Physics. 
Leah G. Shulsky, M.A. (Moscow Pedagogical Institute), Teaching Fellow in 

Russian. 
A. Nicole Stahlman, Teaching Fellow in German. 
Andrea Sulzer, B.A. (New York), M.A. (Columbia), M.S. (Maine-Orono), 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology. 

RESEARCH ASSOCIATES 

Peter Riesenberg, B.A. (Rutgers), M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Columbia), 

Research Associate in History. 
Dorothy Rosenberg, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. (Stanford), M.L. (Washington), 

Research Associate in German. 
Scott Salmon, B.A., M.A. (Massey University, N.Z.), Research Associate in 

Environmental Studies. 
Peter K. Trumper, A.B. (St. Olaf), Ph.D. (Minnesota), Research Associate in 

Chemistry. 

261 



Officers of Administration 



SENIOR OFFICERS 

Robert Hazard Edwards, A.B. (Princeton), A.B., A.M. (Cambridge), LL.B. 

(Harvard), L.H.D. (Carleton), President of the College. 
Charles R. Beitz, A.B. (Colgate), M.A. (Michigan), M.A., Ph.D. (Princeton), 

Dean for Academic Affairs. 
Craig W. Bradley, A.B. (Dartmouth), M. Sc. (Edinburgh), Dean of Student 

Affairs. 
Kent John Chabotar, B.A. (St. Francis), M.P.A., Ph.D. (Syracuse), Vice 

President for Finance and Administration and Treasurer. 
Richard Alan Mersereau, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A.T. (Wesleyan), Executive 

Assistant to the President and Trustees. 
Richard E. Steele, A.B. (Harvard), M.A. (Vermont), Ph.D. (Wisconsin- 
Madison), Dean of Admissions. 
William A. Torrey III, A.B., M.S.Ed. (Bucknell), Vice President for 

Development and College Relations. 

ACADEMIC AFFAIRS 

Charles R. Beitz, A.B. (Colgate), M.A. (Michigan), M.A., Ph.D. (Princeton), 

Dean for Academic Affairs. 
Stephen A. Hall, B.A. (Oxford), M.Phil. (London University), M.A. 

(Princeton), Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs/Director of Off-Campus 

Study. 
Susan Ann Kaplan, A.B. (Lake Forest), A.M., Ph.D. (Bryn Mawr), Associate 

Dean for Academic Affairs. 
Ann C. Ostwald, B.S.F.S. (Georgetown University School of Foreign 

Service), M.A. (California-Berkeley), Assistant to the Dean. 

ADMISSIONS 

Richard E. Steele, A.B. (Harvard). M.A. (Vermont), Ph.D. (Wisconsin- 
Madison), Dean of Admissions. 
Karen Cuttcntag, B.A. (Carleton), Assistant Dean. 
Peter Lyle, A.B. (Bowdoin), Admissions Officer. 
Anne Wohltman Springer, A.B. (Bowdoin). Associate Dean. 
Rebecca N. Trucsdcll, A.B. (Bowdoin), Admissions Officer. 
Bryn E. Upton, A.B. (Bowdoin), Assistant Dean. 



262 



Officers of Administration 263 

ATHLETICS 

Sidney John Watson, B.S. (Northeastern), Ashmead White Director of 

Athletics. 
John D. Cullen, A.B. (Brown), Assistant Director/Coach. 
Lynn M. Ruddy, B.S. (Wisconsin-Oshkosh), Assistant Director/Coach. 

BOOKSTORE/CAMPUS SERVICES 

Mark Schmitz, A.A.S. (Monroe Community College), A.A.S. (Cayuga 

County Community College), Director. 
Cindy B. Shorette, Bookstore Operations Manager. 
Christopher T. Taylor, B.S. (Southampton), Campus Services Operations 

Manager. 

BRECKINRIDGE PUBLIC AFFAIRS CENTER 
Gail R. Berneike, B.A. (Wheaton), M.Ed. (Vermont), Coordinator/Chef. 
Donald E. Bernier, B.A. (Maine-Portland), Coordinator/Chef. 

CAREER PLANNING CENTER 
Lisa B. Tessler, A.B. (Bowdoin), Ed.M. (Harvard), Director. 
Katherine P. Civiletti, B.A., M.S. (Johns Hopkins), Assistant Director. 
Susan D. Livesay, A.B. (Smith), Associate Director. 
Amy E. Sanford, A.B. (Bowdoin), Internship Coordinator. 
Laurel A. Smith, B.A. (Connecticut), M.S. (Northeastern), Assistant Director. 

CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES 

Judith Cooley Foster, A.B. (Brown), M.S. (Rhode Island), Laboratory 

Instructor and Director. 
Pamalee J. Labbe, Administrative Assistant. 
Rene L. Bernier, B.S. (Maine-Orono), Laboratory Support Manager. 

CHILDREN'S CENTER 
Bette Spettel, B.S., M.S. (Wheelock), Director. 
Jeanne Baker Stinson, B.A. (Carleton), M.Ed. (Vanderbilt), Lead Preschool/ 

Kindergarten Caregiver and Assistant Director. 
Christine Beaudette, B.S. (Maine-Farmington), Co-Lead Infant Caregiver. 



264 Officers of Administration 

Victoria Brillant, B.S. (Maine-Orono). Preschool/Kindergarten Caregiver. 
Jenna McEvoy, B.S. (Wheelock), Co-Lead Toddler Caregiver. 
Denise Perry, A.A.Ed. (Westbrook), Co-Lead Toddler Caregiver. 
Debra Yates, A. A. (De Anza), Co-Lead Infant Caregiver. 

COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SERVICES 

Louis P. Tremante, B.S., M.S. (Union), Director. 

Robert A. Bussell, Telecommunications Manager. 

Charles E. Banks, A.B., B.S. (Montana), Systems/Network Manager. 

Leilani S. Goggin, B.A. (Wheaton), User Services Consultant. 

Joshua E. Introne, A.B. (Bowdoin), User Services Associate. 

Matthew Jacobson-Carroll, B.A. (Amherst), M.S. (Boston College), Senior 
Academic Computing Specialist. 

Susan T. Kellogg, B.S. (Southern Maine), Administrative Applications 
Coordinator. 

William P. Kunitz, B.S. (Michigan State), Administrative Applications 
Coordinator 

Thaddeus T. Macy, A.B. (Maine), Assistant Director and Manager of 
Systems and Communications. 

Mark I. Nelsen, A.B. (California-Berkeley), Senior Project Engineer. 

Lawrence G. O'Toole, A.B. (Bowdoin), Manager of Administrative Comput- 
ing. 

Sharon L. Pedersen, A.B. (Harvard and Radcliffe), A.M., Ph.D. (Pennsylva- 
nia), Administrative Applications Coordinator. 

Rebecca F. Sandlin, B.A. (Tufts), User Services Consultant. 

Margaret M. Schultz, B.S. (Emporia State), Ph.D. (Iowa State), Manager of 
Academic Computing and User Services. 

CONTROLLER'S OFFICE 

Saeed A. Mughal, B.A. (University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan), M.B.A. 

(Washington State), Controller. 
Pauline Paquet Farr, Endowment and Gift Accounting Administrator. 
Diane L. Hall, B.S. (Husson), Grants and General Accounting Administrator. 
Michelle A. McDonougb, A.B. (Kmka). Bursar. 
Carol A. F. O'Donnell, A.B. (Maine), M.B.A. (New Hampshire College), 

Manager of Data Control and Payroll Supervisor. 



Officers of Administration 265 

COUNSELING SERVICE 

Robert C. Vilas, A.B., M.Ed. (St. Lawrence), Ph.D. (Iowa), Director. 

Mary E. McCann, B.A. (Southern Maine), M.Ed., Ed.D. (Harvard), Counse- 
lor. 

Shelley Roseboro, B.A. (California-Los Angeles), M.Ed. (St. Lawrence), 
Multicultural Counselor/Consultant. 

Susan R. Stewart, A.B. (Wells), A.M. (Chicago), Counselor. 

Roberta Penn Zuckerman, A.B. (City College of New York), M.S.W. 
(Hunter College School of Social Work), Certificate in Psychotherapy 
(Institute for Contemporary Psychotherapy), Counselor. 

DEVELOPMENT AND COLLEGE RELATIONS 

William A. Torrey III, A.B., M.S.Ed. (Bucknell), Vice President for 

Development and College Relations. 
Hilary Bassett, B.A. (Wellesley), M.B.A. (Indiana), Development Writer. 
Mary C. Bernier, Director of Development Services. 
Grace M. J. Brescia, A.B. (Dartmouth), Associate Director of Annual 

Giving. 
Katharine W. Billings, A.B. (Brown), M.A. (George Washington), Associate 

Director of Capital Support. 
Jennifer H. Burns, A.B. (Bowdoin), Ed.M. (Harvard), Assistant Director of 

Alumni Relations. 
John A. Coyne, Jr., A.B. (Colby), Sports Information Intern. 
Elizabeth Coxe, A.B. (Skidmore), Development Research Analyst. 
Alison M. Dodson, A.B. (Harvard-Radcliffe), Associate Vice President/ 

Director of Communications. 
Josiah H. Drummond, Jr., A.B. (Colby), M.Ed. (Maine), Director of Planned 

Giving. 
Sara B. Eddy, A.B. (Bowdoin), Director of Alumni Relations. 
Samantha K. Fisher, A.B. (Bowdoin), Assistant Director of Annual Giving. 
Scott Whitney Hood, B.A. (Lake Forest), M.A. (Southern Maine), Director 

of Public Affairs. 
Kathryn Humphreys, A.B. (Princeton), M.A., Ph.D. (Cornell), Director of 

Corporate and Foundation Relations. 
Stephen P. Hyde, B.A., J.D. (Maine), Associate Director of Major Gifts. 
Robert J. Kallin, B.S. (Bucknell), Director of Capital Support. 
Charles N. Leach HI, B.A. (Colby), Assistant Director of Communications. 



266 Officers of Administration 

Susan R. Moore, A.B. (Maine), M.L.S. (Syracuse), Director of Development 

Research. 
John A. Norton, A.B. (Susquehanna), M.S. (American), Associate Director 

of Major Gifts. 
Elizabeth D. Orlic, A.B. (Colby), Associate Director of Annual Giving/ 

Coordinator of Reunion Giving. 
Randolph H. Shaw, A.B. (Bowdoin), Director of Annual Giving. 
Margaret J. Schick Luke, B.S. (SUNY-Geneseo), M.B.A. (Simmons), 

Events and Community Relations Manager. 
Lucie G. Teegarden, A.B. (College of New Rochelle), A.M. (Yale), Director 

of Publications. 
Harry K. Warren, A.B. (Pennsylvania), Secretary of the College. 
Delwin C. Wilson HI, A.B. (Bowdoin), Manager of Summer Programs. 

DINING SERVICE 

Mary McAteer Kennedy, R.D., B.S. (Vermont), M.A. (Framingham State), 

Director. 
Kenneth Cardone, A.S. (Johnson and Wales), Associate Director and 

Executive Chef. 
Orman Hines, A.S. (Maine-Orono), Purchasing Manager. 
Tenley A. Meara, Business Process Manager. 
Jon Wiley, B.A. (New Hampshire), A.S. (Southern Maine Technical), 

Assistant Director. 

EDUCATION 

Sarah V. MacKenzie, A.B. (Colby), M.L.S. (North Carolina-Chapel Hill), 
M.Ed. (Southern Maine), Director of Field Experiences. 

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 

Helen Koulouris, B.S. (Maine), Program Administrator. 

FACILITIES MANAGEMENT 

William S. Gardiner, B.C.H. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), C.F.M., 
Director. 

David D' Angela, B.S.E.T. (Wcntworth Institute of Technology), Assistant 

Director lor Planning and Construction. 



Officers of Administration 267 

Ann D. Goodenow, Assistant Director for Facilities Services. 

George E. Libby, Assistant Director for Major Maintenance. 

Richard C. Parkhurst, B.A. (St. Francis), Assistant Director for Administra- 
tive Services. 

George S. Paton, B.S. (Massachusetts-Amherst), M.B.A. (New Hampshire 
College), Associate Director for Maintenance and Operations. 

HEALTH CENTER 

Robin Lewis Beltramini, B.A. (College of the Atlantic), M.S., R.N.C., F.N.P. 

(Pace), Director. 
Brenda M. Rice, R.T.R. (Portland), Administrator/Radiology Technologist. 

HUMAN RESOURCES 
Kathleen T. Gubser, B.S.B.A. (Xavier), M.A.I.R. (Cincinnati), Director. 
Susan F. Daignault, B.S. (U.S. Coast Guard Academy), M.S. (Southern 

Maine), Director of Safety. 
Mary E. Demers, A.B. (Bowdoin), Assistant Director. 
Julie A. Schmidt, B.A. (Southern Maine), Manager of Employment/Human 

Resources Services. 

ISLE AND SITA PROGRAMS 

Theodore E. Adams, B.A. (Linfield), M.A., M.A., Ph.D. (Washington), 
Administrative Coordinator. 



Sherrie S. Bergman, B.A. (Brooklyn College), M.S. in L.S. (Columbia), 

Librarian. 
Gregory C. Colati, B.A. (Colby), M.A. (Trinity College), M.L.S. (Simmons), 

College Archivist. 
Roger Doran, B.A. (Nasson), Director, Audiovisual Services. 
Karl Fattig, B.A., M.L.S. (Alabama), M.A. (North Carolina-Chapel Hill), 

Catalog Librarian. 
Carmen M. Greenlee, M.L.S. (Simmons), Instructional Media Services 

Librarian. 
Dianne Molin Gutscher, B.S. (Pratt Institute), C.A. (Academy of Certified 

Archivists), Special Collections Curator. 
Virginia W. Hopcroft, A.B. (Brown), M.L.S. (Long Island), Reference 

Librarian for Government Documents. 



268 Officers of Administration 

Kathleen Kenny, A.B. (Earlham). M.L.S. (Indiana), Science Librarian. 
Judith Reid Montgomery, A.B. (Valparaiso). M.L.S. (Kent State), Associate 

Librarian for Public Services. 
Leanne N. Pander, B.A. (Daemen), M.L.S. (Rhode Island), Reference 

Librarian. 
Marilyn Diener Schroeder, B.A. (Capital), A. M.L.S. (Michigan), Collection 

Management/ Acquisitions Librarian. 
Anne Haas Shankland, A.B. (Ohio Wesleyan), M.L.S. (Florida State), Art 

Librarian. 
Sydnae Morgan Steinhart, B.S. (Lebanon Valley), M.L.S. (Pittsburgh), 

Reference Librarian for Music. 
Lynda Kresge Zendzian, B.A., M.A. (Tufts), M.L.S. (Rhode Island), 

Technical Services Librarian. 



MUSEUM OF ART 
Katharine J. Watson, A.B. (Duke), A.M., Ph.D. (Pennsylvania), Director. 
Suzanne K. Bergeron, A.B. (Mount Holyoke), Assistant Director for 

Operations. 
Anna-Maria Cannatella, A.B. (Bowdoin), Andrew W. Mellon Curatorial 

Intern. 
Alison Ferris, B.A. (North Carolina-Greensboro), M.A. (SUNY- 

Binghamton), Curator, 
(hake K. Higgison, A.B. (Bowdoin), Museum Shop Manager. 
Kathleen V. Kelley, B.A. (Maryland), M.A. (George Washington), Registrar. 

MUSIC 
Kristine L. Johnson, B.A. (Macalester), Administrator. 

OFF-CAMPUS STUDY 

Stephen A. Hall, B.A. (Corpus Christi College, Oxford), M.Phil. (Warburg 

Institute, London University), M.A. (Princeton), Director. 
Elizabeth C. Hereon, B.A. (Smith), Advisor. 

OUTING CLUB 

I). Michael Woodruff, A.B. (Bowdoin), Co-Director. 
Lucrctia Woodruff, B.A. ( Warren- Wilson). Co-Director. 



Officers of Administration 269 



PEARY-MACMILLAN ARCTIC MUSEUM 
AND ARCTIC STUDIES CENTER 

Susan A. Kaplan, A.B. (Lake Forest), A.M., Ph.D. (Bryn Mawr), Director. 
Genevieve LeMoine, B.A. (Toronto), M.A., Ph.D. (Calgary), Curator/ 

Registrar. 
David R. Maschino, B.F.A. (Alma College), Exhibits Coordinator. 

PRESIDENT'S OFFICE 

Claire M. Levesque, Manager, President's House. 

Richard Alan Mersereau, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A.T. (Wesleyan), Executive 
Assistant to the President and Trustees. 

Betty Trout-Kelly, B.A. (Northeastern State, Oklahoma), M.Ed. (Wichita 
State), Assistant to the President for Multicultural Programs and Affirma- 
tive Action Officer. 

Pamela Phillips Torrey, A.B. (Princeton), Director of Donor Relations. 

Cynthia P. Wonson, Executive Secretary to the President. 

QUANTITATIVE SKILLS PROGRAM 

Jacqueline Elizabeth La Vie, A.B. (Bryn Mawr), M.S. in Ed. (Pennsylvania), 
M.B.A. (New Hampshire College), Director. 

RECORDS AND RESEARCH 

Christine A. Brooks, B.A. (University of San Diego), M.A. (California- 
Riverside), M.A. (Notre Dame), Ed.D. (Western Michigan), Director of 
Records and Research. 

Claire Berkowitz, B.S. (Mary Washington), M.S. (Shippensburg), Research 
Assistant. 

Joanne Levesque, Assistant Director of Student Records. 



RESIDENTIAL LIFE 

Robert Graves, B.S. (Massachusetts-Dartmouth), M.A. (Dartmouth), 

Director of Residential Life. 
H. Elizabeth Hockmuth, B.A. (Mary Washington), M.A. (Boston), Assistant 

Director of Residential Life. 
Thomas B. Talbot, A.B. (Bowdoin), Assistant Director of Residential Life. 



270 Officers of Administration 

SECURITY 

Donna M. Loring, B.A. (Maine-Orono), Certificate of Completion, Munici- 
pal Police School (Maine Criminal Justice Academy), Chief of Security. 

Louann K. Dustin, Reserve Certificate (Police Academy), Associate Degree 
in Law Enforcement (Southern Maine Technical College), Security 
Administrative and Program Coordinator. 

SMITH UNION 

Shannon F. Murphy, B.A. (Southwestern Louisiana), M.Ed. (Texas-Austin), 
Acting Director of Student Activities and the Smith Union. 

STUDENT AFFAIRS 

Craig W. Bradley, A.B. (Dartmouth), M.Sc. (Edinburgh), Dean of Student 

Affairs. 
Timothy W. Foster, A.B. (Dartmouth), M.A. (North Carolina-Chapel Hill), 

Dean of First- Year Students. 
Elizabeth R. Maier, A.B. (Chicago), Assistant Dean of Student Affairs. 
Karen R. Tilbor, B.A. (Elmira), M.S.Ed. (Wheelock), Associate Dean of 

Student Affairs. 
Sharon E. Turner, B.A. (Maine-Orono), Assistant Dean of Student Affairs. 



STUDENT AID 
Walter Henry Moulton, A.B. (Bowdoin), Director. 
Stephen H. Joyce, B.A. (Williams), Ed.M. (Harvard), Associate Director. 
Lisa S. Folk, B.A. (Bates), Student Employment Coordinator. 

SUMMER MUSIC FESTIVAL 
Lewis Kaplan, B.S., M.S. (Juilliard), Director. 
Cindy Stocks-Williams, B.A. (Maine-Orono), Administrator. 

THEATER AND DANCE 
Michael Schiff-Verre, B.S.W. (Southern Maine), Technical Director. 



Officers of Administration 271 

TREASURER'S OFFICE 

Kent John Chabotar, B.A. (St. Francis), M.P.A., Ph.D. (Syracuse), Vice 

President for Finance and Administration and Treasurer. 
Gerald L. Boothby, B.A. (New Hampshire), M.B.A. (Plymouth State), 

Assistant Vice President for Finance and Administration, Director of 

Budgets, and Associate Treasurer. 
Judith Coffin Reindl, Administrative Assistant to the Vice President for 

Finance and Administration and Treasurer. 
Martin F. Szydlowski, B.S. (Providence College), Assistant to the Treasurer. 

UPWARD BOUND 
Helen E. Pelletier, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.A. (Georgetown), Director. 
Scott W. Bradley, B.A. (Maine-Orono), M.S. in Ed. (Southern Maine), 

Academic Counselor/Coordinator of Student Services. 
Bridget D. Mullen, B.A., M.Phil. (College of the Atlantic), Academic 

Counselor/Coordinator of Program Services. 

WOMEN'S RESOURCE CENTER 
Janice E. Brackett, B.S. (Cornell), Coordinator. 

WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM 

Jananne Kay Phillips, A.B. (Washburn), A.M. (Brown), Program Adminis- 
trator. 



WRITING PROJECT 
Kathleen A. O'Connor, A.B. (Dartmouth), A.M., Ph.D. (Virginia), Director. 

OFFICERS OF ADMINISTRATION EMERITI 



Martha J. Adams, Assistant Director of Alumni Relations Emerita. 
Rhoda Zimand Bernstein, A.B. (Middlebury), A.M. (New Mexico), 
Registrar Emerita. 



272 Officers of Administration 

Kenneth James Boyer, A.B. (Rochester), B.L.S. (New York State Library 

School). College Editor Emeritus. 
Robert Melvin Cross, A.B. (Bowdoin), A.M. (Harvard), L.H.D. (Bowdoin), 

Secretary of the College Emeritus. 
Myron Whipple Curtis, A.B. (Bowdoin), A.M. (California-Los Angeles), 

Director of the Computing Center Emeritus. 
John Stanley DeWitt, Supervisor of Mechanical Services Emeritus. 
Margaret Edison Dunlop, A.B. (Wellesley), Associate Director of Admis- 
sions Emerita. 
James Packard Granger, B.S. (Boston University), C.P.A., Controller 

Emeritus. 
Daniel Francis Hanley, A.B. (Bowdoin), M.D. (Columbia), Sc.D. (Bowdoin), 

College Physician Emeritus. 
Helen Buffum Johnson, Registrar Emerita. 
Samuel Appleton Ladd, Jr., B.S. (Bowdoin), Director of Career Counseling 

and Placement Emeritus. 
John Bright Ladley, B.S. (Pittsburgh), M.L.S. (Carnegie Institute of Technol- 
ogy), Public Services Librarian Emeritus. 
Thomas Martin Libby, A.B. (Maine), Associate Treasurer and Business 

Manager Emeritus. 
Elizabeth Kilbride Littlefield, Administrative Assistant to the Dean for 

Academic Affairs Emerita. 
Betty Mathieson Masse, Assistant to the Treasurer Emerita. 
Betty Andrews McNary, Assistant Director of Annual Giving Emerita. 
Arthur Monke, A.B. (Gustavus Adolphus), M.S. in L.S. (Columbia), 

Librarian Emeritus. 
Ann Semansco Pierson, A.B. (Bowdoin), Director of Programs in Teaching 

and Coordinator of Volunteer Services Emerita. 
Donna Glee Sciascia, A.B. (Emporia), M.A. in L.S. (Denver), Principal 

( ataloger Emerita. 
Kathryn Drusilla Fielding Stemper, A.B. (Connecticut College), Secretary 

to the President Emerita. 
Doris (harrier Vladimiroff, A.B. (Duke), A.M. (Middlebury), Upward 

Bound Projecl Director Emerita. 
Barbara MacPhee Wyman, Supervisor of the Service Bureau Emerita. 
Alice F. Yanok, Administrative Assistant to the Dean of the College Emerita. 



Committees of the College 



COMMITTEES OF THE TRUSTEES* 

Academic Affairs Committee: Leon A. Gorman, Chair, Geoffrey Canada, 
Stanley F. Druckenmiller, Robert H. Edwards, Marc B. Garnick, William 
H. Hazen, G. Calvin Mackenzie, Linda H. Roth, Leslie Walker, one faculty 
member to be elected from the Curriculum and Educational Policy 
Committee, one student to be appointed, Charles R. Beitz, liaison officer. 

Admissions and Financial Aid: Dennis J. Hutchinson, Chair, Marijane L. 
Benner Browne, David M. Cohen, Robert H. Edwards, Gordon F. Grimes, 
Nancy Bellhouse May, Michael H. Owens, Elizabeth E. Woodcock, C. 
Thomas Settlemire (faculty), one student to be appointed, Richard E. 
Steele, liaison officer. 

Audit: J. Taylor Crandall, Chair, Philip R. Cowen, Laurie A. Hawkes, 
Richard A. Morrell, D. Ellen Shuman, Kent J. Chabotar, liaison officer. 

Development and College Relations: Robert F. White, Chair, I. Joel 

Abromson, Philip R. Cowen, Robert H. Edwards, David A. Olsen, Lee D. 
Rowe, Mary Ann Villari, William G. Wadman, Kenneth M. Cole III '69 
(alumni), June A. Vail (faculty), one student to be appointed, William A. 
Torrey, liaison officer. 

Campaign Steering Committee: Donald M. Zuckert, Chair, Bruce R. 

Bockmann, Paul P. Brountas, Philip R. Cowen, J. Taylor Crandall, Stanley 
F. Druckenmiller, Robert H. Edwards, Laurie A. Hawkes, William H. 
Hazen, Merton G. Henry (emeritus), Donald R. Kurtz, James W. 
MacAllen, Jill A. Shaw-Ruddock, Frederick G. P. Thorne, David E. 
Warren, Robert F. White, Barry N. Wish, Sandra Stone Hotchkiss '77 
(alumni), David Z. Webster '57 (alumni), Susan A. Kaplan (faculty), Paul 
L. Nyhus (faculty), William A. Torrey, liaison officer. 

Executive: Frederick G. P. Thorne, Chair, David P. Becker (invited), 
Rosalyne S. Bernstein, Tracy J. Burlock, J. Taylor Crandall, Robert H. 
Edwards, Leon A. Gorman, Dennis J. Hutchinson, Donald R. Kurtz 
(invited), Richard A. Morrell (invited), Peter M. Small, David E. Warren, 
Robert F. White, Barry N. Wish, Donald M. Zuckert (invited), Jane McKay 
Morrell '81 (alumni), William C. Watterson (faculty), one student to be 
appointed. 



* The president of the College is ex officio member of all standing committees, except the 
Audit Committee. 



273 



274 Committees of the College 

Subcommittee on Properties: Richard A. Morrell, Choir, Campbell B. 
Niven, David R. Binswanger '78 (alumni), Norman P. Cohen 
(emeritus), Donald B. Snyder, Jr., Nathaniel T. Wheelwright 
(faculty), Charles R. Beitz, Kent John Chabotar, William S. 
Gardiner. Richard A. Mersereau, William A. Torrey. 
Facilities: Peter M. Small, Chair; Thomas H. Allen, Peter F. Drake, Robert H. 

Edwards, Samuel A. Ladd III, Campbell B. Niven, David A. Olsen, 

Katharine J. Watson (faculty), one student to be appointed, Kent J. 

Chabotar, liaison officer. 
Financial Planning: Tracy J. Burlock. Chair; Walter E. Bartlett, Thomas C. 

Casey. Robert H. Edwards, Laurie A. Hawkes, Edgar M. Reed, Peter D. 

Relic, C. Michael Jones (faculty), one student to be appointed, Kent J. 

Chabotar, liaison officer. 
Investments: Barry N. Wish, Chair; Peter F. Drake, Stanley F. Druckenmiller 

(invited), Robert H. Edwards, Donald R. Kurtz. James W. MacAllen, Edgar 

M. Reed, D. Ellen Shuman, Peter M. Small, Frederick G. P. Thome 

(invited), Robert F. White, Denis J. Corish (faculty), one student to be 

appointed, Kent J. Chabotar, liaison officer. 
Student Affairs: Rosalyne S. Bernstein, Chair; Barry Mills, Vice Chair; 

David P. Becker, Robert H. Edwards, James W. MacAllen, Hollis Rafkin- 

Sax, Joan Benoit Samuelson, Jill A. Shaw-Ruddock, Allen B. Tucker, Jr. 

(faculty), one student to be appointed, Craig W. Bradley, liaison officer. 

Subcommittee on Minority Affairs: David P. Becker, Chair; Thomas 
C. Casey, Geoffrey Canada, Michael H. Owens, Mary Ann Villari, 
Randolph Stakeman (faculty), one student to be appointed, Craig W. 
Bradley, Betty Trout-Kelly, liaison officers. 
Trustee Affairs: David E. Warren, Chair; Robert H. Edwards, Carolyn W. 

Slayman, Donald B. Snyder, Jr., Leslie Walker, Barry N. Wish, John A. 

Woodcock, Jr., Donald M. Zuckert, one alumni representative to be 

appointed, Richard A. Mersereau, William A. Torrey, liaison officers. 

Special Committee 

Commission on Residential Life: Donald R. Kurtz, Chair; Marijane L. 
Benner Browne, Tracy J. Burlock, Richard A. Morrell, Peter M. 
Small, John A. Woodcock, Jr., Charles G. Bridge '61 (alumni), Jane 
McKay Morrell '81 (alumni), Craig A. McEwen (faculty). Sarah F. 
McMahon (faculty), Hiram R. Hamilton '97. Nahyon Lee '97, 
Kimbcrly A. Pacclli '98, Craig W. Bradley, Richard A. Mersereau, 
William A. Torrey. 



Officers of Administration 

Staff Liaison to the Trustees: Richard A. Mersereau. 
Secretary: Robert H. Millar. 
Assistant Secretary: Anne W. Springer. 
College Counsel: Peter B. Webster. 

Faculty Representatives 

Executive Committee: William C. Watterson. 
Trustees: Deborah S. DeGraff and William C. Watterson. 

Student Representatives 

Executive Committee: Hiram R. Hamilton '97. 
Trustees: Hiram R. Hamilton '97 and one to be appointed. 

Alumni Council Representatives 

Executive Committee: Jane McKay Morrell '81. 

Trustees: Jane McKay Morrell '81 and Thomas E. Walsh, Jr. '83. 

Parents Executive Committee 
Trustees: one to be appointed. 



276 Committees of the College 

FACULTY COMMITTEES FOR 1996-97 

Denis J. Corish. Faculty Parliamentarian 

Faculty Committees 

Administrative: The President, Chair ; the Dean of Student Affairs, an 
Assistant/Associate Dean, Stephen T. Fisk, John M. Owen, Daniel W. 
Rossides, and Susan L. Tananbaum. Undergraduates: three to be appointed. 

Admissions and Financial Aid: C. Thomas Settlemire, Chair; the Dean of 
Admissions, the Dean of Student Affairs, the Director of Student Aid, 
Steven R. Cerf, Lelia L. DeAndrade, and Rosemary A. Roberts. Under- 
graduates: two to be appointed. Alternate: one to be appointed. 

Appeals (Reappointment, Promotion & Tenure): Helen L. Cafferty, Lelia 
L. DeAndrade, Deborah S. DeGraff, Janice A. Jaffe, Lawrence H. Simon, 
and Allen Wells. 

Appointments, Promotion and Tenure: Jeffrey K. Nagle, Chair; the Dean 
for Academic Affairs, Susan E. Bell, T. Penny Martin, Allen L. Springer, 
and Nathaniel T. Wheelwright. 

Curriculum and Educational Policy: The Dean for Academic Affairs, 
Chair; the President, the Dean of Student Affairs, Amy S. Johnson, John 
M. Karl, Ann L. Kibbie, Adam B. Levy, Suzanne B. Lovett, and Lawrence 
H. Simon. Undergraduates: two to be named. Alternate: one to be ap- 
pointed. 

Faculty Affairs: David J. Vail, Chair; the Dean for Academic Affairs, Patsy 
S. Dickinson, James Higginbotham, Daniel E. Kramer, and Marcia A. 
Weigle. 

Faculty Resources (formerly Faculty Research Committee): The Dean for 
Academic Affairs, Richard D. Broene, Carol E. Cohn, Barbara S. Held, 
Richard E. Morgan, and William C. VanderWolk. Alternate: A. Myrick 
Freeman. 

Gay and Lesbian Studies: David A. Collings, Chair; Kevin D. Henson, 
Arthur M. Hussey II, Susan E. Wegner, and Anna Wilson. Undergraduates: 
three to be appointed. 

Governance: Alfred H. Fuchs, Chair; Deborah S. DeGraff, Secretary; Nancy 
E. Jennings, R. Wells Johnson, and William C. Watterson. 

Lectures and Concerts: David K. Garnick, Chair ; the Dean of Student 
Affairs, Helen L. Cafferty, Lydia N. Degarrod, Larry D. Lutchmansingh, 
and Elliott S. Schwartz. Undergraduates: two to be appointed. 

Library: Paul L. Nyluis, Chair ; the College Librarian, Paul N. Franco, James 
W. McCalla, Leakthina Oilier, and James H. Turner. Undergraduates: two 
to he appointed. 



Committees of the College 277 

Off-Campus Study: John C. Holt, Chair ; Thomas B. Cornell, Janice A. 

Jaffe, Scott MacEachern, Scott R. Sehon (spring), and Matthew F. Stuart 

(fall). Undergraduates: two to be appointed. 
Recording: Franklin G. Burroughs, Chair; The Dean of Student Affairs, the 

Director of Records and Research, the Assistant Director of Student 

Records, an Assistant/Associate Dean of Student Affairs, Barbara W. 

Boyd, Samuel S. Butcher, and John H. Turner. Undergraduates: two to be 

appointed. Alternate: one to be appointed. 
Research Oversight (formerly Human and Animal Research Committee): 

Elizabeth A. Stemmler, Chair ; the Dean for Academic Affairs, Burke O. 

Long, Herbert Paris, Carey R. Phillips, Melinda Y. Small, and Ray S. 

Youmans, D.V.M. 
Student Affairs: The Dean of Student Affairs, Chair ; an Assistant/Associate 

Dean of Student Affairs, the Student Activities Coordinator, Zoe Cardon, 

Craig A. McEwen (fall), Patrick J. Rael, Nancy E. Riley (spring), and 

Allen B. Tucker, Jr. Undergraduates: four to be appointed. Alternate: one 

to be appointed. 
Student Awards: James L. Hodge, Chair ; John W. Ambrose, Jr., John D. 

Cullen, John L. Howland. 

Interdisciplinary Studies Program Committees 

Africana Studies: Randolph Stakeman, Chair; the Assistant to the President 
for Multicultural Programs, Lelia L. DeAndrade, Scott MacEachern, 
Elizabeth Muther (fall), and Patrick J. Rael. Louis Chude Sokei and Eddie 
Glaude (invited). Undergraduates: five to be appointed. 

Asian Studies: John C. Holt, Chair; Sara A. Dickey, Takahiko Hayashi, and 
Kidder Smith, Jr. Undergraduates: two to be appointed. 

Biochemistry: David S. Page, Chair; John L. Howland, and C. Thomas 
Settlemire. 

Environmental Studies: The Director of Environmental Studies, Chair; A. 
Myrick Freeman, Edward S. Gilfillan, Amy S. Johnson, Peter D. Lea, 
Lawrence H. Simon, and Nathaniel T. Wheelwright. Zoe Cardon (invited). 
Undergraduates: three to be appointed. 

Latin American Studies: John H. Turner, Chair; Lydia N. Degarrod, Janice 
A. Jaffe, and Allen Wells. 

Neuroscience: Daniel D. Kurylo, Chair; Patsy S. Dickinson, and Alfred H. 
Fuchs. 

Women's Studies: Rachel Ex Connelly, Chair; Carol E. Cohn, Leakthina 
Oilier, Marilyn Reizbaum, Susan L. Tananbaum, and Susan E. Wegner. Ex 
Officio: the Director of Women's Studies, and the Women's Studies 
Program Administrator. Undergraduates: two to be appointed. 



278 Committees of the College 

General College Committees 

Bowdoin Administrative Staff Steering Committee: Laurel Smith, Chair 
(fall); Gregory C. Colati (fall), Pauline M. Fair (fall), Karen S. Guttentag, 
Charles N. Leach III (fall). Tenley A. Meara, and Ann C. Ostwald. Ex 
Officio: Kathleen T. Gubser and Richard A. Mersereau. 

Benefits Advisory Committee: William A. Torrey, Chair; Director of 
Human Resources, Assistant Director of Human Resources, Sieglinde M. 
Alexander, Pauline M. Farr, A. Myrick Freeman, Gary L. Levesque, David 
S. Page, Louis P. Tremante, one member to be appointed by SSAC. 

Bias Incident Group: The President, Chair; the Dean of Student Affairs, an 
Assistant/Associate Dean, the Director of Communications, David A. 
Collings, William S. Gardiner, Charles A. Grobe, Jr., Donna M. Loring, 
Richard A. Mersereau, Betty Trout-Kelly, and Robert C. Vilas. Under- 
graduates: two to be appointed. 

Budget and Financial Priorities Committee: C. Michael Jones, Chair; the 
Dean for Academic Affairs, the Dean of Student Affairs, the Treasurer, 
Ronald L. Christensen, Kathryn G. Humphreys, Irena S. M. Makarushka, 
and Gerlinde W. Rickel. Undergraduate: one to be appointed. Alternate: 
one to be appointed. 

Chemical Hygiene: Judith C. Foster, Chair; Rene L. Bernier, Pamela J. 
Bryer, Samuel S. Butcher, Ann D. Goodenow, Arthur M. Hussey II, Peter 
D. Lea, David L. Roberts, and Mark C. Wethli. 

Computing and Information Services Advisory Committee (CISAC): 
Clifton C. Olds, Chair; Christine Brooks, Stephen T. Fisk, Jonathan P. 
Goldstein, Scott W. Hood, Madeleine E. Msall, Richard Parkhurst, Peter O. 
Russell and Christopher T. Taylor. Ex Officio: Sherrie S. Bergman, Louis 
P. Tremante. Undergraduates: Benjamin J. Green '97 and Kaire Paalandi 
'98. 

Environmental, Historic, and Aesthetic Impact: Guy T. Emery, Chair; 
John McKee, and Jean M. Yarbrough. Undergraduates: four to be ap- 
pointed. 

Honor Code/Judicial Board: Denis J. Corish and June A. Vail. Alternate: 
James H. Turner. 

Museum of Art Executive Advisory Council: Director of the Museum of 
Art. Chair; the Dean tor Academic Affairs, the Director of the Art History 
Program, the Director of the Visual Arts Program, David C. Driskell H'89, 
James A. Higginhotham. Linda H. Roth '76, and William C. Watterson. 
Undergraduates: two to be appointed. 

Teaching: Marilyn Kei/baum. (hair ; Helen E. Moore. Kidder Smith. Jr., and 
Mark C. Wethli. Ex officio: the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. 

i Fndergraduate: one to be appointed. Alternate: one to be appointed. 






Committees of the College 279 

Oversight Committee on Multicultural Affairs: Joseph D. Litvak, Chair; 
the Dean for Academic Affairs, the Dean of Student Affairs, the Treasurer 
{Vice Chair ), Donna M. Loring, Christian P. Potholm II (fall), William L. 
Steinhart (spring), and Betty Trout-Kelly. Undergraduates: two to be 
appointed. 

Oversight Committee on the Status of Women: 

Administrative Staff: Sara B. Eddy, Sherrie S. Bergman, and Mark I. 
Nelson (alternate). Faculty: Rachel Ex Connelly, Chair; Jane E. Knox- 
Voina, and Sara A. Dickey (alternate). Support Staff: Alice Rivero, 
Harriet H. Richards, and one to be appointed (alternate). Undergradu- 
ates: two to be appointed. Alternate: one to be appointed. 

Professional Development Review and Selection Committee: Kathleen T. 
Gubser, Coordinator; Michael D. Chipman, Charlotte H. Magnuson, 
Richard A. Mersereau, Louis P. Tremante, and one member to be ap- 
pointed by BAS. 

Radiation Safety: Susan F. Daignault, Chair; Pamela J. Bryer, Samuel S. 
Butcher, Guy T. Emery, Alan W. Garfield, Cara J. Hayes, John L. 
Howland, Carey R. Phillips, David L. Roberts, C. Thomas Settlemire, 
William L. Steinhart, Dale A. Syphers, and Bethany S. Whalon. 

Reengineering Steering: Kent John Chabotar, Chair; Stephen H. Joyce, 
Elizabeth Maier, Sarah F. McMahon, Raymond H. Miller, Saeed A. 
Mughal, Elizabeth D. Orlic, Louis P. Tremante, and Donna Trout. Ex 
Officio: Don Duncan, Reengineering Coordinator. Undergraduates: Marc 
D. Zimman '98 and one to be appointed. 

Safety and Health: Susan F. Daignault, Chair; Mark E. Almgren, Robin L. 
Beltramini, Cindy Bessmer, Lisa S. Folk, William S. Gardiner, Kathleen T. 
Gubser, Kevin L. Kelley, Mary Lou Kennedy, Lori Lizewski, Donna M. 
Loring, Susan B. Ravdin, Rodman E. Redman, Michael F. Schiff-Verre, 
Patricia J. Silevinac, Bette Spettel, Martin F. Szydlowski, and Roger E. 
Tanguay. 

Sexual Misconduct Board: Raymond H. Miller, Chair; Karen S. Guttentag, 
Scott W. Hood, and Jane E. Knox-Voina. Alternates: Carol A. N. Martin, 
Brenda M. Rice, Randolph Stakeman, and Martin F. Szydlowski. Under- 
graduates: two to be appointed. Alternates: two to be appointed. 

Strategic Planning Task Force: The President, Chair; the Dean for Aca- 
demic Affairs, the Dean of Admissions, the Dean of Student Affairs, 
Director of Records and Research, the Treasurer, the Vice President for 
Development, members of the Committee on Governance, Lynn H. Ensign, 
Elizabeth Maier, and Richard A. Mersereau. Undergraduates: three to be 
appointed. 



280 Committees of the College 

Support Staff Advisory Committee: Charlotte H. Magnuson. Chair; Joseph 
L. Calvo, Louise C. Caron, Anne E. Comely, William J. Curtis, Cheryl L. 
Gallagher. Gary L. Levesque, Nancy Russell, Dawn P. Stranger, and 
Donna M. Trout. 

Faculty and Undergraduate Appointments to the Governing Boards 

Committees 

Trustees: Deborah S. DeGraff and William C. Watterson. Undergraduates: 

two to be appointed. Alumni Council: two to be appointed. Parents 

Executive Committee: one to be appointed. 
Academic Affairs: One faculty member to be elected from the Curriculum 

and Educational Policy Committee. Undergraduate: one to be appointed. 
Admissions and Financial Aid: C. Thomas Settlemire. Undergraduate: one 

to be appointed. 
Development: June A. Vail. Alumni Council: one to be appointed. Under- 
graduate: one to be appointed. 
Executive: William C. Watterson. Alumni Council: one to be appointed. 

Undergraduate: one to be appointed. 

Subcommittee on Properties: Nathaniel T. Wheelwright. 
Facilities: Katharine J. Watson. Undergraduate: one to be appointed. 
Financial Planning: C. Michael Jones. Undergraduate: one to be appointed. 
Investments: Denis J. Corish. Undergraduate: one to be appointed. 
Student Affairs: Allen B. Tucker, Jr. Undergraduate: one to be appointed. 

Subcommittee on Minority Affairs: Randolph Stakeman. 
Undergraduate: one to be appointed. 



APPENDIX 
Prizes and Distinctions 



The Bowdoin Prize: This fund was established as a memorial to William John 
Curtis 1875, LL.D. ' 13, by his wife and children. The prize, four- fifths of the total 
income not to exceed $10,000, is to be awarded "once in each five years to the 
graduate or former member of the College, or member of its faculty at the time 
of the award, who shall have made during the period the most distinctive 
contribution in any field of human endeavor. The prize shall only be awarded to 
one who shall, in the judgment of the committee of award, be recognized as having 
won national and not merely local distinction, or who, in the judgment of the 
committee, is fairly entitled to be so recognized." (1928) 

The first award was made in 1933 and the most recent in 1995. The recipients 
in 1990 were Professors Dana W. Mayo and Samuel S. Butcher. The recipient of 
the award in 1995 was Senator George J. Mitchell '54. 

The Preservation of Freedom Fund: Gordon S. Hargraves ' 19 established this 
fund to stimulate understanding and appreciation of the rights and freedoms of the 
individual, guaranteed under the Constitution of the United States. The prize is to 
be awarded to a student, member of the faculty, or group of Bowdoin alumni 
making an outstanding contribution to the understanding and advancement of 
human freedoms and the duty of the individual to protect and strengthen these 
freedoms at all times. (1988) 

The first award was made in 1988 to William B. Whiteside, Frank Munsey 
Professor of History Emeritus. The recipient of the award in 1993 was Joseph C. 
Wheeler '48, the retired chairman of the Development Assistance Committee of 
the United States Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 
(OECD). The recipient in 1996 was Judith Magyar Isaacson A.M. '67, educator 
and author of Seed of Sarah: Memoirs of a Survivor. 

The Common Good Award: Established on the occasion of the Bicentennial, 
the Common Good Award honors those alumni who have demonstrated an 
extraordinary, profound, and sustained commitment to the common good, in the 
interest of society, with conspicuous disregard for personal gain in wealth or 
status. Seven Common Good Awards were presented during the bicentennial year 
and one or two awards will be given annually thereafter. 

PRIZES IN GENERAL SCHOLARSHIP 

Abraxas Award: An engraved pewter plate is awarded to the school sending 
two or more graduates to the College, whose representatives maintain the highest 
standing during their first year. This award was established by the Abraxas 
Society. (1915) 



281 



2 8 2 Prizes and Distinctions 

Janus Bowdoin Day: Named in honor of the earliest patron of the College, 
James Bowdoin Day was instituted in 1941 to accord recognition to those 
undergraduates who distinguish themselves in scholarship. Inaugurated by Stanley 
Perkins Chase '05, Henry Leland Chapman Professor of English Literature 
( 1 925-5 1 ), the exercises consist of the announcement of awards, the presentation 
of books, a response by an undergraduate, and an address. 

The James Bowdoin Scholarships, carrying no stipend, are awarded to 
undergraduates who have completed at least the equivalent of two four-credit 
semesters at Bowdoin. The scholarships are determined on the basis of a student's 
entire record at Bowdoin. In the year preceding the award, a student must have 
been actively engaged in full-time academic work, and at least one of the 
semesters must have been at Bowdoin. For a student to be named a James 
Bowdoin Scholar, three-quarters of his or her grades (computed on the basis of 
full-course equivalents) must be A or B, with at least one-quarter of them A. In 
addition, there must be two grades of A for each grade of C/P. Students who have 
received grades of D or F are ineligible. 

A book, bearing a replica of the early College bookplate serving to distinguish 
the James Bowdoin Collection in the library, is presented to every undergraduate 
who has carried a full course program and has received a grade of A in each of his 
or her courses during the last academic year. 

Brooks-Nixon Prize Fund: The annual income of a fund established by Percy 
Willis Brooks 1 890 and Mary Marshall Brooks is awarded each year as a prize to 
the best Bowdoin candidate for selection as a Rhodes scholar. (1975) 

Brown Memorial Scholarships: This fund, for the support of four scholarships 
at Bowdoin College, was given by the Honorable J. B. Brown, of Portland, in 
memory of his son, James Olcott Brown 1856, A.M. 1859. According to the 
provisions of this foundation, a prize will be paid annually to the best scholar in 
each undergraduate class who shall have graduated at the high school in Portland 
after having been a member thereof not less than one year. The awards are made 
by the city of Portland upon recommendation of the College. (1865) 

Dorothy Haythorn Collins Award: This award, given by Dorothy Haythorn 
Collins and her family to the Society of Bowdoin Women, is used to honor a 
student "who has achieved academic and general excellence in his or her chosen 
major" at the end of the junior year. Each year the society selects a department 
from the sciences, social studies, or humanities. The selected department chooses 
a student to honor by purchasing books and placing them with a nameplate in the 
department library. The student also receives a book and certificate of merit. 
(19X5) 

Almon Goodwin Prize Fund: This fund was established by Mrs. Maud Wilder 

Goodwin in memory of her husband, Almon Goodwin 1862. The annual income 
is awarded to a member ol Phi Beta Kappa chosen by vote of the Board of Trustees 
of the College ;ii the end of the recipient's junior year. ( 1906) 



Prizes and Distinctions 283 

George Wood McArthur Prize: This fund was bequeathed by Almira L. 
Mc Arthur, of Saco, in memory of her husband, George Wood McArthur 1893. 
The annual income is awarded as a prize to that member of the graduating class 
who, coming to Bowdoin as the recipient of a prematriculation scholarship, shall 
have attained the highest academic standing among such recipients within the 
class. (1950) 

Phi Beta Kappa: The Phi Beta Kappa Society, national honorary fraternity for 
the recognition and promotion of scholarship, was founded at the College of 
William and Mary in 1776. The Bowdoin chapter (Alpha of Maine), the sixth in 
order of establishment, was founded in 1825. Election is based primarily on 
scholarly achievement, and consideration is given to the student's entire college 
record. Students who have studied away are expected to have a total academic 
record, as well as a Bowdoin record, that meets the standards for election. 
Nominations are made three times a year, usually in September, February, and 
May. The total number of students selected in any year does not normally exceed 
ten percent of the number graduating in May. Students elected to Phi Beta Kappa 
are expected to be persons of integrity and good moral character. Candidates must 
have completed at least twenty-four semester courses of college work, including 
at least sixteen courses at Bowdoin. 

Leonard A. Pierce Memorial Prize: This prize, established by friends and 
associates of Leonard A. Pierce '05, A.M. H'30, LL.D. '55, is awarded annually 
to that member of the graduating class who is continuing his or her education in 
an accredited law school and who attained the highest scholastic average during 
his or her years in college. It is paid to the recipient upon enrollment in law school. 
(1960) 

COMMENCEMENT PRIZES 

DeAlva Stanwood Alexander Prize: Established by DeAlva Stanwood 
Alexander 1870, A.M. 1873, LL.D. '07, this fund furnishes two prizes for 
excellence in select declamation. (1906) 

Class of 1868 Prize: Contributed by the Class of 1868, this prize is awarded 
for a written and spoken oration by a member of the senior class. (1868) 

Goodwin Commencement Prize: Established by the Reverend Daniel Raynes 
Goodwin 1 832, A.M. 1 835, D.D. 1 853, the prize is awarded for a written or oral 
presentation at Commencement. (1882) 



2S4 Prizes and Distinctions 

DEPARTMENTAL PRIZES 

Africans Studies 

Lennox Foundation Book Prize: This fund was established by the Lennox 
Foundation and Jeffrey C. Norris ' 86. An appropriate book is awarded to a student 
graduating in Africana Studies. (1990) 

Art 

Anne Bartlett Lewis Memorial Fund: This fund was established by Anne 
Bartlett Lewis's husband, Henry Lewis, and her children, William H. Hannaford, 
David Hannaford, and Anne D. Hannaford. The annual income of the fund is used 
for demonstrations of excellence in art history and creative visual arts by two 
students enrolled as majors in the Department of Art. (1981) 

Art History Junior-Year Prize: This prize, funded annually by a donor wishing 
to remain anonymous, is awarded to a student judged by the Department of Art 
to have achieved the highest distinction in the major program in art history and 
criticism at the end of the junior year. (1979) 

Art History Senior-Year Prize: This prize, established by a donor wishing to 
remain anonymous, is awarded to a graduating senior judged by the Department 
of Art to have achieved the highest distinction in the major in art history and 
criticism. (1982) 

Richard P. Martel, Jr., Memorial Fund: A prize is awarded annually to the 
Bowdoin undergraduate who, in the judgment of the studio art faculty, is deemed 
to have produced the most creative, perceptive, proficient, and visually appealing 
art work exhibited at the College during the academic year. (1990) 

Biology 

Copeland-Gross Biology Prize: This prize, named in honor of Manton 
Copeland and Alfred Otto Gross, Sc.D. '52, both former Josiah Little Professors 
of Natural Science, is awarded to that graduating senior who has best exemplified 
the idea of a liberal education during the major program in biology. (1972) 

Donald and Harriet S. Macomber Prize in Biology: This fund was established 
by Dr. and Mrs. Donald Macomber in appreciation for the many contributions of 
Bowdoin in the education of members of their family —David H. Macomber '39, 
Peter B. Macomber '47, Robert A. Zottoli '60, David H. Macomber. Jr. '67, 
Steven J. Zottoli '69, and Michael ('. Macomber '73. The income of the fund is 
to be awarded annually as a prize to the outstanding student in the Department of 

Biology. II, in the opinion of the department, in any given year there is no student 
deemed worthy of this award, the award may be withheld and the income for that 

year added to the principal ol 'the fund. ( 1967) 



Prizes and Distinctions 285 

James Malcolm Moulton Prize in Biology: This fund was established by 
former students and other friends in honor of James Malcolm Moulton, former 
George Lincoln Skolfield, Jr., Professor of Biology, to provide a book prize to be 
awarded annually to the outstanding junior majoring in biology, as judged by 
scholarship and interest in biology. At the discretion of the Department of 
Biology, this award may be made to more than one student or to none in a given 
year. (1984) 

Chemistry 

Philip Weston Meserve Fund: This prize was established in memory of 
Professor Philip Weston Meserve ' 1 1 , "to be used preferably to stimulate interest 
in Chemistry." (1941) 

William Campbell Root Award: This prize recognizes a senior chemistry 
major who has provided service and support to chemistry at Bowdoin beyond the 
normal academic program. 

Classics 

Hannibal Hamlin Emery Latin Prize: This prize, established in honor of her 
uncle, Hannibal Hamlin Emery 1 874, by Persis E. Mason, is awarded to a member 
of the junior or senior class for proficiency in Latin. (1922) 

Nathan Goold Prize: This prize, established by Abba Goold Woolson, of 
Portland, in memory of her grandfather, is awarded to that member of the senior 
class who has, throughout the college course, attained the highest standing in 
Greek and Latin studies. (1922) 

Sewall Greek Prize: This prize, given by Jotham Bradbury Sewall 1848, 
S.T.D. '02, formerly professor of Greek in the College, is awarded to the member 
of the sophomore class who sustains the best examination in Greek. (1879) 

Sewall Latin Prize: This prize, also given by Professor Sewall, is awarded to 
the member of the sophomore class who sustains the best examination in Latin. 
(1879) 

Computer Science 

Computer Science Senior-Year Prize: This prize, established by a donor 
wishing to remain anonymous, is awarded annually in the fall to a senior judged 
by the Department of Computer Science to have achieved the highest distinction 
in the major program in computer science. 

Economics 

Noyes Political Economy Prize: This prize, established by Crosby Stuart 
Noyes, A.M. HI 887, is awarded to the best scholar in political economy. (1897) 



286 Prizes and Distinctions 

English 

Brown Competition Prizes: Two prizes from the annual income of a fund 
established by Philip Greely Brown 1 877, A.M. 1 892, in memory of Philip Henry 
Brown 1 85 1 . A.M. 1 854, are offered to members of the senior class for excellence 
in extemporaneous English composition. (1874) 

Hiland Lockwood Fairbanks Prize Fund: This fund was established by 
Captain Henry Nathaniel Fairbanks, of Bangor, in memory of his son, Hiland 
Lockwood Fairbanks 1895. The annual income is awarded as first and second 
prizes to the two outstanding students in English 50. (1909) 

Hawthorne Prize: The income of a fund given in memory of Robert Peter 
Tristram Coffin '15, Litt.D. '30, Pierce Professor of Literature, and in memory of 
the original founders of the Hawthorne Prize, Nora Archibald Smith and Kate 
Douglas Wiggin, Litt.D. '04, is awarded each year to the author of the best short 
story. This competition is open to members of the sophomore, junior, and senior 
classes. (1903) 

Nathalie Walker Llewellyn Commencement Poetry Prize: This prize, estab- 
lished by and named for the widow of Dr. Paul Andrew Walker '31, is awarded 
to the Bowdoin student who, in the opinion of the Department of English, shall 
have submitted the best work of original poetry. The prize may take the form of 
an engraved medal, an appropriate book, or a cash award. The name of the 
recipient is announced at Commencement. (1990) 

Horace Lord Piper Prize: This prize, established by Sumner Increase Kimball 
1855,Sc.D. 1891, in memory of Maj. Horace Lord Piper 1863, is awarded to that 
member of the sophomore class who presents the best "original paper on the 
subject calculated to promote the attainment and maintenance of peace through- 
out the world, or on some other subject devoted to the welfare of humanity." 
(1923) 

Stanley Plummer Prizes: The annual income of a fund established by Stanley 
Plummer 1867 is awarded to the two outstanding students in English first-year 
seminars, first and second prizes are awarded in a two-to-one ratio. (1919) 

Poetry Prize: The annual income of a fund established by Gian Raoul d'Este- 
Palmieri H'26 is given each semester for the best poem written by an undergradu- 
ate. (1926) 

Pray English Prize: A prize given by Dr. Thomas Jefferson Worcester Pray 
1844 is awarded to the best scholar in English literature and original English 
composition. ( 1889) 

Forbes Rickard, Jr., Poetry Prize: A prize, given by a group of alumni of the 

Bowdoin chapter of Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity in memory of Forbes Rickard, Jr. 

' 17, who lost his lite in the service ol his country, is awarded to the undergraduate 
writing the best poem. ( 1919) 



Prizes and Distinctions 287 

David Sewall Premium: This prize is awarded to a member of the first-year 
class for excellence in English composition. (1795) 

Mary B. Sinkinson Short Story Prize: A prize, established by John Hudson 
Sinkinson '02 in memory of his wife, Mary Burnett Sinkinson, is awarded each 
year for the best short story written by a member of the junior or senior class. 
(1961) 

Bertram Louis Smith, Jr., Prize: The annual income of a fund established by 
his father in memory of Bertram Louis Smith, Jr. '03, to encourage excellence of 
work in English literature is awarded by the department to a member of the junior 
class who has completed two years' work in English literature. Ordinarily, the 
prize is given to a student majoring in English, and performance of major work 
as well as record in courses is taken into consideration. (1925) 

German 

The German Consular Prize in Literary Interpretation: This prize was 
initiated by the German Consulate, from whom the winner receives a certificate 
of merit and a book prize, in addition to a small financial prize to be awarded from 
the income of the fund. The prize is awarded annually to the senior German major 
who wins a competition requiring superior skills in literary interpretation. (1986) 

The Old Broad Bay Prizes in Reading German: The income from a fund given 
by Jasper J. Stahl '09, Litt.D. '60, and by others is awarded to students who, in the 
judgment of the department, have profited especially from their instruction in 
German. The fund was established as a living memorial to those remembered and 
unremembered men and women from the valley of the Rhine who in the 
eighteenth century founded the first German settlement in Maine at Broad Bay, 
now Waldoboro. (1964) 

Government and Legal Studies 

Philo Sherman Bennett Prize Fund: This fund was established by William 
Jennings Bryan from trust funds of the estate of Philo Sherman Bennett, of New 
Haven, Connecticut. The income is used for a prize for the best essay discussing 
the principles of free government. Competition is open to seniors. (1905) 

Jefferson Davis Award: A prize consisting of the three-volume Jefferson 
Davis by Hudson Strode and the annual income of a fund is awarded to the student 
excelling in constitutional law or government. (1973) 

Fessenden Prize in Government: A prize given by Richard Dale '54 is awarded 
by the Department of Government to that graduating senior who as a government 
major has made the greatest improvement in studies in government, who has been 
accepted for admission into either law or graduate school or has been accepted for 
employment in one of certain federal services, and who is a United States citizen. 
(1964) 



2SS Prizes and Distinctions 

History 

Class of 1875 Prize in American History: A prize established by William John 
Curtis 1875, LL.D. ' 13, is awarded to the student who writes the best essay and 
passes the best examination on some assigned subject in American history. ( 1 90 1 ) 

Dr. Samuel and Rose A. Bernstein Prize for Excellence in the Study of 
European History: This prize, given by Roger K. Berle '64, is awarded annually 
to that student who has achieved excellence in the study of European history. 
(1989) 

James E. Bland History Prize: The income of a fund established by colleagues 
and friends of James E. Bland, a member of Bowdoin's Department of History 
from 1969 to 1974, is awarded to the Bowdoin undergraduate, chosen by the 
history department, who has presented the best history honors project not 
recognized by any other prize at the College. (1989) 

Sherman David Spector of the Class of 1950 Award in History: Established by 
Sherman David Spector ( 1 950), this award is made to a graduating senior history 
major who has attained the highest cumulative average in his/her history courses, 
or to the highest-ranking senior engaged in writing an honors paper or a research 
essay in history. 

Mathematics 

Edward Sanford Hammond Mathematics Prize: A book is awarded on 
recommendation of the Department of Mathematics to a graduating senior who 
is completing a major in mathematics with distinction. Any balance of the income 
from the fund may be used to purchase books for the department. The prize honors 
the memory of Edward S. Hammond, for many years Wing Professor of 
Mathematics, and was established by his former students at the time of his 
retirement. (1963) 

Smyth Mathematical Prize: This prize, established by Henry Jewett Furber 
1861 in honor of Professor William Smyth, is given to that student in each 
sophomore class who obtains the highest grades in mathematics courses during 
the first two years. The prize is awarded by the faculty of the Department of 
Mathematics, which will take into consideration both the number of mathematics 
courses taken and the level of difficulty of those courses in determining the 
recipient. The successful candidate receives one-third ol the prize at the time the 
award is made. The remaining two-thirds is paid to him or her in installments at 
the close ol each term during junior and senior years, [fa vacancy occurs during 
those years, the income ol the prize goes to the member of the winner's class who 
has been designated as the alternate recipient by the department. ( 1876) 



Prizes and Distinctions 289 

Music 

Sue Winchell Burnett Music Prize: This prize, established by Mrs. Rebecca P. 
Bradley in memory of Mrs. Sue Winchell Burnett, is awarded upon recommen- 
dation of the Department of Music to that member of the senior class who has 
majored in music and has made the most significant contribution to music while 
a student at Bowdoin. If two students make an equally significant contribution, 
the prize will be divided equally between them. (1963) 

Philosophy 

Philip W. Cummings Philosophy Prize: This prize, established by Gerard L. 
Dube ' 55 in memory of his friend and classmate, is awarded to the most deserving 
student in the Department of Philosophy. (1984) 

Physics 

Hall Prize in Physics Fund: The annual income of this fund, named in honor 
of Edwin Herbert Hall 1875, A.M. 1878, LL.D. '05, the discoverer of the Hall 
effect, is awarded each year to the best sophomore scholar in the field of physics. 
(1953) 

Noel C. Little Prize in Experimental Physics: This prize, named in honor of 
Noel C. Little '17, Sc.D. '67, professor of physics and Josiah Little Professor of 
Natural Science, is awarded to a graduating senior who has distinguished himself 
or herself in experimental physics. (1968) 

Psychology 

Frederic Peter Amstutz Memorial Prize Fund: This prize, established in 
memory of Frederic Peter Amstutz '85 by members of his family, is awarded to 
a graduating senior who has achieved distinction as a psychology major. (1986) 

Religion 

Edgar Oakes Achorn Prize Fund: The income of a fund established by Edgar 
Oakes Achorn 1 88 1 is awarded as a prize for the best essay written by a member 
of the second- or first-year classes in Religion 101. (1932) 

Lea Ruth Thumim Biblical Literature Prize: This prize, established by Carl 
Thumim in memory of his wife, Lea Ruth Thumim, is awarded each year by the 
Department of Religion to the best scholar in biblical literature. (1959) 

Romance Languages 

Philip C. Bradley Spanish Prize: This prize, established by classmates and 
friends in memory of Philip C. Bradley '66, is awarded to outstanding students in 
Spanish language and literature. (1982) 



290 Prizes and Distinctions 

Goodwin French Prize: This prize, established by the Reverend Daniel 
Raynes Goodwin 1 832. A.M. 1 835. D.D. 1 853, is awarded to the best scholar in 
French. (1890) 

Eaton Lei th French Prize: The annual income of a fund, established by James 
M. Fawcett III '58 in honor of Eaton Leith, professor of Romance languages, is 
awarded to that member of the sophomore or junior class who, by his or her 
proficiency and scholarship, achieves outstanding results in the study of French 
literature. (1962) 

Charles Harold Livingston Honors Prize in French: This prize, established by 
former students of Charles Harold Livingston, Longfellow Professor of Romance 
Languages, upon the occasion of his retirement, is awarded to encourage 
independent scholarship in the form of honors theses in French. (1956) 

Science 

Sumner Increase Kimball Prize: This prize, established by Sumner Increase 
Kimball 1 855, Sc.D. 1 89 1 , is awarded to that member of the senior class who has 
"shown the most ability and originality in the field of the Natural Sciences." 
(1923) 

Sociology and Anthropology 

Matilda White Riley Prize in Sociology and Anthropology: This prize, estab- 
lished in honor of Matilda White Riley, Sc.D. '72, Daniel B. Fayerweather 
Professor of Political Economy and Sociology Emerita, who established the joint 
Department of Sociology and Anthropology and a tradition of teaching through 
sociological research, is awarded for an outstanding research project by a major. 
(1987) 

Elbridge Sibley Sociology Prize Fund: Established by Milton M. Gordon '39, 
the prize is awarded to the member of the senior class majoring in sociology or 
anthropology who has the highest general scholastic average in the class at the 
midpoint of each academic year. (1989) 

Theater and Dance 

Bowdoin Dance Group Award: An appropriate, inscribed dance memento is 
awarded annually to an outstanding senior for contributions of dedicated work, 
good will, and talent, over the course of his or her Bowdoin career, in the lively, 
imaginative spirit of the (lass of 1975, the first graduating class of Bowdoin 
dancers. (1988) 

Abraham Goldberg Prize: Established by Abraham Goldberg, this prize is 
awarded annually in thai member of the senior class who, in the opinion of a 

faculty committee headed by the director of theater, has shown, in plays presented 

ai the ( lollege during the tWO years preceding the dale of award, the most skill in 

the an of designing or directing. ( I960) 



Prizes and Distinctions 291 

Alice Merrill Mitchell Prize: This prize, established by Wilmot Brookings 
Mitchell 1890, A.M. '07, L.H.D. '38, Edward Little Professor of Rhetoric and 
Oratory, in memory of his wife, Alice Merrill Mitchell, is awarded annually to that 
member of the senior class who, in the opinion of a faculty committee headed by 
the director of theater, has shown, in plays presented at the College during the two 
years preceding the date of award, the most skill in the art of acting. (1951) 

William H. Moody '56 Award: Established in memory of Bill Moody, who for 
many years was the theater technician and friend of countless students, this award 
is presented annually, if applicable, to one or more sophomores, juniors, or seniors 
having made outstanding contributions to the theater through technical achieve- 
ments accomplished in good humor. The award should be an appropriate 
memento of Bowdoin. (1980) 

George H. Quinby Award: Established in honor of "Pat" Quinby, for thirty- 
one years director of dramatics at Bowdoin College, by his former students and 
friends in Masque and Gown, this award is presented annually to one or more first- 
year members of Masque and Gown who make an outstanding contribution 
through interest and participation in Masque and Gown productions. The recipi- 
ents are selected by the director of theater, the theater technician, and the president 
of Masque and Gown. (1967) 

Scholarship Award for Summer Study in Dance: A monetary award toward 
tuition costs at an accredited summer program of study in dance is given to a first- 
year student with demonstrated motivation and exceptional promise in dance 
technique or choreography, whose future work in dance, upon return, will enrich 
the Bowdoin program. (1988) 

UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANCE 

Surdna Foundation Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program: An un- 
dergraduate research fellowship program established in 1959 was renamed in 
1968 the Surdna Foundation Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program in 
recognition of two gifts of the Surdna Foundation. The income from a fund, which 
these gifts established, underwrites the program's costs. Fellowships may be 
awarded annually to highly qualified seniors. Each Surdna Fellow participates 
under the direction of a faculty member in a research project in which the faculty 
member is independently interested. 

The purpose is to engage the student directly in a serious attempt to extend 
knowledge. Each project to which a Surdna Fellow is assigned must therefore 
justify itself independently of the program, and the fellow is expected to be a 
participant in the research, not a mere observer or helper. The nature of the project 
differs from discipline to discipline, but all should give the fellow firsthand 
acquaintance with productive scholarly work. Should the results of the research 
be published, the faculty member in charge of the project is expected to 
acknowledge the contribution of the Surdna Fellow and of the program. 



2 l )2 Prizes and Distinctions 

Surdna Fellows are chosen each spring for the following academic year. 
Aw aids arc made on the basis of the candidate's academic record and departmen- 
tal recommendation, his or her particular interests and competence, and the 
availability at the College of a research project commensurate with his or her 
talents and training. Acceptance of a Surdna Fellowship does not preclude 
working for honors, and the financial need of a candidate does not enter into the 
awarding of fellowships. Surdna Fellows are, however, obligated to refrain from 
employment during the academic year. 

AlfredO. Gross Fund: This fund, established by Alfred Otto Gross, Sc.D. '52, 
Josiah Little Professor of Natural Science, and members of his family, is designed 
to assist worthy students in doing special work in biology, preferably ornithology. 

Fritz C. A. Koelln Research Fund: This fund was established in 1972 by John 
A. Gibbons, Jr. '64, to honor Fritz C. A. Koelln, professor of German and George 
Taylor Files Professor of Modern Languages, who was an active member of the 
Bowdoin faculty from 1929 until 1971. The income from the fund may be 
awarded annually to a faculty-student research team to support exploration of a 
topic which surmounts traditional disciplinary boundaries. The purpose of the 
fund is to encourage broad, essentially humanistic inquiry, and should be awarded 
with preference given to worthy projects founded at least in part in the humanities. 

Edward E. Langbein, Sr., Summer Research Grant: An annual gift of the 
Bowdoin Parents' Fund is awarded under the direction of the president of the 
College to undergraduates or graduates to enable the recipients to participate in 
summer research or advanced study directed toward their major field or lifework. 
Formerly the Bowdoin Fathers Association Fund, the grant was renamed in 1970 
in memory of a former president and secretary of the association. 

AWARDS IN ATHLETICS 

The Bowdoin College No. 1 Fan Award: Given by the varsity men's hockey 
players in the Class of 1 988, this award is presented annually to a fan of Bowdoin 
men's hockey, unrelated to a playing member of the team, whose qualities of 
enthusiasm, loyalty, and support are judged to be especially outstanding. The 
recipient will be selected by vote of the head coach, the director of athletics, and 
the members of the team. The recipient's name will be engraved on the permanent 
trophy, and he or she will receive a replica. (1988) 

Leslie \. ( lull Track Trophy: This trophy, presented by Leslie A. Gaff '26, 
is awarded "al the conclusion of the competitive year to the outstanding performer 
in track and field athletics who, in the opinion of the dean, the director of athletics, 
and the track coach, has demonstrated outstanding ability accompanied with 
those qualities of character and sportsmanship consistent with the aim of intercol- 
legiate athletics in its role in higher education." ( L961 ) 



Prizes and Distinctions 293 

Annie L. E. Dane Trophy: Named in memory of the wife of Francis S. Dane 
1 896 and mother of Nathan Dane II' 37, Winkley Professor of Latin Language and 
Literature, the trophy is awarded each spring to a senior member of a varsity 
women's team who "best exemplifies the highest qualities of character, courage, 
and commitment to team play." (1978) 

Francis S. Dane Baseball Trophy: This trophy, presented to the College by 
friends and members of the family of Francis S. Dane 1896, is awarded each 
spring "to that member of the varsity baseball squad who, in the opinion of a 
committee made up of the dean of student life, the director of athletics, and the 
coach of baseball, best exemplifies high qualities of character, sportsmanship, 
and enthusiasm for the game of baseball." (1965) 

William J. Fraser Basketball Trophy: This trophy, presented by Harry G. 
Shulman, A.M. H'71, in memory of William J. Fraser '54, is awarded annually 
to that member of the basketball team who best exemplifies the spirit of Bowdoin 
basketball. The recipient is selected by the coach, the director of athletics, and the 
dean of student affairs. (1969) 

Winslow R. Howland Football Trophy: This trophy, presented to the College 
by his friends in memory of Winslow R. Howland ' 29, is awarded each year to that 
member of the varsity football team who has made the most marked improvement 
on the field of play during the football season, and who has shown the qualities 
of cooperation, aggressiveness, enthusiasm for the game, and fine sportsmanship 
so characteristic of Winslow Howland. (1959) 

Elmer Longley Hutchinson Cup: This cup, given by the Bowdoin chapter of 
Chi Psi Fraternity in memory of Elmer Longley Hutchinson '35, is awarded 
annually to a member of the varsity track squad for high conduct both on and off 
the field of sport. (1939) 

J. Scott Kelnberger Memorial Ski Trophy: The trophy is presented by the 
family and friends in honor and memory of J. Scott Kelnberger '83. (1985) 

Samuel A. Ladd Tennis Trophy: This trophy, presented by Samuel Appleton 
Ladd, Jr. '29, and Samuel Appleton Ladd III '63, is awarded to a member of the 
varsity team who, by his sportsmanship, cooperative spirit, and character, has 
done the most for tennis at Bowdoin during the year. The award winner's name 
is inscribed on the trophy. (1969) 

Mortimer F. LaPointe Lacrosse Award: This award, given in honor of Coach 
Mortimer F. LaPointe's 21 seasons as coach of men's lacrosse by his alumni 
players, is presented to one player on the varsity team, who, through his 
aggressive spirit, love of the game, and positive attitude, has helped build a 
stronger team. The coach will make the final selection after consultation with the 
captains and the dean of students. (1991) 



2 C M Prizes and Distinctions 

George Levine Memorial Soccer Trophy: This trophy, presented by Lt. 
Benjamin Levine, coach of soccer in 1958, is awarded to that member of the 
varsity soccer team exemplifying the traits of sportsmanship, valor, and desire. 
(1958) 

The Maine Track Officials' Trophy: This trophy is given annually by the 
friends of Bowdoin track and field to that member of the women's team who has 
demonstrated outstanding qualities of loyalty, sportsmanship, and character 
during her athletic career at Bowdoin. The recipient of the award is chosen by a 
vote of the head track coaches and the men's and women's track team. (1989) 

Robert B. Miller Trophy: This trophy, given by former Bowdoin swimmers in 
memory of Robert B. Miller, coach of swimming, is awarded annually "to the 
Senior who, in the opinion of the coach, is the outstanding swimmer on the basis 
of his contribution to the sport." Winners will have their names inscribed on the 
trophy and will be presented with bronze figurines. (1962) 

Major Andrew Morin Trophy: This trophy is given annually to the most 
dedicated long or triple jumper on the men's or women's track team. (1989) 

Hugh Munro, Jr., Memorial Trophy: This trophy, given by his family in 
memory of Hugh Munro, Jr. '41, who lost his life in the service of his country, is 
inscribed each year with the name of that member of the Bowdoin varsity hockey 
team who best exemplifies the qualities of loyalty and courage which character- 
ized the life of Hugh Munro, Jr. (1946) 

Paul Nixon Basketball Trophy: Given to the College by an anonymous donor 
and named in memory of Paul Nixon, L.H.D. '43, dean at Bowdoin from 1918 to 
1947, in recognition of his interest in competitive athletics and sportsmanship, 
this trophy is inscribed each year with the name of the member of the Bowdoin 
varsity basketball team who has made the most valuable contribution to this team 
through his qualities of leadership and sportsmanship. (1959) 

John "Jack" Page Coaches Award: Established as a memorial to John Page 
of South Harpswell, Maine, through the bequest of his wife, Elizabeth Page, this 
award is to be presented annually to the individual who, in the opinion of the 
coaching staff, has distinguished himself through achievement, leadership, and 
outstanding contributions to the hockey program, the College, and community. 
(1993) 

Wallace C. Phtioon Trophy: Given by Maj. Gen. Wallace Copeland Philoon, 
USA, '05, M.S. '44, this trophy is awarded each year to a non-letter winner of the 
current season who has made an outstanding contribution to the football team. 
The award is made to a man who has been faithful in attendance and training and 
has given his best efforts throughout the season. ( I960) 



Prizes and Distinctions 295 

Christian P. Potholm II Soccer Award: Given to the College by Christian P. 
Potholm II '62, DeAlva Stanwood Alexander Professor of Government, and 
Sandra Q. Potholm, this fund supports annual awards to the male and female 
scholar/athlete whose hard work and dedication have been an inspiration to the 
Bowdoin soccer program. Selection of the recipients is decided by the coaching 
staff. The award is in the form of a plaque inscribed with the recipient' s name, the 
year, and a description of the award. (1992) 

Sandra Quinlan Potholm Swimming Trophy: Established by Sandra Quinlan 
Potholm and Christian P. Potholm II '62, DeAlva Stanwood Alexander Professor 
of Government, this prize is awarded annually to the male and female members 
of the Bowdoin swimming teams who have done the most for team morale, 
cohesion, and happiness. Selection of the recipients is decided by the coaching 
staff. The award is in the form of a plaque inscribed with the recipient' s name, the 
year, and a description of the award. (1992) 

William J. Reardon Memorial Football Trophy: A replica of this trophy, 
which was given to the College by the family and friends of William J. Reardon 
'50, is presented annually to a senior on the varsity football team who has made 
an outstanding contribution to his team and his college as a man of honor, courage, 
and ability, the qualities which William J. Reardon exemplified at Bowdoin 
College on the campus and on the football field. (1958) 

Reid Squash Trophy: Established by William K. Simonton '43, this trophy is 
awarded annually to the member of the squash team who has shown the most 
improvement. The recipient is to be selected by the coach of the team, the director 
of athletics, and the dean of student affairs. (1975) 

Colonel Edward A. Ryan Award: Given by friends and family of Colonel 
Ryan, longtime starter at the College track meets, this award is presented annually 
to that member of the women's track and field team who has distinguished herself 
through outstanding achievement and leadership during her four-year athletic 
career at Bowdoin. (1989) 

Harry G. Shulman Hockey Trophy: This trophy is awarded annually to that 
member of the hockey squad who has shown outstanding dedication to Bowdoin 
hockey. The recipient is elected by a vote of the coach, the director of athletics, 
and the dean of student affairs. (1969) 

Lucy L. Shulman Trophy: Given by Harry G. Shulman, A.M. H'71, in honor 
of his wife, this trophy is awarded annually to the outstanding woman athlete. The 
recipient is selected by the director of athletics and the dean of student affairs. 
(1975) 

Society of Bowdoin Women Athletic Award: This award is presented each May 
to a member of a women's varsity team in recognition of her "effort, cooperation, 
and sportsmanship." Selection is made by a vote of the Department of Athletics 
and the dean of student affairs. (1978) 



296 Prizes and Distinctions 

Ellen Tiemer Trophy: This trophy, donated to the women's lacrosse program 
from funds given in memory of Ellen Tiemer's husband, Paul Tiemer '28, who 
died in 1 988. is to be awarded annually "to a senior or junior woman who is judged 
to have brought the most credit to Bowdoin and to herself." The recipient is to be 
selected by a vote of the team and the coach. (1990) 

Paul Tiemer Men 's Lacrosse Trophy: This award, established in memory of 
Paul Tiemer '28, is to be presented annually to the player who is judged to have 
shown the greatest improvement and team spirit over the course of the season. 
Only one award shall be made in a year, and the recipient is to be selected by a vote 
of the men's varsity lacrosse team. (1990) 

Paul Tiemer, Jr., Men's Lacrosse Trophy: Given by Paul Tiemer '28 in 
memory of his son, Paul Tiemer, Jr., this trophy is awarded annually to the senior 
class member of the varsity lacrosse team who is judged to have brought the most 
credit to Bowdoin and to himself. The recipient is selected by the varsity lacrosse 
coach, the director of athletics, and the dean of student affairs. (1976) 

Christopher Charles Watras Memorial Women 's Ice Hockey Trophy: This 
trophy is dedicated in the memory of Chris Watras '85, former assistant women's 
ice hockey coach. The award is presented annually to that member of the Bowdoin 
women's varsity ice hockey team who best exhibits the qualities of sportsman- 
ship, leadership, commitment, and dedication to her teammates and the sport, on 
the ice as well as in the community and the classroom. The recipient is selected 
by the women's varsity ice hockey coach and the director of athletics. Her name 
is engraved on the permanent trophy and she receives a replica at the team's 
annual award ceremony. (1989) 

Women 's Basketball Alumnae Award: A bowl, inscribed with the recipient's 
name, is given to the player who "best exemplifies the spirit of Bowdoin's 
Women's Basketball, combining talent with unselfish play and good sportsman- 
ship." The award is presented by Bowdoin alumnae basketball players. (1983) 

Women 's Ice Hockey Founders 'Award: This award is presented to the player 
who exemplifies the qualities of enthusiasm, dedication, and perseverance 
embodied in the spirited young women who were paramount in the establishment 
of Bowdoin women's hockey. The recipient is selected by vote of her fellow 
players. (1991) 



Prizes and Distinctions 297 

PRIZES IN EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 

James Bowdoin Cup: This cup, given by the Alpha Rho Upsilon Fraternity, is 
awarded annually on James Bowdoin Day to the student who in the previous 
college year has won a varsity letter in active competition and has made the 
highest scholastic average among the students receiving varsity letters. In case 
two or more students should have equal records, the award shall go to the one 
having the best scholastic record during his or her college course. The name of the 
recipient is to be engraved on the cup. (1947) 

Bowdoin Orient Prize: Six cash prizes are offered by the Bowdoin Publishing 
Company and are awarded each spring to those members of the Bowdoin Orient 
staff who have made significant contributions to the Orient in the preceding 
volume. (1948) 

General R. H. Dunlap Prize: The annual income of a fund established by 
Katharine Wood Dunlap in memory of her husband, Brig. Gen. Robert H. Dunlap, 
USMC, is awarded to the student who writes the best essay on the subject of 
"service," in addition to demonstrating personal evidence of service. (1970) 

Andrew Allison Haldane Cup: This cup, given by fellow officers in the Pacific 
in memory of Capt. Andrew Allison Haldane, USMCR, '41, is awarded to a 
member of the senior class who has outstanding qualities of leadership and 
character. (1945) 

Orren Chalmer Hormell Cup: This cup, given by the Sigma Nu Fraternity at 
the College in honor of Orren Chalmer Hormell, D.C.L. '51, DeAlva Stanwood 
Alexander Professor of Government, is awarded each year to a sophomore who, 
as a first-year student, competed in first-year athletic competition as a regular 
member of a team, and who has achieved outstanding scholastic honors. A plaque 
inscribed with the names of all the cup winners is kept on display. (1949) 

Lucien Howe Prize: Fifty percent of the income of a fund given by Dr. Lucien 
Howe 1870, A.M. 1879, Sc.D. ' 10, is awarded by the faculty to members of the 
senior class who as undergraduates, by example and influence, have shown the 
highest qualities of conduct and character. The remainder is expended by the 
president to improve the social life of the undergraduates. (1920) 

Masque and Gown Figurine: A figurine, The Prologue, carved by Gregory 
Wiggin, is presented annually to the author of the prize- winning play in the One- 
Act Play contest, and is held by the winner until the following contest. (1937) 

Masque and Gown One- Act Play Prizes: Prizes are awarded annually for 
excellence in various Masque and Gown activities, including play writing, direct- 
ing, and acting. (1934) 



298 Prizes and Distinctions 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Cup: This cup, furnished by the Bowdoin chapter 
of Alpha Delta Phi Society, is inscribed annually with the name of that member 
of the three lower classes whose vision, humanity, and courage most contribute 
to making Bowdoin a better college. (1945) 

Paul Andrew Walker Prize Fund: This fund was established in honor and 
memory of Paul Andrew Walker '31 by his wife, Nathalie L. Walker. Forty 
percent of the income of the fund is used to honor a member or members of the 
Bowdoin Orient staff whose ability and hard work are deemed worthy by the 
Award Committee chosen by the dean of student affairs. A bronze medal or an 
appropriate book, with a bookplate designed to honor Paul Andrew Walker, is 
presented to each recipient. (1982) 



MISCELLANEOUS FUNDS 

The Applied Environmental Science Fund: This fund, established in 198 1 by 
gifts from Robert C. Porter '34, LL.D. '86, the Ivy Fund, Suburban Propane Gas 
Corporation, March & McLennan Companies, Inc., and Eberstadt Asset Manage- 
ment, Inc., is to be used to support the research and instructional program of the 
Marine Research Laboratory and the Hydrocarbon Research Center. 

Faculty Development Fund: The income of this fund, established by Charles 
Austin Cary ' 1 0, A.M. H'50, LL.D. '63, is expended each year "for such purpose 
or purposes, to be recommended by the President and approved by the Governing 
Boards, as shall be deemed to be most effective in maintaining the caliber of the 
faculty." These purposes may include, but not be limited to, support of individual 
research grants, productive use of sabbatical leaves, added compensation for 
individual merit or distinguished accomplishment, other incentives to encourage 
individual development of teaching capacity, and improvement of faculty sala- 
ries. 

Faculty Research Fund: This fund, founded by the Class of 1928 on the 
occasion of its twenty-fifth anniversary, is open to additions from other classes 
and individuals. The interest from the fund is used to help finance research 
projects carried on by members of the faculty. 

Sydney B. Karofsky Prize for Junior Faculty: This prize, given by members of 
the Karofsky family, including Peter S. Karofsky, M.D. '62, Paul I. Karofsky '66, 
.ind David M. Karofsky '93, is to be awarded annually by the dean for academic 
affairs, in consultation with the Faculty Affairs Committee on the basis of student 
evaluations of teaching, to an outstanding Bowdoin teacher who "best demon- 
strates the ability to impart knowledge, inspire enthusiasm, and stimulate intellec- 
tual curiosity." The prize is given to a member of the faculty who has taught at the 
College for at least two years. In 1996 the award was given to James A. 

Higginbotham, Assistant Professor of Classics on the Henry Johnson Fund. 



Prizes and Distinctions 299 

James R. Pierce Athletic Leadership Award: Established by James R. Pierce, 
Jr., in memory of James R. Pierce (1946), this income of this fund is used to 
support an annual stipend for a member of the Bowdoin coaching staff to attend 
a professional conference or other continuing education activity. The recipient is 
selected on the basis of "superior teaching ability, unbridled enthusiasm for his/ 
her sport, empathy for the Bowdoin scholar-athlete, and desire to inculcate a sense 
of sportsmanship and fair play regardless of circumstances." 



Campus and Buildings 



Bowdoin College is located in Brunswick. Maine, a town of approximately 
21.000 population, first settled in 1628. on the banks of the Androscoggin River. 
a few miles from the shores of Casco Bay. The 1 10-acre campus is organized 
around a central quadrangle. 

On the north side of the quadrangle is Massachusetts Hall ( 1 802), the oldest 
college building in Maine, which now houses the Departments of English and 
Philosophy. The building was designated a Registered Historical Landmark in 
1971. The entire campus became part of the Federal Street Historic District in 
1 976. To the west of Massachusetts Hall is Memorial Hall, built to honor alumni 
who served in the Civil War and completed in 1882. Inside Memorial Hall, 
theatrical productions, lectures, and concerts take place in Pickard Theater, a 
fully equipped proscenium stage theater that seats 600. The 100-seat G.H.Q. 
experimental theater is located in the basement. 

On the west side of the Quad along Park Row are the Mary Frances Searles 
Science Building ( 1 894), housing the Departments of Biology and Physics; the 
Visual Arts Center (1975), which contains offices, classrooms, studios, and 
exhibition space for the Department of Art and Kresge Auditorium, which seats 
300 for lectures, films, and performances; the Walker Art Building (1894), 
designed by McKim, Mead & White, which houses the Bowdoin College 
Museum of Art; and the Harvey Dow Gibson Hall of Music (1954). Visible 
through the southwest corner of the quadrangle is Hawthorne-Longfellow Hall 
(1965), the east side of which is the College's library, including the Special 
Collections suite on the third floor, and the west side of which houses a number 
of administrative offices for the campus. 

On the south side of the quad is Hubbard Hall (1903), once the College's 
library and now the site of the Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum and Arctic 
Studies Center, the Departments of Economics, Geology, Government, and 
History, Computing/Information Services, and the Susan Dwight Bliss Room, 
which houses a small collection of rare illustrated books. The back wing of 
Hubbard Hall is connected to the library by an underground passage and contains 
stacks and a study room. 

On the cast side of the quad stands a row of" six historic brick buildings: live 
residence halls — south to north, Coleman (1958). Hyde (1917), Appleton 
( 1X43). Maine (1808), and Winthrop (1822) halls— and Seth Adams Hall 
(1861). a building housing offices and classrooms for the Departments of 

( puter Science and Mathematics. In the center of this row is the Chapel, 

designed by Richard Upjohn and built between I.S45 and 1855. a Romanesque 

church of undressed granite with twin towers ami spires thai rise to a height of 120 

Feet. The Department of Psychology occupies Banister Hall, the section of the 
Chapel building originally used tor the College's library and art collection. 



300 



Campus and Buildings 30 1 

To the east of the main Quad are two secondary quadrangles divided by a 
complex comprising Morrell Gymnasium ( 1 965), Sargent Gymnasium (1912), 
containing the Watson Fitness Center, the David Saul Smith Union (originally 
built in 1912 as the General Thomas Worcester Hyde Athletic Building), the 
Curtis Pool Building (1927), and Dayton Arena (1956). Whittier Field, 
Hubbard Grandstand (1904), and the John Joseph Magee Track are across 
Sills Drive through the pines behind Dayton Arena. 

The David Saul Smith Union opened in January 1995. It houses a large, 
central, open lounge, the College bookstore and mailroom, a cafe, Jack Magee' s 
Pub, a game room, meeting rooms, and student activities offices. 

To the north of this cluster of buildings, a new multi-disciplinary science 
center is scheduled for completion at the start of the 1997-98 academic year. The 
center, which was designed by Ellenzweig Associates, Inc., combines 75,000 
square feet of new construction and 30,000 square feet of renovated space in 
Parker Cleaveland Hall (1952), which is named for a nineteenth-century 
professor who was a pioneer in geological studies. The new facility will be linked 
to the Hatch Science Library, which opened in 1991. 

Adjoining the science facilities is Sills Hall (1950), home to the Departments 
of Classics, German, Romance Languages, and Russian, an electronic film 
production laboratory, and the Language Media Center. One wing of Sills Hall, 
Smith Auditorium, seats 210 for films and performances. 

To the south of the athletic buildings and the Smith Union is another 
quadrangle dominated by the Moulton Union (1928), which now contains the 
offices of the dean of student affairs, the residential life staff, and the Office of 
Student Records, as well as dining facilities, several lounges, and the Career 
Planning Center. Also in that quadrangle are Moore Hall ( 1 94 1 ), a residence hall, 
and the Dudley Coe Health Center (1917). Student health care offices are on the 
first and second floors of the health center, the Counseling Service is on the third, 
and the Campus Services copy center is in the basement. 

Another group of buildings, across College Street on the south side of the 
campus, includes the College's tallest building and one of its oldest. The John 
Brown Russwurm African-American Center, formerly the Little-Mitchell 
House (1827), which was once a duplex shared by two nineteenth-century 
professors, was opened in 1970 as a center for African- American studies. Named 
in honor of Bowdoin's first African-American graduate, the Center houses the 
offices of the Africana Studies Program, a reading room, and a 1,600- volume 
library of African and African-American source materials. 

The Russwurm African- American Center stands in front of 16-story Coles 
Tower (1964), which provides student living and study quarters, seminar and 
conference rooms, lounges, and accommodations for official guests of the 
College. The campus telephone switchboard is located in the lobby of Coles 
Tower. Connected to the tower are Wentworth Hall, a dining hall with smaller 
meeting and conference facilities on the second floor and Daggett Lounge, a large 



302 ( 'ampus and Buildings 

room where receptions, readings, and meetings are held. Chamberlain Hall, the 
third side of the Coles Tower complex, houses the Admissions Office and the 
Office of Student Aid. 

Adjacent to the Coles Tower complex are two new residence halls completed 
in the summer of 1996. The new residences were designed by William Rawn 
Associates with input from a committee of students, faculty, and staff, and will 
house about 1 00 students. A six-story building is named Harriet Beecher Stowe 
Hall in honor of the author of Uncle Tom 's Cabin. A four-story building is named 
Oliver Otis Howard Hall in honor of Major General Oliver Otis Howard of the 
Class of 1850, first commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau and founder of some 
70 educational institutions, among them Howard University. 

Surrounding the central campus are various athletic, residential, and support 
buildings. The largest of these is the athletic complex two blocks south of Coles 
Tower. Here are the William Farley Field House ( 1 987) and Bowdoin's 16-lane 
A. LeRoy Greason Swimming Pool, Pickard Field House (1937), eight 
outdoor tennis courts, Pickard Field, the Observatory, and 35 acres of playing 
fields. 

Various offices occupy buildings around the perimeter of the campus, many 
of them in historic houses donated by townspeople and former members of the 
faculty. The Asian Studies Program inhabits 38 College Street. The Women's 
Resource Center, at 24 College Street, headquarters of the Women's Studies 
Program and the Bowdoin Women's Association, includes a library and meeting 
rooms. The Herbert Ross Brown House, at 32 College Street, is a residence for 
visiting faculty. Gustafson House, at 261 Maine Street, houses the Office of 
Human Resources. 

Johnson House (1849), on Maine Street, named for Henry Johnson, a 
distinguished member of the faculty, and Mrs. Johnson, was designated a 
Registered Historical Landmark in 1975. It contains offices of several student 
organizations as well as meeting and seminar spaces. Chase Barn Chamber, 
located in the Johnson House ell, contains a small stage and fireplace and is used 
tor small classes, performances, seminars, and conferences. Ashby House 
( 1 845-55), next to Johnson House, is occupied by the Departments of Religion 
and Education. Ham House, on Bath Street, is headquarters for Bowdoin's 
Upward Bound Program. Getchell House, next door, is home to the Office of 
Communications and Public Affairs and the Events Office. The Matilda White 
Riley House at 7 Bath Street was acquired and renovated in 1 995 and now houses 
the Department of Sociology and Anthropology. 

Rhodes Hall, formerly the Bath Street Primary School, houses the offices of 
i he I tepai tn ants ol I aci litics Management and Security and a few faculty offices. 
The former home of Bowdoin's presidents, 85 Federal Street (I860) was 
converted in 1982 for the use of the Development Office. Cram Alumni House 
(1X57). next door t<> 85 Federal, is the center of alumni activities at Bowdoin. 



Campus and Buildings 303 

Cleaveland House, the former residence of Professor Parker Cleaveland ( 1 806), 
at 75 Federal Street, is the president's house. The offices of the Bowdoin Orient 
and the Bowdoin Summer Music Festival are located at 12 Cleaveland Street. 

Fraternity houses and student residences, many of them in historic houses, are 
scattered in the residential streets around the campus. College-owned student 
residences include Baxter House, designed by Chapman and Frazer and built by 
Hartley C. Baxter, of the Class of 1878; the Brunswick Apartments, on Maine 
Street, which provide housing for about 150 students and some townspeople; 7 
Boody Street, a student residence, formerly the Chi Psi fraternity house; Burnett 
House, built in 1858 and for many years the home of Professor and Mrs. Charles 
T. Burnett; 10 Cleaveland Street; 30 College Street; Copeland House, formerly 
the home of Manton Copeland, professor of biology from 1908 until 1947; the 
Harpswell Street Apartments and the Pine Street Apartments, designed by 
Design Five Maine and opened in the fall of 1973; Wellness House, 238 Maine 
Street, formerly the Alpha Rho Upsilon fraternity house; the Mayflower Apart- 
ments, at 14 Belmont Street, about two blocks from the campus; and the Winfield 
Smith House, named in memory of L. Winfield Smith, of the Class of 1907. 

The architecture and history of the campus are thoroughly discussed in The 
Architecture of Bowdoin College (Brunswick: Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 
1988), by Patricia McGraw Anderson. 



Index 



Academic calendar, vii 

Academic Computing Services (ACS), 

217 
Academic regulations, 25-34. See also 
Deficiency in scholarship 

course load, 28 

credit/fail option, 30 

Dean's List, 31 

examinations, 29 

grade reports, 30 

grades, 30 

incompletes, 30 

maximum residency, 25 

senior course selection, 29 

leave of absence, 31 
Academic Skills Program, 35 
Achievement tests. See Admissions 

information 
Activities 

extracurricular athletic, 233 

extracurricular student, 235 

fee, 21 
Adams Hall, 300 

Administration, officers of, 262-72 
Administrative offices, 300 
Admissions information, 7-14 

achievement tests, 9 

advanced standing, 10 

application fee, 9 

application for financial aid, 
12, 15 

CEEB scores, 9 

deferred admission, 10 

deposit, 10 

Early Decision, 8 

international students, 1 1 

interviews, 9 

prematriculation course 
work, 10 

recommendations, 9 

regular admission, 9 

special students, 12 

transfer students, 1 1 



Admissions Office, 302 
Advanced standing. See 

Admissions information 
Advising system. See Curriculum 
African- American Center, 302 
Africana studies, 40-49 

offices, 301 
Allen, William, 6 
Alumni 

Association, 236 

awards, 236-39 

BASIC (Bowdoin Alumni 
School and Interviewing 
Committees), 237 

Bowdoin magazine, 237 

Council, 236 

Fund, 237 

organizations, 239^40 

President's Cup, 239 
American government. See 

Government and legal studies 
American history. See History 
American literature. See English 
Anthropology, 198-202. See also 

Sociology; Women's studies 

offices, 302 
Appleton, Jesse, 6 
Appleton Hall, 300 
Application fees, 8, 9, 11 
Application procedures. 

See Admissions information 
Archaeology courses, 76-77. 

See also Classics 
Archaeology/Classics, 74-80 
Architectural studies, 35 
Arctic museum. See Peary-MacMillan 

Arctic Museum 
Arctic studies, 36 
Arctic Studies Center, 300 
Art, 49-56 

courses in history 

and criticism of art, 50-54 

courses in visual arts, 54-59 

offices, 300 



307 



Art Museum. See Bowdoin College 

Museum of Art 
Ashby House. 302 
Asian studies, 56-62 

offices, 302 
Association of 

Bowdoin Friends, 240 
Astronomy. See Physics and astronomy 
Athletics and physical education, 
club sports, 234 
indoor facilities 

Dayton Arena, 235 
Farley Field House, 234 
Morrell Gymnasium, 234 
Sargent Gymnasium, 234 
intercollegiate athletics, 234 
intramural athletics, 234 
outdoor facilities 
Pickard Field, 234 
Whittier Field, 234 
physical education, 233 
Audiovisual services. 

See Language Media Center 
Auditoriums 

Kresge, 300 
Smith, 301 
Automobiles. See Motor vehicles 

Banister Hall, 300 
BASIC, 237 
Baxter House, 303 
Biochemistry, 62 
Biology, 63-69 

offices, 300 
Bliss Room. 215. 300 
Board of Proctors, 229 
Boards. See Governing Boards 
Bookstore, 235, 301 
Bowdoin, James. 3 
Bowdoin Alumni Sehool and 

Interviewing ( lommittees. 

See BASIC 
Bowdoin College 

architecture, 303 
bookstore, 235.301 



dining facilities, 229, 301 

history of, 3-6 

Information Center, 235. 301 

Museum of Art, 218-220, 300 

presidents of, 6 

residences, 301-303 

switchboard, xii, 301 
Bowdoin Friends, Association of, 240 
Bowdoin, James, II, 3, 215 
Bowdoin, James, III, 4, 215 
Bowdoin magazine, 237 
Bowdoin Orient, 235, 302 
Bowdoin Prize, 281 
Bowdoin Scientific Station, 65, 221 
Bowdoin Summer Music Festival, 302 
Bowdoin Symphony Orchestra. 

See Ensembles 
Bowdoin Women's Association, 302 
Bracketed courses, 40 
Breckinridge Public Affairs Center, 222 
Brown House, Herbert Ross, 302 
Brunswick Apartments, 303 

Cafe, 301 

Calendar 1996-98, vii-x 

Campus buildings, 300-303 

Campus map, 304-305 

Career Planning Center, 231, 301 

Cars. See Motor vehicles 

CEEB. See College Entrance Exami- 
nation Boards 

Certification, for teaching, 92 

Chamber Choir. See Ensembles 

Chamberlain, Joshua L.. 5. 6 

Chamberlain Hall, 302 

Chapel, 4, 300 

Chase Barn Chamber, 302 

Chemistry, 70-73 
offices. 300 

Chinese language courses. See Asian 
studies 

Classics. 77-81 
offices. 301 
Greek courses, 79-80 
Latin courses, K0-81 






309 



Cleaveland Hall, 301 
10 Cleaveland Street, 303 
12 Cleaveland Street, 303 
Coastal Studies Center, 222 
Codes of conduct 

Honor System, 230 

Social Code, 230 
Coeducational fraternities, 229 
Coleman Farm Banding Station, 223 
Coleman Hall, 300 
Coles, James Stacy, 5, 6 
Coles Tower, 5, 229, 301 
College Entrance Examination Board 
(CEEB), 10. See also 
Admissions information 
30 College Street, 303 
38 College Street, 302 
Committees 

Alumni Council, 236 

faculty, 276-80 

general college, 277-80 

Governing Board, 242-48 

Student Executive Board, 
230-31 

Student Judiciary Board, 231 
Composition, courses, 95-96 
Computer science, 81-84 

offices, 300 
Computing center, 000 
Computing laboratories, 300 
Conference facilities, 222 
Continuation deposit, 21 
Coordinate major, 27 
Copeland House, 303 
Counseling service, 232, 301 
Course designations, 40 
Course load. See Academic regulations 
Course numbering, 40 
Courses of instruction, 41-212 
Cram Alumni House, 302 
Credit/fail option. See Academic 

regulations 
Curriculum, 25-39 

academic regulations, 25-34 

advising system, 25 



deficiency in scholarship, 33 
distribution requirements, 25-26 
grades, 30 
honors, 32-33 
major program, 26-28 
off-campus study, 37-39 
requirements for the degree, 25 
special programs, 35-37 
Curtis Pool building, 301 

Daggett Lounge, 301 

Damage fees, 23 

Dance, 203-206. See also 

Performance studies; Theater 

and Dance 
Dayton Arena, 234, 301 
Dean' s List. See Academic regulations 
Deferred admission. See Admissions 

information 
Deficiency in scholarship 

academic probation, 34 
academic suspension, 34 
dismissal, 34 
Degree requirements. See Curriculum 
Departmental honors. See Honors 
Development Office, 302 
Dining facilities 

Smith Union, 207, 301 
Wentworth Hall, 207, 301 
Dismissal. See Deficiency in 

scholarship 
Distinctions. 

See Prizes and distinctions 
Distribution requirements. 

See Curriculum 
Double major, 27. 

See also Major program 
Dudley Coe Health Center, 232, 301 

Early Decision. 

See Admissions information 
East Asian studies. See Asian studies 
East European languages. 

See Russian 



Economics. 85-91 

offices, 300 
Education, 91-94 

certification for teaching, 92 

teaching program, 36 
Edwards, Robert H., 6 
Employment. See Student employment 
Engineering programs, 36 
English, 95-102 

offices, 300 
Ensemble performance studies, 

158-59 
Ensembles 

Bowdoin Symphony Orchestra, 
158-59,225-26 

Brass Quintet, 225-26 

Chamber Choir, 158-59, 
225-26 

College Chorale, 158-59, 
225-26 

Concert Band, 158-59, 225-26 

Polar Jazz Ensemble, 158-59, 
225-26 

Schola Cantorum, 158-59, 
225-26 

String Quartet, 158-59,225-26 
Enteman, Willard F. 6 
Environmental studies, 103-106 
European history. See History 
Examinations. 

See Academic regulations 
Expenses, 21-24 

College charges 1996-97, 21 

continuation deposit, 21 

damage fee. 23 

health care insurance, 23 

late payment charge, 24 

motor vehicle registration, 23 

payment of hills, 23-24 

refunds. 22 

registration and enrollment, 21. 
29 

room and board, 22-23 

tuition, 21 
Faculty. See Instruction, officers <>i 



Faculty Development Fund, 298 

Faculty Research Fund. 298 

Farley Field House, 234, 302 

75 Federal Street, 303 

85 Federal Street, 302 

Fees. See Expenses 

Film Studies, 107-109 

film production lab. 301 

Financial aid, 1 5-20 

aid awards, 17-18 
application for, 15-16, 19 
determination of need, 17 
eligibility for aid, 16-17 
federal financial aid programs, 

18 
first-year student awards, 19 
foreign student awards, 19 
general scholarships, 19-20 
graduate scholarships, 17 
special funds, 20 
student employment, 18 
upperclass awards, 1 9 
work-study programs, 18 

First-year seminars, 1 10-1 17 

Foreign study. See Off-campus study 

Fraternities, coeducational, 229 

French courses, 182-184. 

See also Romance languages 

Freshman seminars. 

See First-year seminars 

Gamper Festival of Contemporary 

Music, 241 
Gay and Lesbian Studies. 36 
Geology, 118-21 

offices, 300 
German, 121-23 

offices. 301 
Getchell House. 302 
G.H.Q. Playwrights' Theater. 228, 300 
Gibson Hall of Music. 300 

Governing Board. 

See ( rovernment, officers of 
( rovernment and Legal studies, 124-31 
offices, 300 



311 



Government, officers of, 242—45 

committees, 273-75 

emeriti, 245^8 
Grades. See Academic regulations 
Greason, A. LeRoy, 6 
Greason Pool, A. LeRoy, 302 
Greek courses, 79-80. 

See also Classics 
Gustafson House, 261 

Ham House, 302 

Harpswell Street Apartments, 303 

Harris, Samuel, 6 

Hatch Science Library, 214, 301 

Hawthorne-Longfellow Hall, 300 

Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, 

213-16, 300 
Health Center, 301 
Health professions, 37 
Health services, 23, 232 
History, 131-45 

offices, 300 
History of Bowdoin College, 3-6 
Honors 

departmental, 33 

general, 32 
Honor system. See Codes of conduct 
Howard Hall, Oliver Otis, 302 
Howell, Roger, Jr., 6 
Hubbard Hall, 300 
Hyde, William DeWitt, 4, 6 
Hyde Hall, 300 

Incompletes. See Academic regulations 
Independent major. See Major program 
Independent study. See Major program 
Information center, 235, 301 
Infrared spectroscopy course, 24 1 
Instruction, officers of, 249-61 
committees of the faculty, 

276-80 
Instructional Media Services, 216 
Insurance. See Expenses 
Intercollegiate athletics, 234 
Intercollegiate Center for Classical 

Studies in Rome, 38 



Intercollegiate Sri Lanka Educational 

(ISLE) program, 38 
Interdisciplinary majors, 27, 
145-46 
art history and archaeology, 145 
art history and visual arts, 

145 
biochemistry, 62 
chemical physics, 146 
computer science and 
mathematics, 146 
geology and chemistry, 146 
geology and physics, 146 
mathematics and economics, 146 
neuroscience, 160-61 
International Baccalaureate program, 

10 
Interviews. 

See Admissions information 
Intramural athletics, 234 
ISLE program, 38 
Italian courses, 184-85. 

See also Romance Languages 

James Bowdoin Day, 282 
Japanese courses, 62. 

See also Asian studies 
Johnson House, 302 

Kent Island. See Bowdoin 
Scientific Station 
Koelln Research Fund, 292 
Kresge Auditorium, 300 

Langbein Summer Research Grant, 292 
Language courses. See names 

of individual languages 
Language Media Center, 216-17. 30 1 
Latin American studies, 147^48 
Latin courses, 80-8 1 . See also Classics 
Leave of absence. See Academic 

regulations 
Lectureships, 223-25 
Legal studies, 3 1 . See also 

Government and legal 

studies 



312 



Index 



Libraries 

African-American source 
materials, 301 

archives, 215 

Beckwith Music Library, 213, 

216 
Bliss collection, 215, 300 
catalog system, on-line, 213 
government documents, 214 
Hatch Science Library, 213-14, 

301 
Hawthorne-Longfellow, 

213-16,300 
manuscript archives, 214 
Pierce Art Library, 213, 216 
reference services, 214 
Special Collections, 215 

Little-Mitchell House, 301 

Loan programs, 1 8 

McKeen, Joseph, 3, 6 

Magee's Pub, 301 

Magee Track, 301 

Mail room, 301 

Maine Hall, 300 

Major program, 26-28 

coordinate major, 27 
departmental major, 27 
independent study, 27-28 
interdisciplinary major, 27, 

145^16 
minor, 28 
student-designed major, 28 

Map of campus, 304-305 

Masque and Gown, 228, 235 

Massachusetts Hall. 3, 300 

Mathematics, 148-55 
offices, 300 

Mayflower Apartment, 303 

Medical insurance. See Expenses, 
health care insurance 

Medical services. Set Health services 

Memorial Hall, 300 
Minor program, 2X 

Moore Hall, J01 



Morrell Gymnasium, 234, 301 
Motor vehicles, registration of, 23, 233 
Moulton Union, 301 
Museums 

Bowdoin College Museum of 

Art, 218-20.300 
Peary-MacMillan Arctic 
Museum, 36, 220-21,300 
Music, 155-59. See also Ensembles 

offices, 300 
Music festivals 

Bowdoin Summer Music 

Festival, 241 
Gamper Festival of 

Contemporary Music, 241 

Neuroscience, 160-61 
Non-Eurocentric studies requirement, 

26 
Observatory, 302 
Off-campus study, 37-39 
Officers 

of administration, 262-72 

of government, 242-48 

of instruction, 249-61 

Pass/fail option. See Credit/fail option 
Payment plans, 23-24 
Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum, 36, 

220-21,300 
Performance studies 

music department, 158-59 
theater and dance department. 
203 
dance, 203 
theater, 206 
Performing arts, 225-28 
Phi Beta Kappa. 283 
Philosophy, 161-66 

offices, 300 
Physical education. See Athletics 
and physical education 
Physics and astronomy. 166-70 

offices, 300 



Index 



313 



Pickard Field, 234, 302 
Pickard Field House, 302 
Pickard Theater, 228, 300 
Pine Street Apartments, 302 
Political science. See Government and 

legal studies 
Premedical program. See Health 

professions 
Preservation of Freedom Fund, 281 
President and trustees, 242 
President's Cup for Alumni Giving, 

237 
Presidents of Bowdoin College, 6 
Prizes and distinctions 

Bowdoin Prize, 281 
commencement, 283 
departmental, 284-91 
in athletics, 292-96 
in extracurricular activities, 

297-98 
in general scholarship, 281-83 
James Bowdoin Day, 282 
miscellaneous funds, 298 
Phi Beta Kappa, 283 
Preservation of Freedom Fund, 

281 
undergraduate research 
assistance, 291-92 
Probation. See Deficiency in 

scholarship 
Proctors, Board of, 229 
Programming. See Computer science 
Psychological counseling. 

See Counseling service 
Psychology, 170-175 

offices, 300 
Publications 

Bowdoin magazine, 237 
Bowdoin Orient, 235 
Quantitative Skills 

Development Program, 35 
Recommendations. 

See Admissions information 
Refund policy. See Expenses 



Registration 

for courses, 29 

late fees, 24, 29 

of motor vehicles, 23, 233 
Religion, 176-80 

offices, 302 
Religious life, 229 
Requirements for the degree, 25 
Research, teaching,and 

conference facilities, 221-23 
Residence halls. See Student residences 
Residency requirement. See 

Requirements for the degree 
Rhodes Hall, 302 
Romance languages, 181-187 

offices, 301 
Rooms. See Student residences 
Russian, 188-192 

courses in translation, 191-92 

offices, 301 
Russwurm, John Brown, 5 
Russwurm African-American Center, 
301 

Sargent Gymnasium, 234, 301 
SATs. See Admissions information, 

achievement tests 
Scholarships 

general, 15 

graduate, 19 

James Bowdoin, 282 

prematriculation, 19 

special funds, 20 
Scholastic Aptitude Tests. See SATs 
Science library. 

See Hatch Science Library 
Searles Science Building, 300 
Security 

offices, 302 

services, 233 
Sills, Kenneth, C. M., 5, 6 
Sills Hall, 301 
SITA program, 39 
Slavic languages. See Russian 



Index 



Smith Auditorium. 301 
Smith House, 303 
Smith Union. David Saul. 301 
Social Code. See Codes of conduct 
Society of Bowdoin Women, 239 
Sociology, 193-98 
offices. 302 
South American studies. 

See Latin American studies 
South India Term Abroad (SITA), 39 
Spanish courses, 185-87. 

See also Romance languages 
Special programs, 35-37 
Special students, 12 
Sports. See Athletics and 

Physical Education 
Stowe Hall, Harriet Beecher, 302 
Student activities. See Activities 
Student Aid Office, 302 
Student-designed major, 28 
Student employment, 18 
Student Executive Board, 230 
Student government, 230 
Student Judiciary Board, 231 
Student life, 229-35 
Student loans. See Loan programs 
Student Records Office, 301 
Student residences, 229, 301 
Student union, 301 
Study abroad. See Off-campus study 
Summer programs, 241 
Surdna Foundation, 291 
Suspension. See Deficiency in 

scholarship 
Swedish Program in Organizational 

Studies and Public Policy, 39 



Theaters 

G.H.Q. Playwrights' 

Theater, 300 
Pickard Theater. 300 
Transfer students, 11-12 
Trustees and president. 

See Government, officers of 
Tuition. See Expenses 
Twelve-College Exchange, 39 

Undergraduate research assistance. 
See Prizes and distinctions 
Upward Bound, 241,302 

Vacations. See Academic calendar 
Visual arts courses, 54-56. 

See also Art 
Visual Arts Center, 300 

Walker Art Building, 300 
Watson Fitness Center, 207, 301 
Wellness House, 303 
Wentworth Hall, 301 
Whittier Field, 234, 301 
Winthrop Hall, 300 
Women's Resource Center, 302 
Women's studies, 208-212 

offices, 302 
Woods, Leonard, 6 
Work-study programs. 

See Financial aid 
Writing courses, 96. 

See also First-year seminars 
Writing Project, 35 



reaching. See also Education 
certification lor. 92 

preparation lor, 37 
Tele\ isioo 

foreign broadcasts, 216-17 

Theater and Dance. 203 20K. 

See also Performing arts 
dance courses, 203 206 

theater courses. 206 20S